Botswana ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 1 March 2000, the first anniversary of global entry into force. The Botswana Defense Force acknowledged that it retains a small stockpile of AP mines for training.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Chad on 1 November 1999. A Level One Impact Survey is currently underway and mine clearance is due to begin this year. At least 127 mine and UXO-related casualties are reported to have occurred from September 1998 to October 1999. Chad has not submitted its Article 7 report which was due by 29 April 2000.
Despite a military coup in December 1999, Côte d’Ivoire ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 30 June 2000.
In 1999, the government appointed a Mine Action Taskforce to formulate an action plan that includes surveys of mine-affected zones, mine awareness, and victim assistance. The U.S. is funding mine action in Djibouti. Djibouti has not submitted its Article 7 report due by 27 August 1999. Rebel forces used antitank mines in 1999 and early 2000, resulting in 69 new mine victims. In November 1999 the French military stationed in Djibouti destroyed its stockpile of 2,444 antipersonnel landmines.
The treaty entered into force for Lesotho on 1 June 1999. Lesotho has not yet submitted its Article 7 transparency report, due by 27 November 1999. Officials confirmed that the LDF does not even keep landmines for training purposes.
The Malawi Army told Landmine Monitor that it has no AP mine stockpile, only inert dummy mines for training purposes. Malawi has not submitted its Article 7 transparency report, due by 27 August 1999. There were no reported landmine incidents in Malawi.
In May 1999 Mali announced that it had destroyed 5,127 antipersonnel mines, while retaining 2,000 for training purposes. Mali has not submitted its Article 7 report, due by 27 August 1999. Mali agreed to co-chair the SCE on Stockpile Destruction, but did not attend the two SCE meetings.
On 21 July 2000 Mauritania became the 100th country to ratify the Mine Ban Treaty. Mauritania is now receiving demining training and assistance from the United States.
Mozambique hosted the First Meeting of States Parties in May 1999. It served as co-chair of the SCE on Mine Clearance. Mozambique introduced UNGA Resolution 54/54B, which was adopted in December 1999. In April 2000, work began on a national Level One Impact Survey. About five square kilometers of land was cleared in 1999, bringing the overall total to 194 square kilometers. Despite fears that the February and March 2000 floods would result in an increase in mine casualties, the number of mine casualties continued to decline, falling from 133 casualties in 1998 to 60 casualties in 1999.
Angolan UNITA rebels and Angolan government troops have used landmines inside Namibia. The number of mine incidents in Namibia has increased dramatically since December 1999. Mine clearance operations have continued and in February 2000 the U.S. completed its training program. Namibia had not submitted its Article 7 transparency measures report which was due by 27 August 1999.
Niger has not submitted its Article 7 report, which was due by 27 February 2000. Peace agreements signed in 1998 called for demining of the northern areas, but no mine clearance is believed to have taken place yet.
Rwanda ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 13 June 2000. There have been allegations of Rwandan use of mines in the fighting in the Democratic Republic of Congo, especially in the June 2000 battle for Kisangani. Rwanda denies any use. From 1995 to February 2000, 16,983 mines and UXO were cleared in Rwanda, and about 5,000 hectares of land. Three prefectures that were the most affected are now 90% cleared. In April 2000, the National Demining Office reported that clearance operations had been postponed since December 1999 due to lack of explosives. The U.S. military completed its demining training program in February 2000. In 1999 and 2000, there have been twelve mine casualties.
It appears that new mines have been laid by MFDC rebels in the Casamance Province in 1999 and 2000. Senegal denied use of antipersonnel mines by its troops in Guinea-Bissau in 1998, as reported in Landmine Monitor Report 1999. In the Banjul Declaration of 26 December 1999, the Senegalese government and MFDC committed to no use of antipersonnel landmines in the future, but the government claims that rebel use continued at least into February 2000. In August 1999 a National Commission was created to oversee implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. A military mine clearance pilot project was launched on 1 July 2000. There were some fifty-nine victims of AP mines registered in 1999, a huge decline from 195 in 1998.
South Africa served as co-chair of the Standing Committee of Experts on the General Status and Operation of the Convention. It continued to play an important role in promoting universalization and effective implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. South Africa is emerging as a leader in the field of mine detection and mine clearance equipment and technology.
Togo ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 9 March 2000. Togo has stated that it has a small stockpile of antipersonnel mines for training purposes.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Uganda on 1 August 1999. There have been allegations of Ugandan use of mines in the Democratic Republic of Congo, particularly in the June 2000 battle for Kisangani. Uganda denies any use. There is evidence of use of antipersonnel mines in 1999 and early 2000 by Lord’s Resistance Army rebels entering Uganda from Sudan. There is no organized mine clearance underway in Uganda, but mine awareness activities are better coordinated and expanding. Mine casualties dropped significantly in 1999. Uganda has not submitted its Article 7 report, due on 28 January 2000.
Major mine clearance operations started in March 1999. After a slow, accident-plagued beginning, by mid-July 2000 a total of 3.8 million square meters of land had been cleared. Koch Mine-Safe deminers suffered twenty casualties between February 1999-July 2000. Zimbabwe has served as co-rapporteur of the SCE on General Status and Operation of the Convention. Delays in passage of Zimbabwe’s pending Mine Ban Treaty implementation bill have held up the start of AP mine stockpile destruction. There continue to be allegations of use of AP mines by Zimbabwean troops in the DRC.
Both Angolan government troops and UNITA rebel forces have continued to use antipersonnel mines. Mine action funding in 2000 totals $17.4 million. Mine action programs have continued despite the ongoing conflict. As of May 2000, some 10 square kilometers of land and 5,000 kilometers of road have been cleared, and 15,000 mines destroyed. Funding for the government’s mine action office, INAROEE, has dried up, and its operations are largely suspended. NGOs continue to operate, though at reduced levels due to reduced funding. The number of mine victims was up sharply in 1999 (from 103 in 1998 to 185 in 1999 in Luena alone).
Based on information provided by the UNHCR and others, it appears likely that Burundi has been laying antipersonnel mines on its border with Tanzania.
In the 1998-2000 border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea, it appears that tens of thousands of new mines were laid. Each government has alleged that the other laid mines and observers have expressed concern that both sides may have used mines. Casualties are now on the rise as a result of new use of landmines.
Mine clearance efforts have been delayed, though some limited clearance has taken place. UNICEF established a Mine Awareness Committee that has met bi-weekly since April 1999 to plan and coordinate all mine awareness activities. It was reported by the UN in July 1999 that Guinea-Bissau denied using landmines in its 1998 conflict and announced that efforts would be made to identify culpable parties and bring them to justice.
The Oromo Liberation Front, a rebel group operating in southern Ethiopia, has been accused of planting antitank and possibly antipersonnel mines inside Kenyan territory.
Despite continued fighting, Sierra Leoneis not seriously mine-affected. A bill to ratify the Mine Ban Treaty is currently before the parliament. UNMAS conducted an assessment mission in February 2000 and concluded that there had been very limited use of mines in the past. It recommended establishment of a Mine Action Office, but not a nationwide program of mine and UXO awareness education.
Both the government of Sudan, a signatory to the Mine Ban Treaty, and the opposition Sudan People’s Liberation Army are believed to have used antipersonnel mines in this reporting period. On 27 March 2000, the SPLM/A officially committed to the "Geneva Call," thereby agreeing not to use antipersonnel landmines under any circumstances. Sudan’s humanitarian mine action efforts continue to be seriously disrupted by the country’s continuing civil war. In November 1999, the U.S. reported that Sudan manufactures landmines; Landmine Monitor has not been able to confirm this report.
Zambia has established an inter-ministerial National Task Force for the implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. Zambia has told the UN that is has just a small stockpile of antipersonnel mines for military training purposes only. A number of AP landmines appear to have been planted inside Zambia in 1999 and 2000 by Angolan government and UNITA rebel forces. In May-June 2000, the UN Mine Action Service conducted an assessment mission in Zambia.
Congo-Brazzaville’s parliament has reportedly ratified the Mine Ban Treaty and the army has reportedly started stockpile destruction. Much of Brazzaville has been cleared of mines and UXO since 1998.
It is clear that antipersonnel mines were still being used in the DRC in 1999 and 2000, despite an August 1999 peace agreement. But it remains impossible to verify who is responsible for laying the mines. There have been accusations that not only are government troops and opposition RCD forces using mines, but also troops from Rwanda, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Chad. Similar accusations were also levelled at the plethora of foreign and local insurgent groups, which are fighting in eastern Congo against the RCD rebels and their foreign backers. Virtually all sides have denied using mines.
Uncertainties about who is responsible for use of antipersonnel mines in the DRC have continued for more than two years now. Landmine Monitor believes that it has reached the point where States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty should make detailed requests for clarification from Uganda, Rwanda and Zimbabwe, and should make all other efforts to establish the facts regarding mine use in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
In July 2000, UNMAS drew up a three-phase action plan for the DRC for the UN mission charged with implementation of the peace agreement.
In the 1998-2000 border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea, it appears that tens of thousands of new mines were laid. Each government has alleged that the other laid mines, and observers have expressed concern that both sides may have used mines. While Landmine Monitor cannot verify use by Eritrea, there are serious, independent reports of use of antipersonnel mines by Eritrean forces.
Since a new democratic government took office in May 1999, top government and military leaders have stated that Nigeria will soon accede to the Mine Ban Treaty.
Mine clearance and mine survey activities expanded significantly in Somaliland in 1999 and 2000, with donors contributing some $6.65 million. Clearance at Burao city has allowed the 70,000 residents to begin returning. The needs remain great. In 1999 the government for the first time tried to systematically collect data on mine victims, and estimates that there have been more than 3,500 mine casualties since 1988. The parliament passed a resolution calling for a unilateral ban on landmines; the President has endorsed the resolution.
Argentina ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 21 July 1999 and it entered into force on 1 March 2000. A Working Group composed of representatives of the Ministry of Defense and the armed forces has been created to oversee implementation.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Brazil on 1 October 1999. Brazil ratified CCW Amended Protocol II on 4 October 1999. Brazil has not submitted its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report, which was due by 29 March 2000.
Canada continued to exercise a lead role internationally in promoting universalization and effective implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. It played a crucial role in the success of the First Meeting of States Parties and the intersessional work program. Canada contributed $16.7 million to mine action programs in its FY 1999/2000. The private Canadian Landmine Foundation was established.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Costa Rica on 1 September 1999. Costa Rica has not submitted its Article 7 report, which was due 27 February 2000. The suspended mine clearance program has resumed; it is now expected to be completed in 2002, rather than 2000.
Ecuador ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 29 April 1999, and it entered into force for Ecuador on 1 October 1999. Ecuador destroyed 101,458 antipersonnel mines from stockpiles. Ecuador and Perd have made significant progress in mine clearance along the border. In April 1999, the "Program for Demining Assistance in Ecuador/Perú" was established by the OAS. In August 1999, UNMAS and the OAS undertook independent assessment missions to Ecuador. In September 1999, Ecuador established a National Demining Center.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for El Salvador on 1 July 1999. El Salvador has not submitted its Article 7 report, which was due by 27 December 1999.
Mine clearance in Ixcán was completed and demined lands were handed over for the first time to the local communities in January 2000. Guatemala has not submitted its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report, which was due by 27 February 2000.
The Honduran mine clearance program, which was set back in late 1998 by Hurricane Mitch, is now due to be completed by the end of 2001.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Nicaragua on 1 May 1999. National implementing legislation was signed into law on 7 December 1999. Nicaragua began destruction of its AP mine stockpile in April 1999, and had destroyed 40,000 mines as of May 2000. As of January 2000, some $20.8 million had been committed of the estimated $27 million needed to complete mine clearance by 2004. By the end of 1999, 1.291 square kilometers of land had been cleared and 54,107 AP mines destroyed from 524 sites. The number of mine victims reportedly has declined.
Panama has not submitted its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report, which was due 27 September 1999. Panama has clarified to Landmine Monitor that it does not have a stockpile of antipersonnel mines.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Paraguay on 1 May 1999. Paraguay has stated for the first time that it does not have a stockpile of antipersonnel mines.
In April 1999, the "Program for Demining Assistance in Ecuador/Perú" (PADEP) was established by the OAS. In August and September 1999, UNMAS and the OAS conducted independent assessments of the mine problem in Peru. An inter-ministerial Working Group on Antipersonnel Mines was formalized in September 1999 to oversee implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. Perú has served as co-rapporteur of the Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee of Experts on Mine Clearance. Stockpile destruction is underway. More than 30,000 landmines were cleared and destroyed in 1999 and early 2000.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Venezuela on 1 October 1999. Venezuela has not submitted its Article 7 report, due by 29 March 2000.
The Senate’s Foreign Affairs Commission approved Mine Ban Treaty ratification legislation on 15 December 1999. On 26 April 1999, Chile imposed a unilateral moratorium on the production, export, and new use of antipersonnel mines. On 25 November 1999, the Army announced plans for an 11-year mine clearance program for 293 border minefields with 250,000 mines at a cost of $250 million. The Army began mine clearance along the border with Bolivia in December 1999.
Guerrilla groups have continued to use antipersonnel mines. In October 1999 UNICEF and other partners launched a mine awareness program. In November 1999, Colombia’s AP mine production facilities were destroyed. In January 2000 the President signed the ratification law, a crucial, but not final, step in the ratification process. In March 2000 Colombia ratified CCW Amended Protocol II. The Army cleared 35 minefields, in military operations, in 1999. More than 2,000 AP mines were destroyed from stockpiles.
Suriname’s Foreign Minister expects ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty in 2000.
Stockpile destruction is underway.
Cuba participated as an observer in the First Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty and in some of the treaty’s intersessional meetings. It abstained on the 1999 UN General Assembly vote in support of the treaty, as it had in previous years.
The U.S. contributed $81 million to mine action in FY 1999, and estimates funding of $98 million in FY 2000. The U.S. ratified CCW Amended Protocol II in May 1999. The U.S. reserved the right to use antipersonnel mines during the NATO operation in Kosovo/Yugoslavia, but did not do so. The Pentagon spent $21 million on its AP mines alternative program in FY 1999 and expects that to increase to $94 million in FY 2001. The Pentagon is pursuing two "alternatives" (RADAM and BOS) that would be prohibited under the Mine Ban Treaty.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Australia on 1 July 1999. Australia destroyed its stockpile of antipersonnel mines in five days at the end of September 1999. Australia expects to spend a new high of US$8 million on mine action programs in its 1999/2000 budget year.
At least 1,012 people were hurt or killed by landmines in 1999, a decrease of 41% from the previous year. There were 417 mine casualties reported in the first five months of 2000. As areas formerly held by the Khmer Rouge became accessible, whole villages of disabled people were being discovered. In 1999, about 11.9 square kilometers of land were cleared. The Land Use Planning Unit was established in May 1999. Nearly 500,000 people received mine awareness education in 1999, the most ever in a single year. A scandal over financial mismanagement resulted in the Cambodian Mine Action Center making some important reforms.
Cambodia ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 28 July 1999. It entered into force for Cambodia on 1 January 2000. Treaty implementation legislation took effect 28 May 1999; the new law created the National Demining Regulatory Authority to coordinate activities related to the mine problem. Cambodia has served as co-chair of the Standing Committee of Experts on Technologies for Mine Clearance. More than 5,000 stockpiled mines were collected and destroyed. No new mines were reported laid.
Japan’s funding for mine action programs increased more than 60% to a total of $13.1 million in 1999. Stockpile destruction is underway. Japan has served as the co-rapporteur for the Standing Committee of Experts on Victim Assistance.
Malaysia ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 22 April 1999 and it took effect 1 October 1999. Implementation legislation is being considered by the Parliament. Malaysia has served as the co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee of Experts on Stockpile Destruction. Malaysia has developed plans for, but has not yet begun, destruction of its antipersonnel mine stockpile.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for New Zealand on 1 July 1999. New Zealand has continued its international advocacy in support of the Mine Ban Treaty, and its financial and in kind contributions to mine action programs.
The Philippines deposited its instrument of ratification on 15 February 2000. Increased hostilities in 2000 have included the use of antipersonnel mines or improvised explosive devices by three rebel groups: Moro Islamic Liberation Front, Abu Sayyaf, and New People’s Army.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Thailand on 1 May 1999. Thailand created a National Committee for Humanitarian Mine Action in February 2000. Thailand has prepared a Master Plan for Humanitarian Mine Action for 2000-2004, and has commissioned a Level One Survey. In May 1999 Thailand destroyed 10,000 antipersonnel mines; it has developed a plan for destruction of all stockpiled AP mines.
There is no evidence of use of antipersonnel mines by any side in the 1999 violence and fighting in East Timor, or in on-going conflicts elsewhere in Indonesia.
Landmine casualties continued to decline. An estimated five to ten people were injured or killed by mines every day in 1999, compared to an estimated ten to twelve people in 1998 and an
estimated twenty to twenty-four people in 1993. In 1999, 110 square kilometers of land were cleared of mines and UXO, which constitutes 24% of the total of 465 square kilometers cleared since 1990. In 1999, 21,871 antipersonnel mines, 1,114 antitank mines, and 254,967 UXO were destroyed. Donors contributed US$22 million to mine action in 1999. A total of 979,640 people received mine awareness education in 1999, and about 6 million since 1990. The opposition Northern Alliance continued to use antipersonnel mines.
Government forces and at least ten ethnic armed groups continue to lay antipersonnel landmines in significant numbers. Landmine Monitor estimates there were approximately 1,500 new mine victims in 1999. The Committee Representing the People’s Parliament endorsed the Mine Ban Treaty in January 2000.
People's Republic Of China
China completed clearance of its border with Vietnam in September 1999. For the first time, China announced that it had destroyed 1.7 million older antipersonnel mines in recent years. China is apparently converting its non-detectable antipersonnel mines by adding metal. Though China again abstained on the pro-Mine Ban Treaty UNGA resolution in December 1999, it attended the First Meeting of States Parties in Maputo in May 1999.
India ratified CCW Amended Protocol II on 2 September 1999, exercising the nine-year deferral period. India is making its stockpile of M14 antipersonnel mines detectable. India states it has cleared 8,000 mines planted by intruders during the 1999 conflict in the Kargil area of Kashmir. Officials report 835 civilian casualties to mines and IEDs in the state of Jammu and Kashmir alone in 1999.
In April 1999 the ROK began a multi-year program to remove mines from around some military bases. The ROK reports that it has made all of its non-self-destructing mines detectable. The ROK produced 1,363 new antipersonnel mines in 1999.
A total of 622 hectares of land were cleared in 1999, with an additional 255 hectares January-March 2000. Almost 90,000 UXO and mines were destroyed in 1999, with about 25,000 more January-March 2000. There were 102 new UXO/mine victims in 1999, and 68 in the first five months of 2000. Almost 180,000 people received UXO/mine awareness education in 1999.
Officials have acknowledged that Mongolia maintains a stockpile of antipersonnel mines. Officials have also stated that no antipersonnel mines have been deployed by Mongolian forces.
There has been a significant increase in the use of homemade mines by Maoist rebels, and some reports of their use of factory-made mines. The Nepal Campaign to Ban Landmines reports that people in ten districts consider themselves mine-affected. It remains unclear if the government maintains a stockpile of antipersonnel mines.
Pakistan-backed militants, and allegedly Pakistan Army troops, made extensive use of antipersonnel mines in the conflict in the Kargil area of Kashmir in mid-1999. It appears the militants in Kashmir obtained and used antipersonnel mines manufactured by the state-owned Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF). POF also offered antipersonnel mines for sale to a journalist posing as a representative of a private company in Sudan.
Pakistan ratified CCW Amended Protocol II on 9 March 1999, exercising the nine-year deferral period. Landmine Monitor now estimates Pakistan’s stockpile of AP mines to be at least 6 million, much larger than previously reported. Pakistan has begun the process of making all of its AP mines detectable. Pakistan is producing new mines in compliance with Amended Protocol II. The Pakistan Campaign to Ban Landmines conducted a survey in the Bajaur area, identifying 405 mine victims. The PCBL believes there may be thousands of mine victims in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).
Singapore was one of 12 non-signatories to attend the First Meeting of States Parties, and one of 17 non-signatories to vote in favor of the December 1999 UNGA resolution in support of the Mine Ban Treaty.
Both sides are using antipersonnel mines in the escalated fighting. The UN Mine Action Project began in July 1999 and was expanded in early 2000, but had to be suspended in April 2000 due to the conflict. A total of 214,541 square meters of land had been cleared. It appears there were at least several hundred civilian mine casualties in 1999.
Five internationally funded landmine/UXO programs are underway, with several new projects started in 1999 and 2000. Vietnamese officials have confirmed continuing production of antipersonnel mines, but have also said Vietnam "will never export" mines.
Albania ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 29 February 2000. Albania inventoried its stockpiled mines and in May 2000 reported having 1,607,420 mines stored in 120 depots in the country. It estimates it will take up to two years to complete destruction at a cost of approximately $560,000. It has destroyed 8,400 mines. On 8 October 1999 the Albanian Mines Action Committee (AMAC) was founded to coordinate mine action in the country. In June 2000, RONCO began demining operations in two priority areas defined by AMAC. In northern Albania the ICRC and CARE are carrying out mine awareness programs. As a result of the Kosovo crisis, in northern Albania AMAE had recorded eighty-five mine/UXO incidents, resulting in eighteen dead and 118 injured, by early July 2000.
Austria continued to play an active role in promoting universalization and effective implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. It developed the reporting format for Article 7 reports, and has been an important player in the intersessional work program. The government has approved an increase in mine action funding to US$2 million in 2000.
Belgium continued to play a leadership role in promoting universalization and effective implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. Belgium served as co-rapporteur of the SCE on General Status of the Convention. The 1995 domestic AP mine ban law was amended to make it permanent. Belgium contributed about US$ 2.3 million to mine action programs in 1999, plus $1.4 million for mine action research and development activities.
BiH’s Mine Action Center (BHMAC) reported approximately 3.7 million square meters of land were cleared of mines in 1999 and 573,229 square meters surveyed. Mine casualties have decreased significantly, from a high of sixty-nine mine victims per month in 1994, to an average of eight per month in 1999; there were ninety-four new victims in 1999, or 37% fewer than in 1998. BiH completed destruction of its antipersonnel mine stockpile in November 1999, destroying 460,727 mines.
From April to October 1999, Bulgaria completed demining of its territory, including the borders with Turkey, Greece, and Macedonia, destroying 17,197 mines from 76 minefields. In 1999 Bulgaria revealed the size of its AP mine stockpile for the first time (885,872), and began the destruction program, eliminating 107,417 mines between September 1999 and April 2000. It intends to complete destruction in 2000.
A total of almost $24.4 million was spent on mine action in 1999, an increase of 80% over 1998. Estimates of mined or suspected mined areas have been revised down to 4,500 square kilometers. A total of 23.59 square kilometers of land was cleared of mines or declared not to contain mines. The ICRC and Croatian Red Cross organized mine awareness programs in 1999 in all fourteen mine-affected counties, reaching 66,612 residents in 3,165 presentations. CROMAC estimates that in 1999 there were fifty-one new mine victims, compared to seventy-seven casualties in 1998. Croatia destroyed its first 3,434 stockpiled mines in June 1999, but has reported no destruction since then. It plans to retain 17,500 mines, apparently more than any other nation.
The Czech Republic ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 26 October 1999 and it entered into force on 1 April 2000. National implementation legislation was passed on 18 November 1999 and entered into force on 3 December 1999. The original timeline of 20 June 2001 to complete mine/UXO clearance will likely slip to the end of 2001. By the end of 1999, a total of 9,972 hectares of land and 2,022 buildings had been cleared in and around the two main former Soviet bases.
Denmark completed destruction of its stockpile of 266,517 AP mines on 14 December 1999. From the beginning of 1999 through the end of May 2000, it contributed approximately $15.2 million for mine action programs. Denmark has established a humanitarian demining training center for NGOs.
France completed destruction of its nearly 1.1 million stockpiled antipersonnel mines in December 1999. France served as co-chair of the SCE on Technologies for Mine Action. The national commission to monitor ban treaty implementation became operational in June 1999. France contributed about US$2.7 million to mine action programs in 1999, including donations to the EU.
In 1999, Germany contributed about US$18.1 million to humanitarian mine action programs, including its share of EU mine action spending. Germany served as the co-rapporteur for the SCE on Technologies for Mine Action.
Hungary completed destruction of the 356,884 AP mines in stockpile in June 1999. It has also destroyed 100,000 UKA-63 antivehicle mines with tilt-rod fuzes. Hungary served as the chair of the SCE on Stockpile Destruction.
Iceland ratified the MBT on 5 May 1999.
Italy ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 23 April 1999 and it entered into force on 1 October 1999. From February 1999 through April 2000, Italy destroyed 2.05 million antipersonnel mines. Between May 1999 and March 2000, Italy pledged about US$ 7.33 million for mine action programs. The Senate approved the establishment of the Humanitarian Demining Trust Fund in October 1999, but it awaits further endorsement.
Liechtenstein ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 5 October 1999.
Luxembourg ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 14 June 1999. It has not yet submitted its Article 7 report, due by 28 May 2000. In 1999 and 2000 it has supported mine action and victim assistance projects in Angola, Bosnia, Kosovo and Laos. Luxembourg ratified CCW Amended Protocol II on 5 August 1999.
Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
The Netherlands ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 12 April 1999 and it entered into force on 1 October 1999. The Netherlands has continued to be a leader in promoting universalization and effective implementation of the treaty. It has served as co-rapporteur of the SCE on Mine Clearance. Since January 2000 it has chaired the Mine Action Support Group. The Netherlands contributed about US$10 million to mine action programs in 1999.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Portugal on 1 August 1999. For the first time Portugal publicly revealed details of its AP mine stockpile, when it reported possessing 272,410 mines in its Article 7 report.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for the Slovak Republic on 1 August 1999. Stockpile destruction began in August 1999 and 127,781 antipersonnel mines were destroyed by the end of April 2000. Destruction is expected to be completed by August 2000. Slovakia also destroyed its PT-Mi-K antivehicle mines with anti-lift mechanisms. It has served as a co-rapporteur of the SCE on Stockpile Destruction. Slovakia ratified CCW Amended Protocol II on 30 November 1999, and its UN Ambassador serves as President-elect of the Second Annual Conference.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Slovenia on 1 April 1999. The Slovenian International Trust Fund raised $24.3 million dollars in 1998-1999, which has supported the demining of 3.15 million square meters of mine-affected land in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ITF had also supported the treatment of 172 mine victims in Slovenia in 1999-2000 and another fifty victims in Bosnia. Slovenia began stockpile destruction in April 1999 and had destroyed 8,104 mines by 30 September 1999.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Sweden on 1 May 1999. From May 1999 through January 2000, Sweden destroyed 1.15 million antipersonnel mines, and nearly 2 million since 1998. Sweden contributed about US$11.5 million to mine action programs in 1999.
Switzerland has served as co-chair of the SCE on Victim Assistance. Switzerland will host the Second Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in September 2000. In 1999 Switzerland provided US$5.8 million for mine action programs.
Tajikistan acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 12 October 1999. The treaty entered into force for Tajikistan on 1 April 2000. A Russian official has said Tajikistan is possibly reviewing its decision to join the treaty.
Turkmenistan has not submitted its Article 7 report that was due by 27 August 1999.
The UK completed destruction of its antipersonnel mine stockpile in October 1999. It contributed $25.7 million to mine action in 1999/2000. The UK has served as co-chair of the SCE on Mine Clearance, and has played an important role in promoting universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty. In May 2000, the UK acknowledged participating in fifteen joint military operations involving use of AP mines over the last three years, while stressing that in no instances were UK armed forces responsible for their use. Attempts were made by Romanian and Pakistani companies to sell AP mines in the UK.
In November 1999, the United Nations reported military construction along both sides of the cease-fire line, including minefield refurbishment.
The Parliament ratified the Mine Ban Treaty and the President signed the law. It awaits deposit at the UN. Progress was made in training deminers; clearance operations are expected to get underway.
A Romanian company offered antipersonnel mines for sale at an arms fair in the UK in September 1999; the government called the incident a "regrettable error."
The start of Ukraine’s stockpile destruction program has been delayed beyond the original target of the year 2000. Full destruction is now contemplated in 2007. In 1999, an International Demining Training Center was created, the Ministry of Defense formed a demining company for domestic and foreign demining operations, and the non-governmental Ukrainian Mine Action Information Center was established. Ukraine ratified CCW Amended Protocol II (Landmines) on 21 September 1999.
As of March 2000, the civilian Azerbaijan National Agency for Mine Action had developed a National Mine Action Plan, initiated a National Mine Database, prepared for training of deminers, and begun to purchase equipment. Training of national deminers started in March 2000 and demining operations start in July 2000.
Belarus destroyed nearly 7,000 antipersonnel mines from 1997-1999. Belarus hosted an "International Workshop on Humanitarian Demining and Mine Stockpile Elimination" in Minsk on 6-7 March 2000. Belarus is actively seeking assistance for stockpile destruction. Mine clearance by the military continues.
Existing law was amended on 17 July 1999 to prohibit the export and transit of antipersonnel mines. In March 2000, the Foreign Ministry said that Estonia has less than 1,000 AP mines in its stockpile, which are used for training purposes. Estonia acceded to CCW Amended Protocol II on 20 April 2000.
Finland contributed US$5 million to mine action programs in 1999 and deployed mine clearance teams to Kosovo and Mozambique. It contributed about $1.9 million to mine action January-April 2000. Finland has carried out destruction of some non-detectable mines, in accordance with Amended Protocol II. Finland reiterated its goal of joining the Mine Ban Treaty in 2006.
It appears that Georgian groups continue to lay antipersonnel mines inside Abkhazia. The Georgian government acknowledges that it is considering mining the Chechen stretch of the Russian-Georgian border. Russian aircraft dropped mines inside Georgia in what Russia called an accident.
Six Kyrgyz soldiers were reported to have been killed by landmines during border conflict in mid-1999. Uzbekistan is reported to have laid new mines on its border with Kyrgyzstan.
Latvia has announced that it has 4,500 antipersonnel mines in stockpile. During 1999 the Ministry of Defense decided to shift primarily to command-detonated AP mines or antitank mines. Mines and UXO remain a substantial problem, but there are few resources for clearance.
Russian forces have used antipersonnel mines extensively in Chechnya and Dagestan from August 1999 to the present day. In April 2000, Russia announced plans to mine its border with Georgia. CCW Amended Protocol II was submitted to the State Duma for ratification in May 2000. Destruction of significant numbers of obsolete and non-Protocol II compliant AP mines has continued.
In December 1999, Turkey reported that a military directive banning the use of AP mines on Turkish territory has been in place since January 1998. In May and December 1999 Turkey stated its intention to join the Mine Ban Treaty in the near future. In March 1999 Turkey signed an agreement with Bulgaria to demine and prohibit future use of mines on their common border. Turkey reported on similar negotiations with Georgia and Azerbaijan, and a similar proposal to Greece. Through the Stability Pact of South Eastern Europe Turkey is proposing a region-wide agreement to clear common borders. The PKK rebel forces apparently continue to use AP mines in Turkey and Northern Iraq.
Uzbekistan is reported to have reinforced its border with Kyrgyzstan with landmines.
In the conflict in Kosovo, Yugoslav forces laid at least 620 minefields and an estimated 50,000 mines, with the great majority concentrated in the south near the Albanian and Macedonian borders. The KLA also used mines in the conflict.
HALO Trust and the Abkhazia Mine Action Center completed the nationwide minefield survey, and estimate 18,366,000 square meters of potentially mine threatened land in Abkhazia. As of May 2000, 460,077 square meters of land had been cleared, and 2,448 antipersonnel mines destroyed. Systematic mine awareness programs have been underway since early 1999 aimed at school children in mine affected communities. It appears that there is on-going use of mines in Abkhazia by Georgian armed groups. The Ministry of the Interior reported thirty-three landmine casualties between January 1999 and May 2000.
The renewed conflict since September 1999 has seen extensive use of mines by Russian and Chechen forces. In April 2000, the Russian military revealed plans to deploy mines along the southern Chechen border with Georgia. In December 1999, mine clearance operations by HALO Trust were suspended. Mine awareness activities also ground to a halt, but by late spring 2000 had begun again. Many hundreds of new mine victims have already been identified.
Both FRY and KLA forces used mines in the fighting that ended on 9 June 1999. NATO forces dropped cluster bombs in the March-June bombing campaign. Since June 1999, extensive mine action programs have been carried out. As of 1 July 2000, sixteen commercial and nongovernmental organizations are engaged in mine clearance. Approximately 8 million square meters of land have been cleared, including 4,173 AP mines, 4,175 AT mines, 4,591 cluster bomblets, and 9,412 other UXO. As of 31 May 2000, 463 villages in high and medium impact areas have been provided mine awareness education; eleven organizations are engaged in mine awareness programs. From June 1999 to 31 May 2000, there were a total of 492 mine/UXO victims identified in Kosovo.
In March 2000, the Nagorno-Karabakh Minister of Agriculture said that thirty percent of the territory’s most productive agricultural lands are not being used because of the danger of mines. HALO Trust, which had carried out mine clearance in Nagorny- Karabakh in 1995-96, resumed operations in January 2000
The treaty entered into force for Jordan on 1 May 1999. Jordan began its antipersonnel mine destruction program in September 1999 and has destroyed 20,552 antipersonnel mines (22% of its stockpile). Jordan is establishing a National Demining Committee. A nationwide mine awareness campaign has been carried out in 1999 and 2000. The Landmine Survivors Network opened a branch in Amman in April 1999.
The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Qatar on 1 April 1999. Landmine Monitor has discovered that the United States has antipersonnel mines stockpiled in Qatar, and has plans to add to that stockpile.
Tunisia ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 9 July 1999 and it entered into force for Tunisia on 1 January 2000. Tunisia reportedly began destruction of its antipersonnel mine stockpile in July 1999.
The Level One Survey, the first comprehensive survey of its kind to be conducted in any landmine-affected country in the world, began in January 2000. The Mine Clearance Unit of the National Demining Program conducted its first operation and handed over the cleared field to villagers in December 1999. Yemen began destruction of its antipersonnel mine stockpile in February 2000. An additional 20,000 AP mines were found after submission of its Article 7 report. Yemen has served as the co-chair of the Standing Committee of Experts on Technologies for Mine Action. The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Yemen on 1 March 1999.
Landmine Monitor has discovered that the U.S. Air Force plans to stockpile antipersonnel mines in Bahrain.
In February 2000 Egypt suspended mine clearance operations, citing lack of funding. Also in February 2000, UNMAS conducted an assessment mission in Egypt. Egypt told the UN that it does not produce or export antipersonnel mines. In April 2000, Egypt formed a national committee for mine clearance. The Arab Regional Seminar on Landmines was held in Cairo in April 2000. The Landmines Struggle Center recorded thirty-seven landmine/UXO victims in 1999.
In May 2000, Israel withdrew from south Lebanon, where both Israeli forces and armed non-state actors have used mines extensively. In May 1999, Israel extended its export moratorium for three years. In November 1999 the State Comptroller’s Office released an important report on landmines that concluded, among other things, that 350 Israeli antipersonnel minefields were no longer vital to security.
Landmines are still being found in Kuwait in both coastal and desert areas, and mine clearance operations are ongoing. In 1999 the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research established the "Kuwait Environmental Information System" that records and plots the locations of mines and UXO recovered. Previously unknown, it appears Kuwait has a stockpile of antipersonnel mines numbering more than 45,000. The United States also apparently stockpiles antipersonnel mines in Kuwait.
Israel’s withdrawal from its occupied zone in South Lebanon in May 2000 revealed a high level of contamination in the area, and greatly increased risk to civilians. The Landmines Resource Center documented fifty mine casualties nationwide in 1999; media reports indicated twenty casualties in one month just in South Lebanon following the withdrawal. Both Israeli forces and non-state actors used mines in South Lebanon in this reporting period.
Landmine Monitor has discovered that the United States may be stockpiling antipersonnel mines at storage facilities in Seeb, Thumrait, and Masirah in the near future. The U.S. has provisionally agreed to provide humanitarian demining training to Oman.
Syrian engineers cleared mines in the Golan Heights under UN Disengagement Observer Force supervision between November 1999 and May 2000. Although it was previously believed that Syria had not produced mines, Jordan has declared possession of Syrian-made mines.
Northern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan)
As of May 2000, the UN reports nearly 3.1 square kilometers of land cleared and returned to productive use, impacting forty-nine villages. The survey program has conducted a socio-economic impact survey of 95% of the villages in the three northern governorates. Supplies and funds valued at about $8 million were provided for mine action from April-October 1999. The UN in mid-2000 expressed concern about incidences of freshly laid mines being found in previously cleared minefields.
The Palestinian Authority expressed its desire to join the Mine Ban Treaty. No humanitarian mine clearance was undertaken, or planned. There continue to be civilian casualities. Defense of Children International/Palestine Section launched a mine awareness campaign.
The major mine awareness program run by Norwegian People’s Aid ended in May 2000. There are no humanitarian mine clearance programs underway. There were reportedly forty-two mine accidents from November 1999 to March 2000.