Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 28 November 2013

Mine ban policy overview

Mine Ban Treaty status

State not party

Pro-mine ban UNGA voting record

Abstained on Resolution 67/32 in December 2012, as in previous years

Participation in Mine Ban Treaty meetings

Did not participate in any meetings in 2012 or the first half of 2013


The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty.

In November 2012, Pakistan reiterated that “[It] remains committed to pursue the objectives of a universal and non-discriminatory ban on anti-personnel mines in a manner which takes into account the legitimate defence requirements of States. Given our security compulsions and the need to guard our long borders, not protected by any natural obstacle, the use of landmines forms an important part of our self-defence strategy. As such, it is not possible for Pakistan to agree to the demands for the complete prohibition of anti-personnel landmines till such time that viable alternatives are available.”[1]

Pakistan further stated at that time that the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) Amended Protocol II had the capacity—if the maximum number of states commit themselves to the successful implementation of the Protocol—to minimize the human suffering resulting from the indiscriminate use of mines, and that it creates a balance between the humanitarian concerns and legitimate security imperatives of states.[2] It has made similar statements in the past.

Pakistan did not attend any meetings on the Mine Ban Treaty in 2011–2013.

On 3 December 2012, Pakistan abstained from voting on UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 67/32 calling for universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty. It has abstained on all previous annual UNGA resolutions in support of the treaty.

Pakistan is party to the CCW and its Amended Protocol II on landmines and submitted a CCW Protocol II Article 13 report in April 2013 covering the calendar year 2012.


Two incidents reported in late 2012 in the domestic Pakistani media indicate that new mine casualties occurred in areas near Pakistan’s border with Afghanistan. Both reports attributed the new casualties to use of mines by Pakistani forces for “security purposes,” but it is unclear if the mines were laid recently or in the past. In October 2012, three Frontier Corps officers were injured after one of them stepped on a landmine which reportedly had been laid by the security forces near a military checkpoint on the border with Afghanistan in Baizai Tehsil of Mohmand Agency.[3] In November 2012, one civilian was killed and another critically injured when they stepped on a mine which was reportedly laid by the security forces near the Afghan border in the Dattakhel area of North Waziristan.[4] However, it is not possible to ascertain for certain when the mines were emplaced or by whom.

As recently as April 2013, Pakistan stated that it has not laid mines since the 2001–2002 escalation of tensions on the Pakistan-India border.[5] The last confirmed use of antipersonnel mines by Pakistan took place between December 2001 and mid-2002, during that escalation of tensions with India, when Pakistan laid very large numbers of mines along their shared border.[6] Pakistan maintains permanent minefields along certain portions of the Line of Control that divides Indian and Pakistani-administered Kashmir.

Pakistan states that antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines, and improvised explosive devices have been used throughout the country, and attributes the use to “terrorists.”[7] In August 2012, one civilian was killed by a mine reported to have been laid by Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan in Safi Tehsil of Mohmand Agency.[8] In October 2012, an electrical repairman was injured by a mine laid near the base of a power pylon he was repairing in Miranshah in North Waziristan,[9] and another electrical repairman was killed by a mine laid near the base of a power pylon he was repairing in July 2013 in the Machh area of Bolan district in Baluchistan.[10] Several other civilians were killed or injured in what appeared to be incidents of new use by unknown perpetrators in Dera Bukhti and Kohlu District of Baluchistan in August and September of 2012; in Saafi Tehsil of Mohmand agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in November 2012; in the Tirah valley in Khyber Agency in FATA in April and July of 2013; and in the Shalwazan area of Kurram Agency in FATA in August 2013.[11] The Monitor has registered other antipersonnel mine incidents in Balochistan, FATA, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly the North-West Frontier Province), although the precise time the mines were laid is unknown (see section on Casualties). The Pakistan army and security forces have been engaged in armed conflict in these areas of the country with the Pakistani Taliban, Al-Qaeda, and Baloch insurgents. Most mine incidents are reported to be caused by recently laid mines, either as a result of conflict between anti-government armed groups or as a result of inter-tribal conflicts, although some may be due to mines displaced from previously mined areas by flooding in 2010.

Production, transfer, and stockpiling

Pakistan is one of a small number of countries still producing antipersonnel mines.[12] Since January 1997, Pakistan Ordnance Factories has produced detectable versions of hand-laid blast mines in order to be compliant with CCW Amended Protocol II.[13] In 2007, Pakistan reported that it “has also planned incorporation of self-destruct and self-deactivation mechanism in its future production” in order to meet Amended Protocol II requirements.[14] The protocol requires that all remotely-delivered mines have self-destruct and self-deactivation mechanisms. Pakistan reported in 2002 that it was developing a remotely-delivered antipersonnel mine system, but has provided no further details.[15] In 2007, Pakistan also stated that it had “met the deadlines to improve the specifications on detectability of mines” to be compliant with CCW Amended Protocol II.[16]

Pakistan’s Statutory Regulatory Order No. 123 (1) of 25 February 1999 makes the export of antipersonnel mines illegal.[17] The law penalizes the importation of mines, but no data is available regarding whether anyone has been arrested or charged under this law. Pakistan states that it has not exported mines “since early 1992.”[18] Recent Article 13 reports state simply that “no manufacturing or trade of landmines is allowed in the Private sectors.”[19] In the past, the country was a major exporter of mines. Pakistani-made mines have been found in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sri Lanka.

In December 2012, Afghan border police captured a shipment of 360 PMN-type antipersonnel mines being smuggled into the country from Pakistan at the main border crossing between Baluchistan and Kandahar provinces.[20]

There is no official information available on the size of Pakistan’s antipersonnel mine stockpile. In the past, the Monitor estimated that Pakistan stockpiles at least six million antipersonnel mines, the fifth largest stockpile in the world.[21] Pakistan has neither confirmed nor denied this estimate.


During 2012, Pakistan destroyed 2,107 antipersonnel mines of United States, Pakistani, and unknown origin.[22] In 2011, it destroyed 153 antipersonnel mines; in 2010, Pakistan reported that a total of 43,248 antipersonnel mines were destroyed between 2000 and 2009.[23] It does not indicate if these mines are expiring stocks or from seizures, or both. Pakistan reiterated that the mines emplaced “during escalation of 2001–2002 on Pakistan’s Eastern Border have been completely cleared/removed/destroyed.”[24]


[1] Pakistan, Explanation of vote on the draft UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution, A/C.1/67/L.8, x 2012. For similar statements, see Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 973; Landmine Monitor Report 2007, pp. 948–949; and Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 1,039.

[2]Statement of Pakistan, CCW, Fourteenth Annual Conference, Amended Protocol II, Geneva, 14 November 2012.

[3] “Landmine explosion: Three FC personnel injured in blast,” The Express Tribune (Ghallani), 14 October 2012,, accessed 26 September 2013.

[4] “One killed in NWA landmine blast,” The International News (Miranshah), 25 November 2012,, accessed 26 September 2013.

[5] CCW, Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form B, 5 April 2013.

[6] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 1,087–1,088; and Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 661. There were also reports of use of mines by Pakistani troops in Kashmir during the Kargil crisis in mid-1999. See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1,088. In December 2006, Pakistan stated its intention “to fence and mine some selective sections” of its border with Afghanistan to prevent cross-border militant activity but did not do so after widespread international criticism. See Landmine Monitor Report 2007, pp. 949–951.

[7]Article 13 Report, Form B, 5 April 2013.

[8] “Khassadar killed in Mohmand explosion,” The International News (Ghallani), 10 August 2012,, accessed 20 October 2013.

[9] “Miranshah: Two injured in landmine explosion,” The Express Tribune (Miranshah), 26 October 2012,, accessed 30 August 2013.

[10] Mohammed Zafar, “Damaged pylons: Repair work called off after landmine blast,” The Express Tribune, 24 July 2013,, accessed 30 August 2013.

[11] “3 injured in land mine blasts,” One Pakistan (Dera Bugti), 18 August 2012,; “Dera Bugti: Mine blast kills girl,” The International News (Dera Bugti), 4 September 2012,; “Landmine blast kills man in Kohlu,” Daily Times (Quetta), 17 September 2012,; “Two killed in Mohmand Agency landmine blast,” The Nation, 30 November 2012,; “Two TI volunteers killed in blast,” Daily Times (Landikotal), 12 April 2013,; “Volunteer killed in Tirah blast,” The International News (Bara), 3 July 2013,; and “Kurram Agency landmine blast leaves two badly wounded,” The International News (Kurram), 25 August 2013,

[12] Pakistan Ordnance Factories, located in Wah cantonment, is a state-owned company established in 1951 that in the past produced six types of antipersonnel mines, two low-metal blast mines (P2Mk1 and P4Mk2), two bounding fragmentation mines (P3Mk2 and P7Mk1), and two directional fragmentation Claymore-type mines (P5Mk1 and P5Mk2).

[13] Interview with Khalil Ur Rehman, Pakistan Foreign Office, Islamabad, 9 April 2011. See also Article 13 Report, Form C, 2 November 2005; and Sixth Annual Conference of States Parties to CCW Amended Protocol II, “Summary Record of the 1st Meeting, Geneva, 17 November 2004,” Geneva, CCW/AP II/CONF.6/SR.1, 13 May 2005, p. 14.

[14]Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form C.

[16]Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form C. The nine-year deadline for Pakistan to destroy or modify all stockpiled low-metal-content (non-detectable) antipersonnel mines was 3 December 2007. Pakistan provided no details about how or when it met the requirement.

[17]Article 13 Report, Form D, 10 November 2006, states “Pakistan has declared a complete ban on export of landmines, even to States Parties, with effect from March 1997.”

[18] Interview with Khalil Ur Rehman, Pakistan Foreign Office, Islamabad, 9 April 2011; interview with Muhammad Kamran Akhtar, Director, Disarmament Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamabad, 23 April 2009; and see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 725.

[19]Article 13 Report, Form D, 1 April 2011.

[20] “Anti-personnel mines discovered in Kandahar province,” US Army Central Command, Defense Imagery Management Operations Center, 8 January 2013, - .Ug6qMrym1TM.

[21] See Landmine Monitor Report 2009, p. 1,058, footnote 17.

[22]Article 13 Report, Form F, 5 April 2013. This included 645 ND P2, 165 NM M14, 1020 P4Mk-1, 18 M2A4 Jumping P-7, and 259 Shrapnel P50 antipersonnel mines.

[23]Article 13 Report, Form F, 25 October 2010. This included 30,615 Mine AP ND P2 Series, 7,014 Mine AP ND P4 Series, 2,884 Mine AP M14, and 2,735 miscellaneous antipersonnel mines.

[24]Article 13 Report, Form B, 5 April 2013.