Casualties and Victim Assistance

Last updated: 21 November 2016


Casualties Overview

All known casualties by end 2015

3,693 (419 killed; 3,156 injured; 118 unknown) since 1999

Casualties in 2015

159 (2014: 251)

2015 casualties by outcome

31 killed; 128 injured (2014: 45 killed; 206 injured)

2015 casualties by device type

66 antipersonnel mines/improvised mines/improvised explosive devices (IEDs); 33 explosive remnants of war (ERW); 60 unknown devices


In 2015, there were at least 159 new mine/ERW casualties in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, based on information provided by NGOs and other organizations, as well as by state and independent media reports.[1] The majority of casualties known age were children (54), including at least 38 boys and 16 girls; among the adult casualties 36 were men and 13 were women.[2]

The actual total number of casualties is expected to be incomparably higher. Although the presence of a number of mine action actors and coverage of victim assistance programs increased, no national systematic collection of casualty data occurred. Due to the lack of an official data collection mechanism, the absence of any basic reporting format or means of sharing data, and the varying sources of annual data available to the Monitor, reporting is believed not to reflect the full extent of mine/ERW incidents and casualties in the country.[3] In 2014, there were at least 251 new mine/ERW casualties.

For the first time, in August 2016, the Ministry of Health and Sports released data on landmine fatalities. The ministry reported that that 101 people had died as a result of antipersonnel landmine incidents in Myanmar during the 18-month period from January 2015 to June 2016. Of the total reported, 74 deaths due to landmines occurred in Kachin state, 14 in Shan state, 11 in Chin state, and one each in Kayah and Rakhine states. It appears that this number includes only civilian fatalities and not military and other combatants killed. The Ministry of Health and Sports did not provide data on the number of people injured.[4] During the past half-decade, casualties recorded by the Landmine Monitor were three times as many people injured compared to killed. Kachin state police also recorded landmine incidents and reported that in the year 2015, 11 people were killed and 79 injured by landmines.[5] The figure is not believed to include military casualties.

As in all past years, the available data contained insufficient details to distinguish trends or to ensure that the details for all casualties were correctly recorded by the source. The actual number of casualties is likely to be much higher.

The 159 casualties recorded by the Monitor in 2015 was lower than the 251 reported in 2014 and 381 in 2011, but higher than the 145 reported in 2013[6] and the 106 in 2012. Monitor casualty data for Myanmar represents an aggregation of available sources.[7] Regarding the original low total casualties reported for 2013, Danish Demining Group (DDG) noted that “it is perceived that the number of landmine victims far exceed the figure of 101 landmine victims in 2013.”[8] By September 2015, an additional 44 (three killed; 41 injured) casualties for 2013 had been reported, bringing the total of known casualties for that year to 145. This is still believed to be far fewer than actually occurred.

Danish Demining Group/Danish Refugee Council (DDG/DRC) has noted that in Kachin state, where increases in casualties have been recorded in recent years, fighting was more intense in 2011–2012 than in 2013–2014, however, more landmine incidents were recorded during this later period. The reason for the increase was not certain. However, data was collected by DDG/DRC from a small and unstable area that indicated that half of all casualties were internally displaced persons (IDPs), who may have returned to contaminated land.[9]

Past reporting by the Monitor has indicated that there are a significant number of military casualties, but such records remain unavailable to the public.[10]

In 2014, mines/ERW remained a source of concern in an estimated 10 out of 14 regions/states.[11] Most mines causing casualties were recorded as antipersonnel mines. It has been reported by local risk education providers that victim-activated IEDs or “craft” antipersonnel mines are among the mine types causing casualties. People involved in mine and victim-activated IED incidents are often not able to distinguish between these types of victim-activated explosive items, so the type is not recorded.[12]

The total number of casualties in Myanmar is unknown. The Monitor reported annual casualty data of 3,745 (396 killed; 3,145 injured; 204 unknown) between 1999 and the end of 2014.

It was reported that, according to the Myanmar Physically Handicapped Association (MPHA), a significant number of military personnel, armed-group members, and civilians had a disability because of conflict, including landmine incidents. There were approximately 12,000 amputees in the country, with two-thirds believed to be landmine survivors.[13]

Victim Assistance

At least 3,156 survivors have been identified by the Monitor since 1999. However, this is believed to be only a small fraction of the actual figure, which was estimated by the group Mine Free Myanmar to exceed 40,000.[14]

Victim assistance in 2015

In 2015, there was a continued increase in rehabilitation and economic inclusion services available to survivors within Myanmar. However, it has been estimated that Myanmar requires approximately 300 prosthetic technicians to meet the needs of amputees, but has less than 30.[15]

The Ministry of Health and Sport and the ICRC agreed to build two new physical rehabilitation centers in Kyaing Tong, in Shan state, and Myitkyina, in Kachin state.[16]

More actors were involved in delivering, planning, and organizing all aspects of victim assistance.

Assessing victim assistance needs

The Handicap International (HI) and Myanmar Physically Handicapped Association (MPHA) Victim Assistance Center in the Kyaukkyi township of the Bago region identified 1,259 mine survivors and other persons with disabilities within the township by March 2016. Survey results were to be used for interventions and evidence-based strategy. During needs assessments, referrals were made to appropriate and accessible services for mine survivors and other persons with disabilities.[17] HI also developed directories of services in Mandalay, Ayeryawerdy, and East Bago (Kyaukkyi township).[18]

World Education worked to improve data collection and information sharing about persons with disabilities in Kayah state.[19]

In January and February 2015, DDG/DRC conducted a “Landmine and Explosive Remnants of War Victims Survey” in Kachin and Kayah states that incorporated needs assessment and evaluation of opportunities for possible future activities. The DDG/DRC found through survey interviews with survivors and victim assistance organizations that the greatest needs included psychosocial support, livelihood assistance, and socio-economic reintegration. They also found that victim assistance needed to be integrated into the larger disability and rehabilitation sector, which also needed to be made sustainable. Recommendations from DDG included the following:[20]

  • Create a simple and ad hoc victim information system for sharing and planning purposes;
  • Provide emergency victim assistance;
  • Facilitate access to physical rehabilitation services;
  • Increase psychosocial support initiatives via self-help groups, peer-to-peer services, and disability resource centers;
  • Work with these networks to support socio-economic reintegration activities;
  • Implement and integrate sustainable socio-economic reintegration support to landmine survivors and persons with disabilities in the community through community and disability organizations’ networks;
  • Provide vocational training and longer-term socio-economic assistance;
  • Provide systematic business service assistance and support for the educational needs of the children of survivors.

The first statewide disability survey conducted by World Education between March and November 2015, in Kayah state, determined that almost 9% of persons with physical disabilities had acquired impairments due to landmine injuries. The survey recommended that there was a need to engage communities to shift attitudes toward the disabled, and noted that the disabled felt uninvolved and not included in community groups. World Education recommended that Myanmar increase the accessibility and inclusivity of in existing services and recommended that NGOs facilitate the building of networks among persons with disabilities.[21]

Victim assistance coordination

A Technical Group on Victim Assistance, facilitated by HI was established in September 2014. The 17-member group held meetings in Yangon. In 2015, the group met, under the coordination of HI, five times. Four meetings were held in 2016 through to October.[22]

The Technical Group on Victim Assistance is a sub-working group of the national Mine Risk Education Working Group, and was tasked to define the victim assistance component of the 2015–2016 Mine Risk Strategic National Plan. Since its establishment, it also monitors implementation of victim assistance and shares information on victim assistance issues. It also creates a bridge between the Mine Risk Education Working Group and disability-rights actors. Members of the Technical Group on Victim Assistance include international NGOs, national NGOs, the UN, the ICRC, and the Myanmar Red Cross Society (MRCS), as well as international cooperation agencies.[23]

There was no government victim assistance coordination mechanism in 2015. However, in February 2015, a representative of the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief, and Resettlement reported that Myanmar was taking an integrated approach towards victim assistance, based on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), in its national disability law and national social protection strategy.[24]

Discussions between the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief, and Resettlement and the ICRC, on the creation of a national coordinating body for prosthetic and orthotic services, continued.[25]

The Myanmar Council for Persons with Disabilities (MCPD). was formed in December 2014. A council member stated that the group would “work to adopt a law to protect disabled people and to implement the CRPD.”[26] World Learning provided technical support from local disability activists to organize the first Myanmar National Disability Conference, in order to elect representatives to a new 21-member MCPD. It continued to develop organizational and technical capacity in the MCPD with international disability law experts from the United States International Council on Disabilities and support from USAID.[27]

The Myanmar National Strategy for the Development of Persons with Disabilities (2016–2025) includes the following aims:

  • Develop disability inclusive infrastructures, practices, systems, and policies;
  • Ensure full participation of persons with disabilities in social, political, culture, economic, and public sectors;
  • Improve the quality of life of persons with disabilities;
  • Prioritize areas for disability-focused government organizations, non-governmental international, and local organizations;
  • Fully protect the rights of the persons with disabilities in accordance with the Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2015).[28]

A consultation Workshop on the National Strategic Disability Plan sponsored by the MCPD was held from 29 August to 2 September 2016. The Department of Social Welfare along with disability self-advocates participated in the development of implementation activities for 2017–2022 based on the objectives of the Myanmar National Strategy for Development of Persons with Disability (2016–2025), including a budget for the Myanmar fiscal year 2017–2018.[29]

The Department of Social Welfare, within the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief, and Resettlement, is responsible for community-based rehabilitation and for carrying out social welfare services through preventive, protective, and rehabilitative measures for persons with disabilities.[30]

Several institutions were involved in the coordination of physical rehabilitation; the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Defense, and the MRCS played roles in the provision of mobility aids, especially prosthetics and orthotics.[31]

Although there is no direct representation of mine/ERW victims, survivors belong to broader disabled peoples’ organizations (DPOs) that participate in various coordination roles.

Service accessibility and effectiveness

Victim assistance activities

Name of organization

Type of organization

Type of activity

Ministry of Health


Prosthetic centers and two orthopedic hospitals

Ministry of Defense


Prosthetics provided through three centers

Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief, and Resettlement


Socio-economic and rehabilitation services; vocational training school for adults with disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors

Shwe Min Tha Foundation

Local NGO

Covered incidental medical care costs, transportation to medical centers, and food distribution

The Back Pack Health Worker Teams (BPHWT)

Local NGO

Mobile emergency medical service in eastern Myanmar

Peace Myanmar Aid Foundation

Local NGO

Mobile prosthetic delivery

Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People

Community-based organization

Prosthetic production at the Kho Kay Prosthetic Clinic, Mutraw, Karen (Kayin) state

Karen Health and Welfare Department (KDHW)

Community-based organization

Provided medical first-aid assistance and amputative surgeries

Karenni Health Workers Organization

Community-based organization

Provided prosthetics in Loikaw, Kayah (Karenni) state

Myanmar Physically Handicapped Association (MPHA)

National DPO

Disability rights advocacy, production of assistive devices; encouraging economic inclusion through employment

Association for Aid and Relief Japan (AAR Japan)

International NGO

Vocational training; community-based rehabilitation; referral system; survivor rights/advocacy

Exceed Worldwide

International NGO

Operating the prosthetic workshop at the National Rehabilitation Hospital (NRH) in Yangon; financially supports Myanmar School of Prosthetics & Orthotics constructing new prosthetic workshop in Mandalay

Leprosy Mission –Myanmar

International NGO

Rehabilitation and prosthetics


International NGO

Direct assistance in the form of medical and rehabilitative care and referrals for mine/ERW survivors in Kachin state


International NGO

Community-level data collection, mapping of services and barriers, assessment, referral, psychosocial support, socio-economic inclusion, repairs of mobility devices; coordination of assistance and advocacy on survivors/victims’ needs; capacity-building of the Myanmar Physically Handicapped Association (MPHA), developing Victim Assistance Centers

World Education

International organization

Physical rehabilitation; economic inclusion; access to medical and vocational funds; coordination of assistance and advocacy on survivors/victims’ needs

ICRC/Myanmar Red Cross Society

International/national organization

Support to Hpa-an Orthopedic Rehabilitation Centre; prosthetic outreach for remote areas

UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)


Discretionary funds for financial assistance to cover medical costs of war victims/landmine survivors and rehabilitation, including transport; economic inclusion through livelihood program


Emergency and continuing medical care

Health in Myanmar has been effected by decades of ethnic conflict, centralized decision making, and the exodus of qualified health professionals, including qualified physicians, nurses, and community health workers. The availability of medicines, medical equipment, and hospital/clinic beds are inadequate. Hospital facilities are dilapidated and require renovation. The reliability of electricity in health facilities is an ongoing challenge. Those people living in areas of armed conflict and other remote areas often cannot access to healthcare “within a few days’ walk.” Most health workers employed by ethnic and community-based health organizations attend initial training and periodic professional development seminars, with additional clinical supervision at the Mae Tao Clinic or other ethnic health clinics. Medics working in areas with landmines receive more intensive training in trauma management.[32]

There were parallel health systems in Myanmar, particularly in conflict-affected areas: centralized state services and local ethnic and community-based health providers. Health Convergence Core Group (HCCG) continued to work to improve health systems. It is composed of four ethnic health organizations and four community-based health organizations: Burma Medical Association, Back Pack Health Worker Teams, Karen Department of Health and Welfare, Karenni Mobile Health Committee, Mae Tao Clinic, Mon National Health Committee, National Health and Education Committee, and the Shan Health Committee.[33]

In March 2016, more than 90 delegates from ethnic health organizations, community health organizations near the Thai-Burma border, medical professionals, academics, lawyers and other organizations attended a seminar on Health Reform, Towards a Devolved Health System in Burma. The Seminar developed a set of health policy and health system recommendations for the new government of Myanmar and ethnic health organizations. The attendees also discussed humanitarian work related to the peace processes between the government and ethnic armed groups.[34]

Physical rehabilitation, including prosthetics

As most rehabilitation centers are located in major cities and travel costs are high, persons with disabilities, especially those living in rural areas, often face tremendous difficulties in order to access services.[35]

In 2015, the ICRC continued to support the Hpa-an Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Centre (HORC), run jointly by the Myanmar Red Cross Society and the ICRC, and to support three centers managed by the Ministry of Health, located in Mandalay and Yenanthar, enabling people living in remote areas to have access to services. The ICRC covered transportation and treatment costs for the most vulnerable patients. In 2015, 44% (351 of 802) of prostheses delivered in ICRC-supported workshops were for mine/ERW survivors; this was decrease in real and percentage terms from previous years (49%, or 502 of 1,027 in 2014). The ICRC mobile repair program outreach service increased the viability of prosthetics with over 1,300 repairs in 2015. The ICRC also trained and equipped an increasing number of volunteer village prosthetic repair-makers.[36]

The Ministry of Health approved the construction of two new physical rehabilitation centers proposed by the ICRC, one for Myitkyina (Kachin state) in 2015 and another for Kyaing (Tong Eastern Shan state) in 2016. The centers were needed to address the high demand for services in those conflict-affected regions.[37]

DanChurchAid (DCA) operates a mobile prosthetic limb clinic that assists landmine survivors who have little or no access to similar services offered elsewhere in the country.[38] The leprosy mission also provided rehabilitation services.[39]

Exceed Worldwide (Formerly Cambodia Trust), in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, operated the prosthetic and orthotics clinic at the National Rehabilitation Hospital in Yangon. Exceed Worldwide also financially supported the Myanmar School of Prosthetics and Orthotics at the University of Medical Technology in Yangon. The first student intake occurred in January 2015. Exceed Worldwide is constructing a new prosthetic clinic at the Mandalay Orthopaedic Hospital, which was scheduled to open in late 2016.[40] No data was available on how many of the prosthesis delivered by the National Rehabilitation Hospital were for mine/ERW survivors.

The MPHA produced prosthetics at a small workshop in its office in Yangon.[41]

HI and the MPHA jointly created a Victim Assistance Disability Program in the Kyaukkyi township of Bago region. The program established a local Victim Assistance Center, which provided the following activities:

  • Information to mine survivors and other persons with disabilities on their rights as promoted by the CRPD and Myanmar’s law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities;
  • Organization of social gatherings to promote the social participation of survivors and other persons with disabilities;
  • Created a service directory to assist in this;
  • Provided home based peer-to-peer psychosocial support through nine trained volunteers;
  • Community-based repair of assistive devices, orthosis, and prosthesis through four ICRC- trained volunteers.

The program was evaluated in mid-2016. A new Victim Assistance Center was launched in December 2015 in Kawkareik, Kayin state. The Kawkareik project targets 1,500 persons with disabilities, including landmines/ERW survivors still to be identified.[42]

HI organized several workshops with the Victim Assistance Center team and MPHA management staff on planning overall strategy and project activities. A refresher training on community mobilization for the Victim Assistance Center management team, held in September 2015, focused on implementing activities in villages with respect and a monitoring and reporting system.[43]

World Education supported a prosthetics workshop providing mine/ERW survivors in Kayin state. In 2015, it also launched the Victim Assistance and Disability Program. Support for mine survivors and persons with disabilities and their family members includes:

  • capacity for local organizations assisting people with disabilities and landmine survivors, and advocacy among service providers for increased inclusion;
  • access to medical and vocational support funds economic inclusion, networking, and coordination with disability actors, including the Department of Social Welfare community-based organizations, DPOs, and other service providers.[44]

Peace Myanmar Aid Foundation ran a mobile prosthetics workshop in eastern Bago region.[45]

Psychosocial support

In March 2015, a psychosocial program combined with a community-based prosthetics service was launched by HI, MPHA, and the ICRC for survivors. This joint activity created the first Victim Assistance Centre in Myanmar, in Kyaukkyi township, eastern Bago region. This provided 203 peer support sessions to 83 mine survivors and other persons with disabilities.[46]

Economic and social inclusion

A lack of understanding about persons with disabilities as well as poor infrastructural accessibility make it difficult for persons with disabilities to attend school or find employment. During 2015, World Education provided livelihood training and small business start-up kits to landmine survivors and other persons with disabilities in Kayin state.[47]

AAR Japan Vocational Training Center for Persons with Disabilities provides training in tailoring, hairstyling, and computers free-of-charge in Yangon. The center supports graduates to achieve economic independence, gain employment, open their own shops, or become teachers at the center.[48]

Students with disabilities have few educational opportunities and therefore have poor prospects in Myanmar. Awareness raising and accessibility, as well as increased participation and teacher capacity, are needed.[49]

Laws and policies

Until recently, there were no laws specifically prohibiting discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment, education, access to healthcare, or in the provision of other state services; the government does not provide ample protections for these persons. There were few official resources to assist persons with disabilities. Persons with disabilities reported societal stigma and discrimination, as well as abuse from civilian and government officials.[50]

The National Assembly passed the Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 5 June 2015. The process of drafting by-laws for the Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities also started on that date.[51] In October 2015, the first meeting for the creation of by-laws took place, with the participation of the Myanmar Council of Persons with Disabilities, ensuring that persons with disabilities participate in the process, in accordance with the CRPD.[52]

Military veterans with disabilities received benefits on a priority basis, usually a civil service job at equivalent pay. Official assistance to non-military persons with disabilities in principle included two-thirds of pay for up to one year for a temporary disability and a tax-free stipend for permanent disability; however, the government did not provide job protection for private sector workers that became disabled. In March 2013, the government enacted a law designed to assist the families of deceased and injured military personnel.[53] Myanmar adopted and launched a National Social Protection Strategic Plan in December 2014. Beginning in 2016, the program will provide a disability allowance to all persons certified with a disability. The disability allowance will be 16,000 kyat (US$13) per child per month, and 30,000 kyat (US$25) per month per adult until the age of 64. The program will be implemented nationwide by the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief, and Resettlement.[54]

Myanmar acceded to the CRPD on 7 December 2011. The convention entered into force for the country on 6 January 2012. The MPHA received a second year of funding to build the capacity of DPOs to monitor and report on CRPD implementation in Myanmar as well as to prepare an alternative (shadow) report for submitting to the CRPD Committee.[55]

Victim assistance for Myanmar citizens in Thailand

Landmine survivors from Myanmar may cross the border to Thailand to receive medical care and rehabilitation at Mae Tao Clinic in Mae Sot, or through ICRC referrals to Thai hospitals in public district hospitals in the Thai-Myanmar border provinces.[56]

[1] Unless noted otherwise, Monitor casualty data for 2015 is from a combined dataset of published and unpublished sources.

[2] There were 56 casualties for which the sex remained unknown.

[3] See also, Roger Fasth and Pascal Simon (Danish Demining Group), “Mine Action in Myanmar,” The Journal of Mine and ERW Action, Issue 19.2, July 2015.

[4]Over 100 landmine fatalities since January 2015,” Global New Light of Myanmar, 19 August 2016.

[5]Kachin landmines kill 11 last year,” Eleven Media, 31 January 2016.

[6] Revised total from 101 originally reported in the Monitor profile for Myanmar in 2014.

[7] It is possible that available data contains duplicate casualties, but this could not be verified in all cases given the limited amount of information provided.

[8] DDG, “Where We Work: Myanmar,” undated.

[9] See also, Roger Fasth and Pascal Simon (DDG), “Mine Action in Myanmar,” The Journal of Mine and ERW Action, Issue 19.2, July 2015.

[10] See the 2009 edition of the Monitor report for Myanmar available on the Monitor website. Unprecedented levels of information on military casualties were received in 2008 from the State Peace and Development Council; 508 military casualties were identified. Information from this source has not been made available any other year.

[11] ICRC, “Annual Report 2013,” Geneva, May 2014, p. 291.

[12]Deadly Soil: Burma’s Enduring Landmine Tragedy,” Burma News International, 11 June 2011. Non-state armed groups reportedly also use captured factory-made mines. See, “The world’s longest ongoing war,” Al Jazeera, 10 August 2011.

[13] US Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Burma,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2016.

[14] Email from Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan, Mine Free Myanmar, 26 September 2014.

[15] Interview with Didier Reck, Physiotherapist, Physical Rehabilitation Programme Manager, ICRC, Yangon, 7 June 2016; and “Estimate based on Guidelines for Training Personnel in Developing Countries for Prosthetics and Orthotics Services,” International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics/World Health Organization, 2005, pp. 17–18.

[16] ICRC, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 288.

[17] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Marie Mabrut, Operations Coordinator, HI-Myanmar, 13 October 2016; HI, “Victim Assistance in Disability Program in Kyaukkyi Township of Eastern Bago Region, Lessons Learnt Paper,” April 2016; and interview with Yann Faivre, Country Director, HI - Myanmar, Yangon, 9 June 2016.

[18] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Marie Mabrut, HI-Myanmar, 13 October 2016.

[20] Roger Fasth and Pascal Simon (DDG), “Mine Action in Myanmar,” The Journal of Mine and ERW Action, Issue 19.2, July 2015.

[21] World Education, “Victim Assistance and Disability Project in Kayah State Disability Survey: Summary of Main Findings,” undated; and emails from Ms. Khim Mar Aung, Director, World Education, 12 June 2016; and from Ms. Mar Lar Soe, World Education, 12 June 2016. The survey covered 36% of the villages in the seven townships of Kayah state. Landmine-caused disability was 4% when measured against all causes of disability.

[22] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Marie Mabrut, HI - Myanmar, 13 October 2016.

[23] Ibid.; and email from Yann Faivre, HI, 27 October 2015; and “HI Victim Assistance Initiative in Myanmar,” presentation by Yann Faivre, HI, in Bangkok, 15 June 2015.

[24] Presentation by Dr San San Aye, Deputy Director General of the Department of Social Welfare, Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief, and Resettlement, Meeting of National Mine Action Programme Directors, Geneva, 17 February 2015.

[25] ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, 2016, p. 346.

[26]Disabled Rights Council to be formed in Myanmar,” Myanmar Matters, 14 December 2014.

[28] “Myanmar National Strategy for the Development of Persons with Disabilities 2016–2025,” Unofficial translation.

[30] “Myanmar National Strategy for the Development of Persons with Disabilities 2016–2025,” Unofficial translation; ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programme (PRP), “Annual Report 2013,” Geneva, 2014, p. 52; and Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief, and Resettlement, “Rehabilitation of the Persons with Disabilities,” 2012.

[31] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 58.

[33] Health Convergence Core Group, “Community health: We care for our own,” Myanmar Times, 29 March 2016; Bill Davis and Kim Jolliffe, “Achieving Health Equity in Contested Areas of Southeast Myanmar,” The Asia Foundation and Myanmar Development Research Institute – Centre for Economic and Social Development, Policy Dialogue Brief Series No. 12, June 2016; HISGW, “About Us: Health Convergence Core Group,” undated; Burma Health Association, “The 5th Health Convergence Core Group Meeting,” 21 August 2014; Bill Davies, Tara Russell, and Saw Win Kyaw, “Ceasefires and health: challenges and opportunities for health equity in eastern Burma/Myanmar,” 25 July 2015; and presentation of a paper at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes, and Challenges, Chiang Mai, 24–26 July 2015.

[34] HCCG “Statement of Burma Health System Reform Seminar,” Burma Partnership, 30 March 2016.

[35] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2013,” Geneva, 2014, p. 52.

[36] The ICRC’s mobile repair workshop provided repairs in four townships in Kayin state, three townships in Kayah state, 11 townships in Eastern Bago region, seven townships in Tanintharyi region, and five townships in Mon state. Village volunteer repairmen provided repairs in four townships in Tanintharyi and Eastern Bago regions in 2015. Email from Didier Reck, Physical Rehabilitation Programme Manager, 7 June 2016; and ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, 2016, p. 346; and ICRC, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 293.

[37] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 58.

[39] Thi Ri Han, “Suddenly, there was an explosion,” Frontier Myanmar, 10 August 2016.

[40] Exceed Worldwide, “The Myanmar School of prosthetics And Orthotics: MSPO,” undated; and Exceed Worldwide, “Annual Report 2014-2015,” undated, pp. 16–17.

[41] MPHA, “MPHA Activities,” 2015.

[42] HI, “Victim Assistance in Disability Program in Kyaukkyi Township of Eastern Bago Region, Lessons Learnt Paper,” April 2016; and interview with Yann Faivre, Handicap International Federation, Yangon, 9 June 2016; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Marie Mabrut, HI - Myanmar, 13 October 2016.

[43] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Marie Mabrut, HI - Myanmar, 13 October 2016.

[45] James Nickerson, “The tragedy of landmine warfare in Myanmar,” Al Jazeera, 30 October 2016; and email from Col. Thant Zin, Director, Peace Myanmar Aid Foundation, 25 September 2014.

[46] Email from Yann Faivre, HI, 29 October 2015.

[47] Email from Khim Mar Aung, Director, World Education, 12 June 2016; and World Education, “Victim Assistance and Disability Program in Kayah State,” undated.

[48] AAR Japan, “Activities in Myanmar (Burma),” undated.

[49] Myanmar Education Consortium, “Inclusive education,” undated.

[50] United States (US) Department of State, “2014 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Burma,” Washington, DC, 25 June 2015.

[51] The Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2015, Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (National Assembly) Law N.30, 4th Waning Day of Nayon 1377 ME, 5 June 2015.

[52] Email from Yann Faivre, HI, 29 October 2015.

[53] US Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Burma,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2016.

[54] Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, “Myanmar National Social Protection Strategic Plan,” December 2014, p. 53. The allowance will not be available until the rights of the persons with disabilities law is enacted and a certification process is established by the government.

[55] Disability Rights Fund, “Myanmar: Archives,” undated; and Disability Rights Fund, “Our Grantees:  Myanmar Physically Handicapped Association,” 2016.

[56] For more information, see ICBL-CMC Country Profiles on Thailand.