Algeria

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 11 July 2017

Summary: Non-signatory Algeria has not elaborated its view on accession to the convention. It participated in a meeting of the convention for the first time in 2015, where it expressed firm opposition to cluster munitions. Algeria also voted in favor of a key UN resolution on the convention in December 2016 after abstaining on a previous resolution one year before. Algeria is not known to have used, produced, or exported cluster munitions, but it is reported to stockpile them.

Policy

The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria has not yet acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Algeria last provided its views on cluster munitions in September 2015, when it participated as an observer in the convention’s First Review Conference in Dubrovnik, Croatia. During the high-level segment, Algeria told States Parties that the convention “provides a useful international norm to the global regime on disarmament.”[1] Algeria did not directly address the question of when it will accede to the convention, but described “ongoing efforts for the stabilization of our neighboring countries.” In 2009, an Algerian official told the Monitor that the government was not prepared to sign the convention “at the present time” after conducting a study on it that considered the country’s internal situation, its long borders, and the positions of neighboring countries.[2]

In December 2016, Algeria voted in favor of a key UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution, which urges states outside the Convention on Cluster Munitions to “join as soon as possible.”[3] It had abstained from the vote on the first UNGA resolution on the convention in December 2015.[4] Algeria did not make a statement to explain why it changed its position to support the non-binding resolution in 2016.

Algeria participated in several meetings of the Oslo Process, but did not attend the Dublin negotiations in May 2008 or the Oslo signing conference in December of that year.[5] At the Vienna conference in December 2007, Algeria described cluster munitions as “evil weapons” requiring urgent action through “a legally binding instrument.”[6]

In 2011, Wikileaks released a United States (US) Department of State cable that showed US officials met with Algeria’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs in February 2008 and urged Algeria not to support any measures “that would interfere with cooperation efforts aimed at non-state parties.”[7]

Before it participated in the convention’s First Review Conference, Algeria attended one international meeting on cluster munitions, in Santiago, Chile, in June 2010. Algeria was invited to, but did not attend the convention’s Sixth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in September 2016.

Algeria is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty.

Algeria is a State Party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW). It has not proposed any work on cluster munitions at the CCW since an effort to conclude a new CCW protocol on cluster munitions failed in 2011, effectively ending the CCW’s deliberations on the topic and leaving the Convention on Cluster Munitions as the sole international instrument dedicated to ending the suffering caused by cluster munitions.

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

Algeria is not known to have used, produced, or exported cluster munitions.

Algeria is reported to stockpile cluster munitions. In 2004, Jane’s Information Group noted that KMG-U dispensers that deploy submunitions were in service for aircraft of the Algerian air force.[8] Also according to Jane’s, Algeria possesses Grad 122mm, Uragan 220mm, and Smerch 300mm surface-to-surface rockets, but it is not known if these include versions with submunition payloads.[9]



[1] Statement of Algeria, Convention on Cluster Munitions First Review Conference, Dubrovnik, 9 September 2015.

[2] Interview with Hamza Khelif, Deputy Director of Disarmament, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mine Ban Treaty Second Review Conference, Cartagena, 4 December 2009. Of its neighbors, Mali and Tunisia have ratified the convention and are implementing it, while Libya has not joined.

[3]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 71/45, 5 December 2016.

[4]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 70/54, 7 December 2015.

[5] Algeria attended the international treaty preparatory conferences in Vienna in December 2007 and Wellington in February 2008, as well as a regional conference in Livingstone, Zambia, in March/April 2008. For details on Algeria’s cluster munition policy and practice up to early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), p. 185.

[6] Statement of Algeria, Vienna Conference on Cluster Munitions, 5 December 2007. Notes by the CMC/Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF).

[7]Oslo Process and Banning Cluster Munitions,” US Department of State cable dated 19 February 2008, released by Wikileaks on 1 September 2011.

[8] Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air-Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2004), p. 835.

[9] Colin King, ed., Jane’s Explosive Ordnance Disposal, CD-edition, 14 December 2007 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2008).

Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 25 November 2013

Mine Ban Treaty status

State Party

National implementation measures

Existing laws deemed sufficient

Transparency reporting

March 2013

Policy

The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified it on 9 October 2001, and became a State Party on 1 April 2002. Algeria believes that existing national laws, including the penal code, are sufficient to deal with implementation and any violations of the Mine Ban Treaty.[1]

Algeria submitted its eleventh Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report in March 2013.[2]

Algeria participated actively in the Twelfth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Geneva in December 2012, where it served as vice-president of the meeting and as co-chair of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration. Algeria also participated in the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in May 2013 where it provided an update on its clearance progress since receiving an extension on its Article 5 obligations.

Algeria is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW).

Production, transfer, use, and stockpile destruction

Algeria has never produced or exported antipersonnel mines but did import and use them in the past. On 21 November 2005, Algeria completed the destruction of its stockpile of 150,050 antipersonnel mines.

In May 2010, Algeria wrote to the Monitor that no additional stockpiles of mines belonging to the armed forces had been discovered after completion of its stockpile destruction program.[3] Algeria’s previous Article 7 reports indicated small numbers of antipersonnel mines were discovered by citizens or security personnel each year.[4] However, Algeria has not reported any new seizures of antipersonnel mines since February 2010. From 2006 to early 2010, Algeria revealed that it had seized a total of 3,119 antipersonnel mines which had been harvested from existing mined areas and used for illegal purposes.[5] Algeria’s Article 7 report for 2010 included a table of the eight cases referred to the courts from December 2006 to February 2010 as a result of the seizure of the mines; it provides the outcome, the penalty, and the statute under which each case was tried.[6] Algeria previously informed the Monitor, “As subject matter of the criminal case, anti-personnel mines are confiscated for the benefit of the Public Treasury and delivered with a written report to the competent judicial police officers of the Gendarmerie Nationale to be ultimately destroyed.”[7]

Mines retained for training

Algeria did not report consumption of any mines retained during 2012, but stated that it “holds no more than 5,970 mines under article 3,” which was the same number that it has reported retaining in every year since December 2009.[8] Despite having a large clearance program, Algeria has not reported on the actual uses of its retained mines, a step agreed by States Parties in 2004.

Algeria initially decided to retain 15,030 antipersonnel mines upon the completion of the destruction of its stockpile. After consuming just 90 mines in training, it announced in late 2008 that it would reduce the number of mines retained to a level of 6,000.[9] A total of 8,940 mines were subsequently destroyed at events witnessed by the international community in December 2008 and March 2009.[10]

 



[1] This includes Law Number 97-06 on war material, arms, and munitions (enacted on 21 January 1997) and Executive Order Number 98-96 (18 March 1998) implementing Law 97-06. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Sections 1.1 and 1.2, 1 May 2003, and repeated in more recent reports.

[2] Like all previous Article 7 reports, the March 2013 report does not state a specific reporting period and does not use the voluntary reporting format. Algeria previously submitted Article 7 reports on 1 May 2003, 11 May 2004, 27 October 2005, 10 May 2006, in April 2007, in April 2008, in April 2009, in April 2010, in January 2011, and February 2012.

[3] “Updated information regarding the implementation by Algeria of certain provisions of the Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel Mines,” Letter NR061/10/TD, provided to the Monitor by Amb. Abdallah Baali, Embassy of Algeria to the United States, 11 May 2010.

[4] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Section 5.4, January 2011. Prior to February 2010, Algeria included a chart of “isolated” antipersonnel mines that were discovered and destroyed.

[5] Letter NR061/10/TD provided to the Monitor by Amb. Baali, 11 May 2010, in which he stated “such munitions were picked up from mine fields to be used at the same time for illegal fishing and terrorism.” Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Section 5.5, April 2010.

[6] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Section 5.5, April 2010. The most notable of these involved the seizure of 2,500 mines, one of the largest seizures anywhere. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2009, p. 149.

[7] Letter NR061/10/TD provided to the Monitor by Amb. Baali, 11 May 2010.

[8] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Section 4, January 2011; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Section 4, April 2010. The mines retained for training now consist of 500 PMD-6, 485 PMD-6M, 185 PMN, 200 PMA, 3,015 GLD-115, 200 OZM, 200 POMZ-2 and POMZ-2M, 100 PROM-1, 80 PMR-2A, and 1,005 GLD-125.

[9] The Monitor noted in 2009 that 90 mines seemed to be unaccounted for. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Section 4, April 2010; and letter NR061/10/TD provided to the Monitor by Amb. Baali, 11 May 2010, indicated that these had been destroyed in training activities prior to the decision to reduce to 6,000.

[10] For more details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2009, p. 149.

Mine Action

Last updated: 16 November 2017

Contaminated by: improvised mines and other unexploded ordnance (UXO).

Article 5 deadline: 1 April 2017
(Clearance declared complete)

The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria submitted a Declaration of Fulfilment of Article 5 on 10 February 2017. Algeria reported the release of 28.1km2 of land in 2016[1] but has not clarified how much was clearance and how much was released by other means. Demining operations during 2016 destroyed 62,589 antipersonnel mines and 225 antivehicle mines.

Contamination

Algeria was affected by antipersonnel mines as a result of World War II, the French colonial occupation, and the insurgency of the 1990s. During Algeria’s struggle for independence, mines were laid by the French along the Challe and Morice lines on the eastern and western borders of the country. Algeria estimated that more than 10 million mines were laid.[2] Some 80% were blast mines, while most of the remainder were fragmentation mines.[3]

In clearance between 1963 and 1988, some 500km² of mined area was cleared with the destruction of more than 7.8 million antipersonnel mines. A second clearance phase began in November 2004, which resulted in the destruction of 850,000 mines; a further 159,000 stockpiled mines were destroyed.[4] As of April 2016, clearance had reduced contamination to two contaminated provinces (wilaya), Guelma and Nâama. Clearance in Nâama was completed by July 2016.[5] Clearance of known mined areas in Guelma was completed on 1 December 2016.[6]

Occasionally, “isolated” antipersonnel mines have been found outside known mined areas. In addition, the north of the country is said to be contaminated by an unknown number of improvised mines and other explosive items laid by insurgent groups.[7] In the first half of 2017, Algerian police reported seizing 121 landmines from groups linked to terrorism or arms smuggling.[8]

Programme Management

The Interministerial Committee on the Implementation of the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention, set up by presidential decree in 2003, is the governmental focal point for all mine action activities in Algeria.

Operators

All demining in Algeria has been carried out manually by the Algerian army.

Land Release

Clearance in 2016

As in previous years, Algeria has not reported clearly on the size of areas cleared in 2016. Demining operations during 2016 destroyed 62,589 antipersonnel mines and 225 antivehicle mines.[9] This included 599 colonial-era antipersonnel mines found outside known mined areas.[10]

In its formal declaration of compliance with Mine Ban Treaty Article 5, Algeria reported the release of 28.1km2 of land in 2016[11] but has not clarified how much was clearance and how much was released by other means. Its Article 7 transparency report suggests an even higher figure of 29.65km2.

In addition to mined areas laid by France in the colonial era, clearance in 2016 addressed four further mined areas in Tindouf province, close to the borders with Mauritania, Morocco, and Western Sahara. One area at Meksem El Dahma (5,000m2) involved destruction of 102 antipersonnel mines and 37 antivehicle mines; a second at Oum El Achar (882m2) involved 20 antipersonnel mines and 2 antivehicle mines; and two areas in El Bêtina, one of 64,000m2 and the other of 4,800m2, involved the destruction of a further 6,566 antipersonnel mines and 186 antivehicle mines. Clearance of the latter three areas was completed on 16 December 2016.[12]

Article 5 Compliance

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, and in accordance with the five-year extension granted by States Parties in 2011, Algeria was required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 April 2017.

Algeria’s accelerated pace of demining in 2015 and 2016 led it to complete clearance before the end of December 2016, in advance of its extended deadline. Algeria submitted a Declaration of Fulfilment of Article 5 on 10 February 2017.[13]

Algeria systematically funded its mine action program through its own resources. Algeria has indicated that the specialized army and police units remain ready to destroy any further mines that are reported or discovered.[14]

 

The Monitor acknowledges the contributions of the Mine Action Review (www.mineactionreview.org), which has conducted the mine action research in 2017, including on survey and clearance, and shared all its resulting landmine and cluster munition reports with the Monitor. The Monitor is responsible for the findings presented online and in its print publications.

 


[1] Algeria, Declaration of Fulfilment of Mine Ban Treaty Article 5, 10 February 2017, p. 8. Algeria’s Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report for 2016 reports a different figure of 29.65km2.

[2] Revised Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 17 August 2011, p. 5.

[3] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 31 December 2015, p. 24.

[4] Ibid, 2017, pp. 53–54.

[6] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 2017, Annex 1.

[7] Ibid., p. 22.

[8]63 terrorists killed in Algeria this year,” Middle East Monitor, 3 July 2017.

[9] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 2017, pp. 53–54.

[10] Ibid., p. 24.

[12] Ibid., p. 25.

[13] Ibid., p. 8.

[14] Ibid., p. 54.

Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 04 September 2015

The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria has estimated that more than 10 million landmines were laid along its eastern border with Tunisia and its western border with Morocco.[1] In its most recent Article 7 transparency report, submitted in May 2015, Algeria reported that mine contamination remains in 17 mined areas located in six wilayas in the northwest and east of the country.[2] All demining operations in Algeria are carried out by the army.

Algeria does not receive international support for its mine action program and it has never provided details of its funding needs, expenditure, or cost estimates from its national or military budget for clearance operations or victim assistance.



[1] Mine Ban Treaty Revised Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 17 August 2011, p. 5.

[2] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, May 2015, Annexes 2.1–2.2.

Casualties

Last updated: 04 October 2017

Casualties Overview

All known casualties by end 2016

7,090 mine/explosive remnants of war (ERW) casualties (3,315 killed; 3775 injured) since 1962

Casualties in 2016

7 (2015: 36)

2016 casualties by outcome

5 killed; 2 injured (2015: 12 killed; 24 injured)

2016 casualties by item type

7 improvised mines (victim-activated improvised explosive devices, IEDs)

 

In 2016, the Monitor identified seven casualties from victim-activated IEDs (improvised mines) in the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, including four civilians and three military personnel.[1] Although it is a significant decrease from 2015, when 36 casualties from improvised mines were identified, it is likely that other incidents went unreported.[2] The lack of a central data collection mechanism and annual casualty rate fluctuations in recent years make it difficult to identify trends.[3] Due to this lack of official data collection, the total number of casualties was likely higher. Casualty data was gathered from media reports.[4]

In 2016, NATO counter-IED monitoring noted of several countries, including Algeria: “There has been little detailed reporting of IEDs found,” and that “…reports of occasional ‘landmine’ incidents may refer to VOIEDs [victim-operated IEDs or improvised landmines] or command initiated IEDs, although again there is insufficient detail to confirm this…”[5]

The total number of mine casualties in Algeria is unknown. As of March 2011, there were 2,325 mine survivors, as well as 439 widows and 739 descendants of victims killed in mine incidents registered with the Ministry of the Mujahidin. [6] In October 2009, it was reported in the media that there had been at least 6,762 mine casualties since 1962 (3,236 killed; 3,526 injured). [7] No information was available on casualties caused by ERW. The total of 7,090 casualties reported by the Monitor represents this figure plus the 328 mine/ERW casualties (79 killed and 249 injured) identified in 2009–2016.



[1] Monitor media monitoring from 1 January to 31 December 2016; and Monitor analysis of data recorded by Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED), “ACLED Version 7 (1996 – 2016),” citing Clionadh Raleigh, Andrew Linke, Håvard Hegre, and Joakim Karlsen, “Introducing ACLED-Armed Conflict Location and Event Data,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 47, Issue 5, first published 28 September 2010, pp. 651–660.

[2] It remained difficult to determine the explosive type for all incidents in Algeria given the lack of detail in most media reports and the use of the term “mine” for nearly all incidents involving victim-activated explosives. It is likely that some incidents involving what the media refers to as homemade or “traditional” mines may in fact refer to victim-activated IEDs. Monitor media monitoring from 1 January to 31 December 2015.

[3] The Monitor identified 88 casualties in 2014; 78 casualties in 2013; 51 in 2012; 35 in 2011; 33 in 2010; 34 in 2009; 19 in 2008; 78 in 2007; 58 in 2006; and 51 in 2005. See previous Monitor country profiles on Algeria.

[4] Monitor media monitoring from 1 January to 31 December 2016.

[5] Counter Improvised Explosive Devices Centre Of Excellence (C-IED COE), “Threat Networks employing IEDs in North Africa,” June 2016.

[6] Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2011, p. 19.

[7] This figure does not include casualties among Saharawi refugees displaced from Western Sahara to camps in southwestern Algeria (see the profile for Western Sahara). “L’Algérie ambitionne de les éliminer d’ici 2012: Les mines antipersonnel ont fait 3236 Victimes” (“Algeria aims to eliminate them by 2012: Antipersonnel landmines have killed 3236 persons”), Le Soir d’Algérie, 31 October 2009.

Victim Assistance

Last updated: 09 October 2017

Action points based on findings

  • Develop central data collection mechanisms on casualties and the needs of victims to improve planning of victim assistance.
  • Formally endorse and implement the victim assistance action plan, developed in collaboration with NGOs and mine survivors.
  • Ensure that all victims are registered and therefore able to receive pensions and other benefits; approximately 42% of all victims were unregistered.

Victim assistance commitments

The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria is responsible for a significant number of survivors of landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) who are in need. Algeria has made commitments to provide victim assistance through the Mine Ban Treaty.

Algeria ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 4 December 2009.

Victim Assistance

Based on casualty data gathered by the Monitor, it is estimated that, as of 31 December 2016, there had been 3,775 injuredmine/ERW survivors in Algeria. In October 2009, it was reported that there were at least 3,551 mine survivors.[1] By March 2011, there were 2,325 registered mine survivors in Algeria.[2]

Victim assistance since 2015

A new Victim Assistance Action Plan was finalized in March 2014, following a survivor identification process conducted by Handicap International (HI).[3] Improvements in the accessibility of services and renewed interest from public authorities to make services more accessible to persons with disabilities were noticeable throughout 2015.[4] In particular, improvements were noticed in access to education and in the health sector, and in access to rehabilitation care and to benefits for mine/ERW survivors.[5] All registered victims, including survivors as well as the family members of those killed by mines, are entitled to benefits through the ministries of mujahidin, national solidarity, and health. These benefits include healthcare and pensions.[6] Civilian mine/ERW victims also have access to rehabilitation services provided at institutions dedicated to former combatants.[7]

Victim assistance in 2016

Assessing victim assistance needs

No needs assessment or survey for mine/ERW survivors has been reported since 2012.

A survey on disability was launched in 2014 by the National Study and Analysis Center (CENEAP). This survey aimed to build a long-term vision of the structures and training needed for improved assistance to persons with disabilities in Algeria.[8]

Victim assistance coordination[9]

Government coordinating body/focal point

Interministerial Committee

Coordinating mechanism

Interministerial Committee

Plan

Plan d’Action National d’Assistance aux Victimes des mines Algérie (National Action Plan on Victim Assistance in Algeria) finalized in March 2014 and still awaiting endorsement by the Algerian government as of June 2017

 

The Interministerial Committee coordinates victim assistance in cooperation with the ministries of mujahidin, national solidarity, and of the interior.[10] No victim assistance coordination meetings were reported since 2014.

Algeria submitted its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report for calendar year 2016, which includes information on victim assistance.[11]

Inclusion and participation in victim assistance

Survivors were involved in non-governmental coordination on victim assistance and activities including: data collection on new victims; orientation and referrals of victims and persons with disabilities towards available services; economic inclusion projects; and psychological support to survivors and their families.[12]

Service accessibility and effectiveness

Victim assistance activities in 2016

Name of organization

Type of organization

Type of activity

Ministry of Mujahidin

Government

Pensions; physical rehabilitation

Ministry of National Solidarity, Family, and the Status of Women

Government

Referrals for physical rehabilitation; transport; pensions; economic inclusion

Ministry of Health

Government

Emergency and ongoing medical care; physical rehabilitation

Five local disabled people’s organizations (DPOs)

Local DPOs

Data collection for survivor needs assessment; advocacy; support to survivors and other persons with disabilities in accessing services

National Association for Defending Victims of Mines, wilaya of Biskra

National survivor association

Data collection for survivor needs assessment; advocacy; support to survivors and other persons with disabilities in accessing services

Solidarity Association of Disabled and Victims of Mines of the wilaya of El Tarf (ASHVM)

National survivor association

Data collection for survivor needs assessment; advocacy; support to survivors and other persons with disabilities in accessing services

Association for the Social Integration of the Physically Disabled of Bechar (ACIHM)

National survivor association

Data collection for survivor needs assessment; advocacy; awareness; support to survivors and other persons with disabilities in accessing services

HI

International NGO

Socio-economic inclusion of persons with disabilities; inclusive education

 

In 2016, mine/ERW survivors as well as other persons with disabilities continued to have access to most orthopaedic and assistive devices free-of-charge, while the National Employee Social Insurance Fund (Caisse Nationale des Assurances Sociales des Travailleurs Salariés, CNAS) covered 80% of the costs of smaller prosthetic devices and audio-equipment.[13] Prosthetics users are eligible for prosthetic renewal every three years.[14]

Algerian authorities have taken ongoing steps to reduce the administrative and bureaucratic barriers for persons with disabilities, including mine/ERW victims, to improve access to social services and financial support and, in particular, to transport and education by opening a specific desk for vulnerable persons at the offices of the Directorate of Social Action and Solidarity (Direction de l'action sociale et de solidarité, DASS) in all wilayas.[15]

HI implemented programs to facilitate inclusive public policy dialogue between the associations working in the disability field, civil society organizations, and public authorities.[16] HI also implemented a project on inclusive education in Setif and Tizi Ouzou to improve access to quality education for children with disabilities.[17]

Legislation prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment, in education, in access to healthcare, and in the provision of other state services. However, the law was not effectively enforced in 2016 and there was widespread societal discrimination against persons with disabilities. Few government buildings were accessible to persons with disabilities.[18] Overall, infrastructures and transports were not accessible to persons with disabilities, which was an impediment to their socio-economic inclusion. Change is however occurring, thanks to the collaboration of public entities and associations. The “accessible city” initiative (commune accessible) launched in April 2017 in four pilot cities (Constantine, Oran, Algiers, and Ghardaïa).[19]

In April 2014, the Ministry of National Solidarity, Family, and the Status of Women established the National Council of Disabled Persons in response to a 2006 presidential decree. It serves as a consultative organ to study problems, such as accessibility for persons with disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors.[20] In 2016, the ministry provided some financial support to healthcare-oriented NGOs, but for many NGOs such financial support represented a small fraction of their budgets.[21]

In 2015, Algeria acceded to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.[22]



[1] This figure includes those survivors identified since Algerian independence in 1962 that were still alive and receiving a disability pension in 2009. “L’Algérie ambitionne de les éliminer d’ici 2012: Les mines antipersonnel ont fait 3236 Victimes” (“Algeria aims to eliminate them by 2012: Antipersonnel landmines have killed 3236 persons”), Le Soir d’Algérie, 31 October 2009.

[2] Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2011, p. 19.

[3] Email from Salima Rebbah, HI Algeria, 16 July 2012; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Salima Rebbah, HI Algeria, 19 April 2013, and 30 March 2014; and by Youcef Rafai and Slimane Maachou, Association for the Social Integration of the Physically Disabled of Bechar (ACIHM), 17 September 2015.

[4] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Slimane Maachou, ACIHM, 2 August 2016.

[5] Ibid.; and United States (US) Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Algeria,” Washington, DC,13 April 2016, p. 35.

[6] Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2011, p. 19; response to Monitor questionnaire by Salima Rebbah, Chief of Project, HI, 30 March 2014; response to Monitor questionnaire by Youcef Rafai and Slimane Maachou, ACIHM, 17 September 2015; Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), pp. 32–39; and US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Algeria,” Washington, DC, March 2017, p. 35.

[7] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), p. 35.

[8] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Salima Rebbah, HI, 30 March 2014; and by Youcef Rafai and Slimane Maachou, ACIHM, 17 September 2015.

[9] Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2011; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Salima Rebbah, HI, 30 March 2014; by Youcef Rafai and Slimane Maachou, ACIHM, 20 March 2014, and 17 September 2015; and by Slimane Maachou, ACIHM, 2 August 2016; and interview with Ahcène Gherabi, Director of Algeria's National Demining Program, Geneva, 9 June 2017.

[10] Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2011, pp. 14 and 19; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Youcef Rafai and Slimane Maachou, ACIHM, 17 September 2015.

[11] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016).

[12] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Slimane Maachou, ACIHM, 2 August 2016; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016).

[13] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), pp. 35–36.

[14] Ibid., p. 35.

[15]Facilitation des procédures administratives: un guichet par Direction de l'action sociale” (Facilitation of administrative procedures: one window per Directorate of Social Action”), Algérie Presse Service, 25 December 2013; response to Monitor questionnaire by Salima Rebbah, HI, 30 March 2014; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), p. 36.

[16] HI, “Algeria,” undated.

[17] HI, “Country Card Algeria,” August 2016, p. 2.

[18] US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Algeria,” Washington, DC, March 2017, p. 35.

[19]Quelle place pour les handicapés en Algérie ?” (“What is the place of the disabled in Algeria?”), Chouf Chouf, 10 June 2017.

[20] US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2014: Algeria,” Washington, DC, 25 June 2015, p. 31; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Youcef Rafai, and Slimane Maachou, ACIHM, 17 September 2015.

[21] US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Algeria,” Washington, DC, March 2017, p. 35.

[22] ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, May 2016, p. 114.