Burundi

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 07 June 2016

Summary: State Party Burundi was among the first 30 ratifications to trigger the convention’s entry into force on 1 August 2010. It has long expressed a desire to adopt national implementing legislation for the convention. Burundi has participated in all of the convention’s meetings and condemned the use of cluster munitions in 2015. According to its initial annual transparency report provided in 2011, Burundi has never used, produced, or transferred cluster munitions and has no stockpile, including for training or research purposes.

Policy

The Republic of Burundisigned the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008 and ratified on 25 September 2009. It was among the first 30 ratifications to trigger the convention’s entry into force on 1 August 2010.

Burundi has expressed its desire to enact national implementation legislation for the convention, but the exact status of legislative efforts was not known as of June 2016.[1] Previously, in 2013, a government official said that existing national implementation legislation for the Mine Ban Treaty would be amended to address cluster munitions.[2] In 2012, Burundi reported that the process of developing a legal framework to incorporate the convention’s provisions into national legislation would “soon be initiated.”[3] A group was convened in 2010 to draft the implementing legislation.[4] Burundi has reported that it has the national operational structure in place to implement the Convention on Cluster Munitions and related treaties.[5]

Burundi submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report for the convention in early 2011, but, as of 27 May 2016, had not provided any of the subsequent annual updates due by 30 April.[6] Burundi indicated in June 2015 that the updated report had been prepared and would soon be submitted.[7]

Burundi participated in the Oslo Process that led to the creation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, including the formal negotiations in Dublin in May 2008 where it supported a comprehensive ban on cluster munitions.[8]

Burundi has continued to actively engage in the work of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. It has participated in every Meeting of States Parties of the convention and attended the Convention on Cluster Munitions First Review Conference in Dubrovnik, Croatia in September 2015. Burundi but it did not make a statement at the meeting. Burundi attended all intersessional meetings of the convention in Geneva, including the final ones in June 2015.

In June 2015, Burundi condemned the use of cluster munitions in Libya, Sudan, Syria, Ukraine, and Yemen and stated that the weapons should not be used “by anyone under any circumstance.” It called on the users and producers of cluster munitions to accede to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.[9]

On 7 December 2015, Burundi voted in favor of the first UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution on the Convention on Cluster Munitions, which urges states outside the convention to “join as soon as possible.”[10] Burundi has also voted in favor of recent UNGA resolutions condemning the use of cluster munitions in Syria, most recently Resolution 69/189 on 18 December 2014, which expressed “outrage” at the continued use.[11]

Burundi has elaborated its views on certain important issues relating to the interpretation and implementation of the convention. In 2012, a Ministry of Public Security official said that Burundi considers assistance with prohibited acts in joint military operations to be prohibited by the convention and it also views the transit and foreign stockpiling of cluster munitions on or across the territories of States Parties to be prohibited.[12]

Burundi is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is also party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

Burundi has stated that is has never used, produced, stockpiled, or transferred cluster munitions, nor has it any intention of acquiring them.[13] In 2011, Burundi declared that it has no stockpile of cluster munitions, including for training or research purposes.[14]



[1] An official informed the Monitor that Burundi intends to adopt implementing legislation but could not provide an update on its status. Monitor meeting with Leonce Musavyi, Director, Humanitarian Action Directorate Against Mines and Explosive Remnants of War (Direction de l’Action Humanitaire contre les Mines et Engins non explosés, DAHMI), Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 22 June 2015.

[2] CMC-Togo meeting with Désiré Nshimirimana, Second Vice-President of the Permanent National Commission for the Fight Against the Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (La Commission nationale permanente de lutte contre la prolifération des armes légères et de petit caliber, CNAP), in Geneva, 17 April 2013.

[3] Statement of Burundi, Convention on Cluster Munitions Third Meeting of States Parties, Oslo, 12 September 2012.

[4] Statement of Burundi, Accra Regional Conference on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Accra, 29 May 2012. Government officials first indicated in August 2010 that such a group would be established. Email from Côme Niyongabo, Handicap International, following a telephone interview with Fabien Ndayishimiye, Legal Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 3 August 2010.

[5] In this context, Burundi said that awareness-raising sessions for the civilian population on the dangers of explosive remnants of war had helped to identify contaminated areas and ensure the subsequent clearance and destruction of unexploded ordnance and obsolete munitions. Statement of Burundi, Convention on Cluster Munitions Third Meeting of States Parties, Oslo, 12 September 2012.

[6] Burundi’s initial Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 report is undated and does not indicate the reporting period. It is comprised of a statement and uncompleted forms.

[7] CMC meeting with Colonel Leonce Musavyi, Director, DAHMI, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 22 June 2015.

[8] For details on Burundi’s cluster munition policy and practice through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 49–50.

[9] Statement of Burundi, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 23 June 2015. Notes by Norwegian People’s Aid.

[10]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 70/54, 7 December 2015.

[11]Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution A/RES/69/189, 18 December 2014. Burundi voted in favor of similar resolutions on 15 May and 18 December 2013. It also endorsed the Lomé Strategy in 2013, which expresses grave concern over “the recent and on-going use of cluster munitions” and calls for the immediate end to the use of these weapons. “Lomé Strategy on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” Lomé Regional Seminar on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Lomé, Togo, 23 May 2013.

[12] Response to Monitor questionnaire from Denis Gahiru, Director General, Civil Protection and Humanitarian Action Against Mines and Explosive Remnants of War, Ministry of Public Security, 20 March 2012.

[13] Statement of Burundi, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 8 April 2014; statement of Burundi, Lomé Regional Seminar on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Lomé, Togo, 22 May 2013. Notes by Action on Armed Violence (AOAV); statement of Burundi, Convention on Cluster Munitions Third Meeting of States Parties, Oslo, 12 September 2012; statement of Burundi, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 29 June 2011. Notes by AOAV; and statement of Burundi, Convention on Cluster Munitions First Meeting of States Parties, Vientiane, 10 November 2010. Burundi confirmed in April 2014 that it has never possessed a stockpile of cluster munitions. Statement of Burundi, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 8 April 2014.

[14] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, 2011.

Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 31 October 2011

Commitment to the Mine Ban Treaty

Mine Ban Treaty status

State Party

National implementation measures

Law No.1/30 entered into force on 10 October 2008

Transparency reporting

30 April 2010

Key developments

More than 100 antipersonnel mines were turned in during a civilian disarmament program


Policy

The Republic of Burundi signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 22 October 2003, becoming a State Party on 1 April 2004.

A national implementation law, Law No. 1/30, was passed by the legislature in September 2008, and took effect on 10 October 2008.[1] It includes penal sanctions against the use of antipersonnel mines.[2]

Burundi did not submit its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report due 30 April 2011. It has submitted six previous reports.[3]

In November–December 2010, Burundi participated in the Tenth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Geneva. Burundi also attended the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in 2011. It made statements on victim assistance and mine clearance at both meetings.  

Burundi is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Production, transfer, use, and stockpiling

Burundi has stated that it has never produced antipersonnel mines.[4] It is not known to have exported antipersonnel mines.

Since the Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Burundi on 1 April 2004, there have been no confirmed instances of use of antipersonnel mines by the army.[5] There have been no confirmed instances of use of antipersonnel mines by rebel forces since May 2006, when negotiations to end hostilities began. Prior to May 2006, the government accused the National Forces of Liberation (Forces Nationales de Libération, FNL) of sporadic mine use.[6]

Burundi completed the destruction of its stockpile of antipersonnel mines on 17 March 2008, ahead of its treaty-mandated deadline of 1 April 2008. It destroyed a total of 664 mines, including 591 POMZ-2M and 73 TS-50 mines.[7] The 664 mines destroyed exceeded the 610 reported as stockpiled as of April 2007.[8]

In June 2010, Burundi confirmed it was retaining two POMZ-2M and two TS-50 mines for training purposes.[9]

During a civilian disarmament campaign from July–October 2009, 28 antipersonnel mines were surrendered by the population and subsequently destroyed by Mines Advisory Group (MAG).[10] Burundi later reported that its police forces recovered another 76 antipersonnel mines during the civilian disarmament campaign. The mines were destroyed with technical assistance from MAG on 16 June 2010.[11]

MAG also continued to report the discovery and destruction of previously unknown stocks of antipersonnel mines.[12] From April–May 2010, MAG reported the collection of three antipersonnel mines in its work to remove and destroy surplus small arms and light weapons in Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, and Cibitoke provinces in western Burundi.[13] 



[1] Statement of Burundi, Ninth Meeting of States Parties, Mine Ban Treaty, Geneva, 24 November 2008.

[2] Law No. 1/30 on the national implementation of the 1997 Ottawa Convention.Those prosecuted for breaking this law will face either a prison sentence of between five and 15 years, a fine ranging from BIF5,000,000 to BIF15,000,000 (US$4,150 to $12,450), or both. In cases where a mine has caused fatalities, anybody convicted of breaking this law would face a life sentence. In addition, the law indicates national procedures to submit Article 7 reports and to report on mine action, mine risk education, and victim assistance activities. Average exchange rate for 2009: BIF1=US$0.00083. Oanda, www.oanda.com.

[3] Previous reports were submitted on 30 April 2010 (covering the period from 30 April 2009 to 30 April 2010), 30 April 2009, 1 July 2008 (covering the two-year period from 30 April 2006 to 30 April 2008), 30 April 2006, 9 August 2005, and 8 November 2004. The November 2004 report is not posted on the UN website, but the Monitor has a copy.

[4] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form E, 8 November 2004; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form E, 9 August 2005.

[5] The Monitor reported credible allegations of use of antipersonnel mines by both government and rebel forces in the past, see, Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 234–237. Burundi officials denied allegations against government forces.

[6] See, Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 234–235.

[7] Twelve of the POMZ-2M mines were from former rebel National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy (Conseil National pour la Défense de la Démocratie-Forces pour la Défense de la Démocratie) stocks, and the rest were from army stocks. After stockpile destruction in 2008 and 2009, Burundi stated that the total number of mines held by the FNL, the last remaining rebel group, remained to be confirmed. The FNL and the government signed a Cessation of Hostilities Agreement on 26 May 2008. In April 2009, FNL combatants began demobilization and the surrender of weapons to the African Union Special Task Force. There have been no reports of antipersonnel mines being handed in. See, Landmine Monitor Report 2009, pp. 230–231.

[8] Statement of Burundi, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 23 April 2007. In this statement, Burundi informed States Parties that, after reviewing its mine inventory, it concluded that it had 610 antipersonnel mines in stock, and not the 1,212 previously declared on several occasions.

[9] Statement of Burundi, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 21 June 2010; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 30 April 2010. In October–November 2010, MAG trained four Civilian Defence Staff in demining to EOD (explosive ordnance disposal) level 1 certification. It is not known if the retained mines were a part of this training.

[10] The campaign was run by the Burundian National Commission for Civilian Disarmament and Against the Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons. The mines were all POMZ-2Ms. See Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form B, 30 April 2010; email from Julie Claveau, Country Program Manager, MAG, 10 February 2010; “Burundians hand in thousands of weapons,” IRIN, 4 November 2009, www.irinnews.org; and UN Integrated Mission in Burundi, “Burundi Désarmement. La population continue à remettre volontairement les armes” (“Burundi Disarmament. The population continues to voluntarily hand in weapons”), 25 July 2009, www.binub.turretdev.com.

[11] Statement of Burundi, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 21 June 2010. The mines were reported as 55 TS-50; eight PMA-2; six POMZ-2M; and seven igniters, and were destroyed in Mudubugu. See also Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form B, 30 April 2010.

[12] Email from Julie Claveau, MAG, 10 February 2010. Burundi reported that in April 2009 a cache of 41 TS-50 antipersonnel mines was discovered in the village of Mabayi, Cibitoke province. It said the mines were being held for the time being by MAG, which indicated that the mines were subsequently destroyed. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Forms B and D, 30 April 2009; and email from Julie Claveau, MAG, 3 August 2009.

[13] MAG, “MAG Burundi Programme Update 01 April–31 May 2010,” www.maginternational.org.

Mine Action

Last updated: 30 October 2013

Contamination and Impact

Mines

At the Eleventh Meeting of States Parties in November 2011, the Republic of Burundi declared it had completed clearance of all mines, fulfilling its Article 5 obligations, following the clearance of 11 mined areas by Mines Advisory Group (MAG). In December, however, the Minister of Energy and Mines requested assistance in surveying Suspected Hazardous Areas (SHAs) around electrical pylons; consequently, in May 2012, Burundi reported at the intersessional Standing Committee meetings that it still had suspected mined areas to release.[1] In 2013, Burundi repeated that it had located some SHAs near electrical pylons and in May requested assistance from the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) to complete non-technical surveys and clearance of antipersonnel mines.[2]

As an indicator of the assumed remaining contamination, FSD reported finding four antipersonnel mines per electrical pylon from 2005–2008; Direction de l'Action Humanitaire contre les Mines et Engins non explosés (DAHMI), the national mine action center, reported just 80 antipersonnel mines have been found from 2006–2013.[3]

Explosive remnants of war

The precise extent of contamination with explosive remnants of war (ERW) is unknown, although MAG regularly reported encountering ERW in its operations.[4] In October–November 2010, MAG trained four Civil Protection staff in demining to explosive ordnance disposal level 1 certification.[5] In 2006, an assessment by the United States (US) Department of State’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) identified poor ammunition storage and handling conditions in Burundi as serious risks.[6] MAG has worked with Burundi’s military and police to strengthen their Physical Security and Stockpile Management capacity since 2007.[7]

Mine Action Program

Key institutions and operators

Body

Situation on 1 January 2013

National Mine Action Authority

General Directorate for Civil Protection

Mine action center

DAHMI

International demining operators

MAG

National demining operators

Armed forces; and Civil Protection demining team

 

Mine action in Burundi is under the authority of the General Directorate for Civil Protection located within the Ministry of Public Security. On 15 May 2009, DAHMI was officially established under the same ministry, marking the end of active UNDP support. DAHMI is responsible for the coordination of mine action activities.[8]

Land Release

According to DAHMI, no mine clearance was conducted in 2012.[9] As of May 2013, Burundi did not have any clearance capacity although MAG had trained a Civil Protection Demining team in 2008. Dan Church Aid (DCA) and FSD closed their mine clearance programs in 2008.[10]

Survey in 2011–2012

A survey of SHAs around electricity pylons in October 2012, conducted by DAHMI with technical oversight by MAG, identified an unspecified number of SHAs in Bururi, Bujumbura, and Bubanza provinces.[11]

Compliance with Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Burundi is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 April 2014.

It appears Burundi prematurely declared it had met its Article 5 obligations when it declared it was mine free in November 2011. Burundi reported in May 2012 that it needed further survey to confirm SHAs around a few electrical pylons, but it still planned to meet its 1 April 2014 deadline.[12] Survey conducted in the SHAs in October 2012 identified further mined areas, but the extent remains unclear. As of May 2013, Burundi was waiting for a response from FSD on assistance.



[1] Statement of Burundi, 11th Meeting of States Parties, Phnom Penh, 28 November 2011; MAG, “Why MAG is needed in Burundi,” April 2012; and statement of Burundi, intersessional Standing Committee Meeting on Mine Clearance, 23 May 2012.

[2] Statement of Burundi, intersessional Standing Committee Meeting on Mine Clearance, 27 May 2013.

[3] Ibid.; and FSD, “FSD de-mining programme in Burundi PART 1,” YouTube.com, 22 May 2008.

[4] Email from Julie Claveau, Programme Manager, MAG, 10 February 2010.

[6] Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), “Mine Action and Armed Violence Reduction Burundi Case Study: MAG,” September 2012.

[7] MAG, “Why MAG is needed in Burundi,” April 2012.

[8] GICHD, “Burundi: Synthese d’informations de l’action contre les mines et les restes explosifs de guerre (dont sous-munitions)” (“Burundi: Overview of information on mine action and ERW - including submunitions”), Second Seminar of African Francophone Seminar on Mine and ERW Action, Dakar, Senegal, 2–4 November 2009.

[9] Statement of Burundi, intersessional Standing Committee Meeting on Mine Clearance, 27 May 2013.

[10] DCA, “No More Mine Action,” 26 September 2009; and email from Alex Griffiths, Director of Operations, FSD, 24 February 2009.

[11] Email from Nicole Ntagabo, Project Manager, MAG Burundi, 26 November 2012.

[12] Statement of Burundi, intersessional Standing Committee Meeting on Mine Clearance, 27 May 2013.

Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 05 October 2015

At the Eleventh Meeting of States Parties in 2011, the Republic of Burundi declared that it had completed its Article 5 obligations. However, it subsequently reported at the 2013 intersessional Standing Committee meetings that it still had suspected mined areas to release and that surveying was ongoing.[1]

In 2013 and 2014, Switzerland contributed respectively CHF160,000 (US$172,618) and CHF64,220 ($70,209) to Mines Advisory Group (MAG) for mine clearance in Burundi.[2] MAG conducted non-technical and technical surveys around some electrical pylons from October 2013 to March 2014. At the 2014 Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional meetings, Burundi declared it had completed its Article 5 clearance obligations.[3]

Burundi did not report any contributions to its mine action program in 2014.

Summary of international contributions: 2010–2014[4]

Year

Amount ($)

2014

70,209

2013

172,618

2012

74,651

2011

193,676

2010

182,120

Total

693,274

 

 



[1] Statement of Burundi, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 27 May 2013.

[2] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Claudia Moser, Programme Officer, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Switzerland, 15 April 2014; and Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form I, 29 April 2015. Average exchange rates for 2013: CHF0.9269=US$1, and 2014: CHF0.9147=US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 2 January 2015.

[3] Statement of Burundi, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, April 2014.

[4] See previous Monitor reports.

Casualties and Victim Assistance

Last updated: 20 November 2016

Action points based on findings

  • Dedicate funding to ensure continuity of services and develop a national database of mine/explosive remnants of war (ERW) victims and their needs.
  • Improve access to physical rehabilitation for survivors by finding the means to overcome the barrier of fees for services present.

Victim assistance commitments

The Republic of Burundi is responsible for a significant number of survivors of landmines and ERW who are in need. Burundi has made commitments to provide victim assistance through the Mine Ban Treaty.

Burundi signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 26 April 2007. The parliament of Burundi formally adopted the CRPD on 6 March 2014 and it was ratified on 22 May 2015.[1]

Casualties Overview

All known casualties by end 2015

2,634 mine/ERW casualties

Casualties in 2015

4 (2014: 0)

2015 casualties by outcome

2 killed; 2 injured (2014: 0)

2015 casualties by item type

4 ERW

 

In 2015, the Monitor identified four new casualties from mines/ERW in Burundi based on data provided by the Humanitarian Department for Mine/Unexploded Ordnance Action (Direction de l’Action Humanitaire contre les Mines et Engins non explosés, DAHMI).[2] Previous to 2015, since 2009 no mine/ERW casualties had been recorded. Before 2009, annual casualty figures had been declining since a peak in 2005. However, it was likely that casualties may have occurred but were not recorded, since the DAHMI stopped collecting casualty data after 2009.[3]

In June 2010, Burundi estimated that the total number of casualties was 6,000.[4] However, no further details were available and that information has not been revised or clarified. The DAHMI recognized that there was a need to conduct a nation-wide survey to evaluate the exact number of mine/ERW victims in Burundi and identify their needs.[5] As of June 2014, the DAHMI had identified 2,630 casualties, but this only covered three provinces of Burundi.[6] According to DAHMI data, 80% of identified victims are male and 34% were children and young adults (between 1 and 20 years old). Only 3% were military personnel.[7]

Victim Assistance

As of 2015, there were estimated to be 5,002 survivors in Burundi.[8]

Victim assistance in 2015

In 2015, implementation of the National Victim Assistance Action Plan 2011–2014 remained largely on hold due to lack of funding.[9] While the Interministerial and Inter-sectorial Coordinating Committee for Victim Assistance met several times throughout the year, provision of victim assistance services continued to be undertaken for the most part by international and national organizations.[10] The DAHMI noted a reduction in the number of victim assistance service providers due to lack of funding in 2015.[11]

Assessing victim assistance needs

In 2015, no further needs assessments were conducted due to a lack of funding.[12] The National Victim Assistance Action Plan, adopted in 2011, includes a target to conduct a qualitative survey on persons with disabilities and their needs by the end of the first half of 2012. This deadline was not met due to a lack of funding to conduct this survey. In 2014, the DAHMI made efforts, in collaboration with Handicap International (HI), to identify victims and assess their needs, but this was restricted to three of the 17 Burundian provinces (Makamba, Rutana, Ruyigi).[13]

Victim assistance coordination[14]

Government coordinating body/focal point

DAHMI

Coordinating mechanism

Interministerial and Inter-sectorial Coordinating Committee for Victim Assistance

Plan

National Victim Assistance Action Plan 2011–2014

 

Burundi’s National Victim Assistance Action Plan 2011–2014 aims to improve victim assistance across seven thematic areas: immediate and continued healthcare; physical rehabilitation; psychosocial and peer support; inclusive education; social and economic inclusion, including community-based rehabilitation; inclusive development; and data collection, legislation and policies, and coordination.[15] There were no efforts to revise or adopt a new plan due to a lack of funding, thus the 2011–2014 plan remained in place but little could be done to achieve its goals.[16]

The Interministerial and Inter-sectorial Coordinating Committee for Victim Assistance was founded in 2011 to monitor and report on the implementation of the Action Plan; to define public policies in order to improve the delivery of services; to link relevant ministries, agencies, service providers, and donors; as well as to support the government in responding to its commitments under national law for the protection of the rights of persons with disabilities. In 2015, the committee held meetings;[17] however, it was unable to continue implementing the action plan due to a lack of funding.[18] The physical rehabilitation sector of Burundi is the responsibility of the Ministry of National Solidarity, Human Rights, and Gender.[19]

In June 2015, Burundi submitted its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report for calendar year 2014, which includes information and updates in victim assistance. As of 1 October 2016, Burundi had not submitted its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report for calendar year 2015. Burundi did not give updates on victim assistance during Mine Ban Treaty or Convention on Cluster Munition international meetings in 2015.

Inclusion and participation in victim assistance

In 2015, mine/ERW survivor organizations participated in a workshop for developing a draft law for the protection of persons with disabilities.[20]

Service accessibility and effectiveness

Victim assistance activities: 2015[21]

Name of organization

Type of organization

Type of activity

Changes in quality/coverage of service in 2015

Ministry of National Solidarity

Government

Physical rehabilitation; social and professional reinsertion

 

Center for Training and Development of Ex-Combatants (CEDAC)

National NGO

Economic inclusion (micro-credit); psychosocial assistance; advocacy

Unknown

Union of Persons with Disabilities (Union des Personnes Handicapées du Burundi, UPHB)

National NGO

Advocacy and economic inclusion; referrals for other services

Unknown

HI

International NGO

Disability rights; physical rehabilitation; capacity development of disabled persons’ organizations; access to education for children with disabilities

Ongoing

Action on Armed Violence (AOAV)

International NGO

Advocacy on rights and gender issues; capacity-building; socio-economic reintegration; psycho-social support; community inclusion

Ongoing

ICRC

International organization

Support for physical rehabilitation at the Saint Kizito Institute (ISK); donation of materials, components and equipment; management training and assistance

Ongoing

 

Access to appropriate physical rehabilitation services remained difficult in 2015 for most of those in need. The greatest obstacles for accessing services remained the lack of facilities and professionals and the cost of treatment, since users had to pay for the services.[22] It was generally difficult for survivors to access information on available services.[23] HI continued to provide physical rehabilitation to persons with disabilities, including mine/ERW victims, in four provinces, while also building local capacities and skills in the rehabilitation centers of those areas.[24]

The ICRC continued its collaboration with the ISK in Bujumbura to provide good-quality physical rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities, especially minors.[25] The ISK targets services for people in Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Cibitoke, and Muramvya provinces, of which four provinces were the areas in Burundi most severely contaminated by weapons.[26] In 2015, 2,920 persons with disabilities,[27] including at least 2,600 children, improved their mobility through customized assistive devices and other physical rehabilitation services, provided free-of-charge at the ISK.[28] The institute improved the quality of care it provided by optimizing its patient management, departmental organization, and treatment protocols with ICRC financial and technical support. Four students continued their studies abroad in physiotherapy/orthopedic technology to help improve the quality and sustainability of physical rehabilitation services in Burundi. The ICRC also financed courses for teachers at the ISK school for children to learn how to adapt sports activities so that both disabled children and children without disabilities could participate.[29]

Following implementation of the Strategic Plan for the Development of Medical Rehabilitation 2011–2015, the Ministry of Public Health managed rehabilitation. The government of Burundi continued to support a center for physical therapy for persons with disabilities in Gitega and a center for social and professional reinsertion in Ngozi.[30]

HI continued to improve access to physical rehabilitation for persons with disabilities, train local physiotherapists, and provide materials. In 2015, HI also worked to improve access to education for children with disabilities and advocate for their specific needs to be included in national education policies. HI collaborated with national social services to support access to employment for young persons with disabilities.[31]

In 2015, CEDAC continued implementing an economic inclusion project and providing psychosocial support for survivors through a peer support initiative.[32]

The constitution prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities. However, the rights of persons with disabilities were not promoted or protected with regard to employment, education, or access to healthcare. Although persons with disabilities are eligible for free healthcare through social programs targeting vulnerable groups, these were not widely publicized. Legislation did not mandate access to buildings, information, or government services for persons with disabilities.[33]



[1] Email received from Eric Niragira, Director, Center for Training and Development of Ex-Combatants (CEDAC), 7 March 2014; response to Monitor questionnaire by Eric Niragira, CEDAC, 6 October 2015; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Méthode Niyungeko, Humanitarian Department for Mine/Unexploded Ordnance Action (Direction de l’Action Humanitaire contre les Mines et Engins non explosés, DAHMI), 1 August 2016.

[2] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Méthode Niyungeko, Director of Humanitarian Mine and ERW Action, DAHMI, 1 August 2016.

[3] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Léonce Musavyi, Director, DAHMI, 3 October 2015, 18 March 2014, and 20 March 2013; and by Eric Niragira, CEDAC, 14 March 2013; interview with Nkeshimana Nicodème, Director, DAHMI, in Geneva, 16 March 2010; and interview with Generose Ngendanganya, Deputy General Manager, Ministry of Public Service, in Geneva, 23 June 2010.

[4] Statement of Burundi, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education, and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 23 June 2010; and statement of Burundi, Mine Ban Treaty Twelfth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 3–7 December 2012.

[5] Statement of Burundi, Session on Victim Assistance, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, June 2014.

[6] Provinces of Makamba, Rutana, and Ruyigi. Statement of Burundi, Session on Victim Assistance, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meeting, Geneva, June 2014.

[7] Statement of Burundi, Session on Victim Assistance, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, June 2014.

[8] This figure includes the 1,300 survivors identified as of the end of 2008. Interview with Nkeshimana Nicodème, DAHMI, in Geneva 16 March 2010; email from Désiré Irambona, DAHMI, 11 April 2011; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Méthode Niyungeko, DAHMI, 1 August 2016.

[9] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Méthode Niyungeko, DAHMI, 1 August 2016

[10] Ibid.

[11] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Eric Niragira, CEDAC, 6 October 2015.

[12] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Méthode Niyungeko, DAHMI, 1 August 2016

[13] Statement of Burundi, Session on Victim Assistance, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, June 2015; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Eric Niragira, CEDAC, 6 October 2015.

[14] National Victim Assistance Action Plan, 2011–2014, January 2011; statement of Burundi, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 9–11 April 2014; statement of Burundi, Session on Victim Assistance, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, June 2014; Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for the period 2006 to June 2015), June 2015; ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programme (PRP), “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015; United States (US) Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Burundi,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2016; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Méthode Niyungeko, DAHMI, 1 August 2016.

[15] National Victim Assistance Action Plan, 2011–2014, January 2011.

[16] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Méthode Niyungeko, DAHMI, 1 August 2016

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid.

[19] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 29; and US Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Burundi,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2016, p. 36.

[20] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Méthode Niyungeko, DAHMI, 1 August 2016.

[21] Statement of Burundi, Session on Victim Assistance, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, June 2014; statement of Burundi, Mine Ban Treaty Twelfth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 3–7 December 2012; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Eric Niragira, CEDAC, 5 March 2014, and 6 October 2015; and by Caroline Duconseille, HI, 22 March 2013; email from Eric Niragira, CEDAC, 7 March 2014; ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, May 2016; ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015; US Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Burundi,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2016; HI, “Burundi programme,” undated; CEDAC, “About us,” undated; and Action on Armed Violence (AOAV), “Our work on the ground – Burundi,” undated.

[22] Statement of Burundi, Session on Victim Assistance, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings,  Geneva, June 2014; statement of Burundi, Mine Ban Treaty Twelfth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 3–7 December 2012; and ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 29.

[23] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Eric Niragira, CEDAC, 5 March 2014; and US Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Burundi,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2016, p. 35.

[24] HI, “Burundi programme,” undated.

[25] ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, May 2016, p. 117.

[26] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 29.

[27] ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, May 2016, p. 120

[28] Ibid., p. 118.

[29] Ibid.

[30] US Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Burundi,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2016, p. 36.

[31] HI, “Burundi programme,” undated.

[32] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Eric Niragira, CEDAC, 6 October 2015; and CEDAC, “About us,” undated.

[33] US Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Burundi,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2016, p. 35.