Central African Republic

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 05 July 2017

Summary: Signatory the Central African Republic has stated since 2013 that internal armed conflict has prevented its ratification of the convention. The Central African Republic voted in favor of a key UN resolution promoting implementation of the convention in December 2016. It has participated in the convention’s Meetings of States Parties, most recently in 2014. The Central African Republic states that it has never used, produced, or exported cluster munitions and that it has destroyed stocks of cluster munitions.

Policy

The Central African Republicsigned the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008.

The current status of ratification is not known. Previously, in 2013, government representatives told the CMC that internal armed conflict has prevented ratification of the convention from proceeding.[1] Prior to the outbreak of conflict in 2013, government officials indicated that the ratification was on track.[2]

The Central African Republic participated in a regional meeting (Kampala, Uganda, in September 2008) of the diplomatic Oslo Process that created the convention.[3]

The Central African Republic has participated in every Convention on Cluster Munitions Meeting of States Parties except the Sixth Meeting of State Parties in Geneva in September 2016. It did not attend the convention’s First Review Conference in Dubrovnik, Croatia in September 2015. The Central African Republic has participated in regional workshops on cluster munitions, most recently in Lome, Togo, in May 2013.

In December 2016, the Central African Republic voted in favor of a key UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution on the Convention on Cluster Munitions, which urges states outside the convention to “join as soon as possible.”[4]

The Central African Republic has also voted in favor of UNGA resolutions expressing outrage at the continued use of cluster munitions in Syria, most recently in December 2016.[5]

The Central African Republic is party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

The Central African Republic has stated that it has never used, produced, or transferred cluster munitions and that it is not affected by cluster munition remnants.[6]

In September 2011, the Central African Republic informed States Parties that it had destroyed a considerable stockpile of cluster munitions.[7] In May 2012, a government representative clarified that the cluster munitions were recovered from a non-state armed group operating within the country.[8]



[1] CMC meeting with Désiré Laurent Malibangar, Coordinator, Ministry of Defense, Lomé, 22 May 2013. The Central African Republic delegation to the Convention on Cluster Munitions Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2013 also informed the CMC that ratification had been delayed by conflict.

[2] Statement of the Central African Republic, Accra Regional Conference on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Accra, 28 May 2012; and statement of the Central African Republic, Convention on Cluster Munitions Second Meeting of States Parties, Beirut, 14 September 2011.

[3] For details on the Central African Republic’s cluster munition policy and practice up to early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), p. 55.

[4]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 71/45, 5 December 2016. It voted in favor of a similar UNGA resolution on the convention in 2015. “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 70/54, 7 December 2015.

[5]Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution 71/203, 19 December 2016. The Central African Republic voted in favor of similar resolutions on 15 May 2013 and 18 December 2014.

[6] Statement by Antoine Gambi, Ministry of Defense, Convention on Cluster Munitions Signing Conference, Oslo, 4 December 2008. Notes by Landmine Action.

[7] Statement of the Central African Republic, Convention on Cluster Munitions Second Meeting of States Parties, Beirut, 14 September 2011.

[8] CMC meeting with Désiré Laurent Malibangar, Chargé de Mission, Ministry of Defense of the Central African Republic, Accra, 29 May 2012.

Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 01 November 2014

Policy

The Central African Republic (CAR) acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 8 November 2002, becoming a State Party on 1 May 2003.

CAR has declared that existing legislation is sufficient to enforce the antipersonnel mine prohibition domestically.[1] It submitted an initial Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report in November 2004, but has not submitted any subsequent annual reports.

CAR did not participate in the Ottawa Process leading up to the Mine Ban Treaty. It has attended two Mine Ban Treaty Meeting of States Parties, in September 2002 (when it announced its intention to join the treaty) and in 2005, in addition to some meetings of the intersessional Standing Committees in Geneva. Since 2005, CAR has not attended any meeting of the treaty, including the Second and Third Review Conferences, the meetings of States Parties, and the intersessional meetings.

CAR is not a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

CAR has reported that it has not produced, exported, or imported antipersonnel mines, including for training purposes, and it is not known to have ever used them.[2]

There have been no reports of antipersonnel mine use in the internal conflict between the government and rebel forces since 2013.

However, several types of landmines, including M19 and TC/6 antivehicle mines and NR442 antipersonnel mines, were photographed by researchers from Human Rights Watch (HRW) and by a journalist from France24 News in February 2014 among the weapons seized from armed groups by French forces near Mpoko.[3]

Also, the Belgian-made NR442 bounding fragmentation mines and the containers for the pressure fuzes for the mines appear in a photo released by the French Ministry of Defense in February 2014. These mines were destroyed by explosive ordnance disposal experts from the French peacekeeping mission as part of Operation Sangaris.[4]

Mines were also present in photographs taken on 30 June 2014 when UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) visited Camp du Roux where poorly stored ammunition was found and assessed.[5]

 



[1] CAR’s Article 7 report declares Law 64.34 of 20 November 1964 on firearms and Law 62.321 of 3 December 2002, also on firearms. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, November 2004, Form A.

[2] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, November 2004, Form A.

[3] Email from Peter Bouckaert, Emergencies Director, HRW, 20 February 2014.

[4] Ministry of Defense, “Sangaris : destruction des munitions saisies,” 19 June 2014.

[5] Ministry of Defense, “Sangaris : journée de désarmement volontaire à Bangui,” 19 June 2014.