Chad

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 05 July 2017

Summary: State Party Chad ratified the convention on 26 March 2013. Chad has expressed its desire to enact national implementing legislation for the convention. Chad has participated in almost every meeting of the convention and voted in favor of a key UN resolution on the convention in December 2016. Chad reports that it has never produced and does not stockpile cluster munitions. In the past, armed forces from other states used cluster munitions in Chad.

Policy

The Republic of Chad signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008, ratified on 26 March 2013, and the convention entered into force for the country on 1 September 2013.

Chad has reported a 2013 law under national implementation measures for the convention, but has not explained its relevance to the convention.[1] Chadian officials have expressed interest in undertaking national legislation specifically for the convention.[2] Chad’s parliament approved ratification of the convention on 29 March 2012.[3]

Chad provided its initial Article 7 transparency measures report for the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 24 May 2014 and submitted an annual updated report on 5 March 2016. [4]

Chad actively participated in the Oslo Process that created the Convention on Cluster Munitions and supported a comprehensive ban on the weapons.[5]

Chad has attended all of the convention’s Meetings of States Parties, except in 2013 and 2016, and participated in the convention’s First Review Conference in September 2015, as well as intersessional meetings in Geneva in 2011–2014. Chad has attended regional workshops on cluster munitions, most recently in Lomé, Togo, in May 2013.

In December 2016, Chad voted in favor of a UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution promoting implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.[6]

In 2014 and 2015, Chad expressed concern at new use of cluster munitions in South Sudan, Sudan, and Ukraine in its capacity as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council.[7] In June 2015, it voted in favor of a Security Council resolution expressing concern at evidence of cluster munition use by the government of Sudan.[8] In May 2014, Chad endorsed a Security Council resolution that expressed concern at the use of cluster munitions in South Sudan and called for “all parties to refrain from similar such use in the future.”[9] Chad has voted in favor of UNGA resolutions expressing outrage at the use of cluster munitions in Syria, most recently in December 2016.[10]

Chad is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

In May 2014, Chad reported that it has not produced and does not have any stockpiled cluster munitions, including for research and training.[11]

Chad is not known to have used or transferred cluster munitions, but French aircraft dropped cluster munitions on a Libyan airfield inside Chad at Wadi Doum during the 1986–1987 conflict. The Libyan air force also used RBK-series cluster bombs containing AO-1SCh and PTAB-2.5 submunitions.



[1] Law 005/PR/2013 dated 18 March 2013. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form A, 5 March 2016. The Monitor could not find a copy of the legislation online.

[2] In 2013, government officials indicated that Chad was considering enacting legislation to enforce the convention’s provisions. CMC meeting with Gen. Abdel Aziz Izzo, Director, National Demining Center (Centre National de Déminage, CND), and Moussa Ali Soultani, Strategic Plan and Operations Advisor, CND, in Geneva, 16 April 2013. The ICRC provides assistance to Chad with respect to national implementation measures. Statement of ICRC, Lomé Regional Seminar on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Lomé, Togo, 23 May 2013. Notes by Action on Armed Violence (AOAV).

[3] Statement of Chad, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 16 April 2013; and CMC meeting with Saleh Hissein Hassan, CND, in Geneva, 18 April 2012.

[4] As of 30 June 2017, it has not submitted the annual update due 30 April 2017. The initial report covers calendar year 2013, while the report provided in March 2016 is for calendar year 2015. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, 24 May 2014; and Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, 5 March 2016.

[5] For details on Chad’s cluster munition policy and practice up to early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 55–56.

[6]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 71/45, 5 December 2016. It voted in favor of a similar UNGA resolution on the convention in 2015. “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 70/54, 7 December 2015.

[7] During a Security Council debate in October 2014, Chad expressed concern that “the Ukrainian army and separatist forces are using cluster bombs in their confrontations in eastern Ukraine…Chad emphatically condemns the use of those weapons of mass destruction in violation of international treaties and calls for an immediate cessation of hostilities.” Statement of Chad, UN Security Council, 7287th meeting, 25 October 2014.

[8] The resolution’s preamble, the Security Council “expressing concern at evidence, collected by AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), of two air-delivered cluster bombs near Kirigiyati, North Darfur, taking note that UNAMID disposed of them safely, and reiterating the Secretary-General’s call on the Government of Sudan to immediately investigate the use of cluster munitions.” UN Security Council Resolution 2228 (2015), Renewing Mandate of Darfur Mission until 30 June 2016, 29 June 2015.

[10]Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution 71/203, 19 December 2016.

[11] It put “néant” or “nothing” in the sections of its transparency report covering production, transfer, and stockpiling of cluster munitions. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Forms B, C, and D, 24 May 2014.

Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 19 October 2017

Policy

The Republic of Chad signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 6 July 1998 and ratified it on 6 May 1999, becoming a State Party on 1 November 1999. National implementation legislation was promulgated on 26 August 2006.[1]

Chad submitted an Article 7 transparency report for calendar year 2016 on 3 March 2017, and has submitted reports every year since 2012.

In November–December 2009, Chad participated in the Mine Ban Treaty Second Review Conference in Cartagena, Colombia, where it gave an update on the status of its mine clearance deadline extension.[2] Chad also attended the Third Review Conference in June 2014 in Maputo, Mozambique.

Chad has consistently attended annual Meetings of States Parties, and participated in Santiago in November–December 2016.

Chad is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Production, transfer, stockpiling, and use

Chad is not known to have produced or exported antipersonnel mines. It completed destruction of its stockpile of 4,490 antipersonnel mines in January 2003. It destroyed 1,407 newly discovered stockpiled mines from 2003 to 2005.[3] Chad reported destroying another 11 stockpiled antipersonnel mines in 2007, but did not report details of the locations or sources of the mines.[4]

In all its Article 7 reports, Chad has reported that it does not retain any antipersonnel mines for training purposes.

In June 2009, authorities in Chad reported new use of antivehicle mines by unknown armed groups near its borders with Sudan and the Central African Republic, as well as the seizure of 190 antivehicle mines after a clash with an unidentified armed group.[5]

Several antivehicle mine attacks were reported in Chad in August 2016[6] and August 2017.[7]

It was reported in 2008 that smugglers had lifted and sold antipersonnel mines found in mined areas in Chad bordering Niger.[8]



[1] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Forms A and J, 1 April 2007. For the text of Law No.28 PR/2006, see the ICRC website.

[2] See, Landmine Monitor Report 2009, pp. 281–282.

[3] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form G, 1 September 2006; and Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 274.

[4] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form G, 1 April 2008.

[5] Email from Saleh Hissein Hassan, National Mine Action Centre (Centre national de déminage du Tchad, CND), 7 May 2010; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Le Coordinateur Militaire du MRE, le GL Idriss Dokony Adiker a présenté aux Ambassadeurs et Représentants des Organisations Internationales accrédités à N’djamena, un lot de Matériels de Guerre saisi sur les mercenaries à la solde Soudan” (“The Military Coordinator of MRE, GL Idriss Dokony Adiker presented to Ambassadors and representatives of International Organizations a batch of war materials seized from mercenaries under the pay of Sudan”), 20 June 2009.

[6]Boko Haram landmine kills four Chadian soldiers,” Reuters, 27August 2016.

[8] See, Landmine Monitor Report 2009, pp. 588–589.

Mine Action

Last updated: 11 December 2017

Contaminated by: landmines (massive contamination), cluster munitions (extent of contamination unclear), and other unexploded ordnance (UXO).

Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline: 1 January 2020
(Not on track to meet deadline)

Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 deadline: 1 September 2023
(Unclear whether on target to meet deadline)

Summary

As of its latest update, the Republic of Chad identified 123 mined areas as of December 2015, but did not specify the total size. In May 2014, Chad reported 103.6km2 of confirmed hazardous areas (CHAs). However, the full extent of contamination is not known, as many areas have not been surveyed. In 2016, 0.58km2 was released through clearance and technical survey. 16.24km2 was confirmed through survey.

The extent of cluster munition contamination is unknown, but is not believed to be heavy. No cluster munition survey or clearance was conducted in 2016, and no cluster munition remnants were identified.

Recommendations for action

  • Chad needs to urgently elaborate a resource mobilization strategy to secure funding and attract international technical and operational support in order to avoid further interruption in demining operations.
  • Chad should complete its nationwide survey, as soon as security allows, to enable it to provide a comprehensive estimate of its mine and cluster munition contamination, and revise its mine action strategy accordingly.

Mine Contamination

In December 2015, Chad reported it had identified a total of 123 mined areas, albeit from survey of only part of the country.[1] It expected more contaminated areas to be identified in four regions: Borkou, Ennedi, Moyen Chari, and Tibesti. Chad did not include a revised estimate for contamination in its latest Article 7 transparency report, for 2016.

In May 2014, Chad had 113 areas confirmed to contain mines with a total size of 103.5km2 across five of Chad’s 22 regions, as set out in the table below. Borkou, Ennedi, and Tibesti are located in northern Chad at the border with Libya; Sila is located at the border with Sudan; and Moyen-Chari is in southern Chad at the border with the Central African Republic.

Antipersonnel mine contamination by province (as at May 2014)[2]

Province

CHA

Area (km2)

Borkou

28

20.78

Ennedi

7

16.45

Moyen-Chari

1

0.06

Sila

1

0*

Tibesti

76

66.26

Total

113

103.55

*100m2; CHA = Confirmed hazardous areas

In December 2015, Chad stated that demining by Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and the National Demining Center (Centre National de Déminage, CND) had released a further four areas of antipersonnel mine contamination with a total size of 0.32km2 in the Tibesti region to the north, and in Sarh Kyabé, Moyen-Chari region in the south. It also reported that while “it was not possible to provide precise figures,” non-technical survey activities by MAG and Handicap International (HI) in Tibesti and in the south had identified 14 previously unrecorded mined areas,[3] bringing the total number of mined areas remaining once again to 123.

Chad’s contamination is the result of the 1973 Libyan invasion and 30 years of internal conflict. Chad’s mine action plan for 2014–2019 indicated that, based on a national technical survey conducted in 2010–2012 and information available as of May 2014, it faced a total of 787 hazardous areas covering 1,236km2. This comprised of the 123 mined areas across seven regions (covering 104km2) and 664 explosive remnants of war (ERW)-contaminated areas across nine regions (covering 1,132km2). Chad reported that it had already addressed 10 mined areas and 443 ERW-contaminated areas.[4]

Mines and ERW are said to obstruct safe access to housing, roads, pastures, water points, and mining areas, especially in northern Chad. Contamination is an ongoing threat to local populations and its negative impact on the socio-economic development of Borkou, Ennedi, and Tibesti, which are among its poorest regions, is particularly severe.[5] Mined roads obstruct key transport routes, and diversions opened through potentially contaminated areas present risks to local populations seeking to access basic state services, such as medical coverage and higher education and training facilities, provided mainly in regional capitals.[6] To the south, east, and western regions, the impact of mines is thought to be relatively low, with the primary threat coming from ERW, including both UXO and abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO).[7]

In 2015 and 2016, numerous incidents involving both civilian and military casualties from “landmines,” including improvised mines planted by Boko Haram, were reported as part of the insurgency that spread from northeast Nigeria to involve neighboring areas of Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. Most reports appeared to describe use of improvised mines made by Boko Haram, which functioned as either antipersonnel mines or antivehicle mines.[8]

Cluster Munition Contamination

The extent of cluster munition contamination remaining in Chad is unknown, but is not believed to be heavy. In July 2017, MAG reported that its program in the north of the country had only found very limited evidence of cluster munition remnants.[9]

Following the end of armed conflict with Libya in 1987, unexploded submunitions and cluster munition containers were found in the three northern provinces of Borkou, Ennedi, and Tibesti; in the Biltine department in Wadi Fira region in the northeast; and east of the capital, N’Djamena.[10] In 2011, MAG found unexploded Soviet antitank PTAB-1.5 submunitions during survey in an area close to Faya Largeau.[11]

The most recent discovery of cluster munition remnants was in 2015, when MAG identified and destroyed a limited number of cluster munition remnants, including two empty RBK-250-275 cluster bomb containers in the Tibesti region and an AO-1SCh submunition in the Borkou region.[12] In January 2015, four children (three girls and one boy) were reportedly injured after handling a submunition in Faya Largeau.[13]

MAG did not encounter any cluster munition remnants in its survey and mine clearance operations in 2016 in Tibesti.[14] Likewise, HI, the only other international organization carrying out mine action activities in the country, did not report finding any cluster munition remnants in its survey operations in Borkou and Ennedi regions during the year.[15] According to MAG, there were no reports of casualties from submunitions in 2016.[16]

In May 2017, both MAG and HI reported that they had not seen any evidence of significant cluster munition contamination remaining in Chad. According to MAG, since the beginning of its activities in 2004, no area of cluster munition contamination had been reported or identified. However, MAG emphasized that the majority of the Tibesti region, thought to be one of the most heavily contaminated regions with mines and ERW, had yet to be surveyed, and that there were few local informants who might know of contamination. It also noted the possibility that cluster munition remnants might be found around ex-Libyan military bases in the future.[17]

In 2012, Chad stated that while the precise extent of cluster munition contamination was not known, it was certain the weapons had been used in the Fada region and highly likely that they had been used in other parts of the north.[18] In 2014, Chad reported that, after Libyan troops withdrew in 1987, members of the French Sixth Engineers Regiment discovered and subsequently destroyed cluster munition remnants around Libyan positions, prior to the building of the national mine action center. It reiterated its suspicion of additional contamination in the Tibesti region.[19]

Program Management

The national mine action program is managed by a national mine action authority, the National High Commission for Demining (Haut Commissariat National de Déminage, HCND), and the CND.

HI provided capacity-building support to the CND, in particular for information and quality management.

Operators

Demining operations in 2016 were conducted by the CND, MAG, and HI.

On 10 May 2017, a media source reported that 755 deminers employed by the CND began a strike over 10 months of wages that had not been paid by the Ministry of Economy and Development Planning.[20]

In 2016, MAG conducted survey and clearance of mines and ERW, focusing on Borkou, Ennedi, and Tibesti. MAG employed a total of 35 national deminers, and deployed a four-strong mechanical demining support team for its technical survey operations.[21]

HI carried out non-technical survey in three southern regions of the country thought to be contaminated by mines and ERW.[22]

Deminer safety

CND deminers had carried out several missions in the north, east, and west of the country to open roads linking Chad to neighboring Libya and Niger and to secure settlement areas, during which a number were killed and others suffered traumatic amputations in mine blasts.[23]

Strategic planning

Following the request of the Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, the CND elaborated a national mine action plan for 2014–2019, with technical support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The plan gave details on the number, location, and size of remaining mined areas, and provided the following timeline:

  • In June 2015–June 2019, operations would be conducted in Borkou;
  • In January 2015–April 2019, operations would be conducted in Ennedi;
  • In May–December 2015, operations would be conducted in Moyen Chari;
  • In September 2015–February 2016, operations would be conducted in Sila; and
  • In November 2014–November 2019, operations would be conducted in Tibesti.[24]

The plan notes that Chad adhered to the Convention on Cluster Munitions but does not detail plans to clear cluster munition remnants.[25]

Standards

HI began a review of Chad’s national mine action standards for land release and quality management at the start of 2016. In September 2017, HI reported that 11 revised national mine action standards had been updated and released, following approval by the CND.[26]

Quality management

While HI continued providing technical support on quality management to the CND throughout 2016, it remained concerned that considerable further efforts were still required to establish a fully functional quality management system with adequate capacity within the CND.[27]

Information management

HI reported that while progress on information management capacity had been made in 2015, no further development was achieved during 2016, and, as of September 2017, the CND still lacked internet access, making it difficult for the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) team to carry out their daily work. HI also highlighted that, despite some improvements, further efforts were needed to consolidate data checking, correction, and validation.[28]

Land Release

In 2016, a total of nearly 0.58km2 of mined area was released by clearance and technical survey, compared to 0.26km2 of clearance in 2015. The amount of mine contamination confirmed by survey increased significantly to close to 16.24km2 in 2016, up from 1.2km2 in 2015.[29]

No cluster munition survey or clearance occurred in 2016, nor did MAG or HI report encountering any cluster munition remnants in their activities. Likewise, no cluster munition survey or clearance occurred in 2015, though MAG found and destroyed two empty cluster munition containers in Zouar and a submunition was found and destroyed by the CND in Faya Largeau in the Borkou region.[30]

Survey in 2016

MAG reported confirming six areas with a total of just over 14.63km2 of mine contamination in Tibesti region in 2016.[31] HI reported confirming as mined seven hazardous areas in Borkou region, including three small areas in Faya department and two areas in Kouba department with a combined size of 1,609,500m2.[32] Additionally, MAG reported that in 2015–2016, technical survey was conducted on 74 areas with an estimated size of 14,800m2, but it was unable to specify the amount of technical survey carried out in 2016.[33]

In December 2016, HI carried out an evaluation of the needs for survey and clearance in Borkou and the west of Ennedi region to prepare for the start of a new four-year EU-funded demining project. It reported identifying more than 40km2 of area as mined, 2.7km2 as contaminated with ERW, and a total of 147 open suspected or confirmed hazardous areas, following a desk assessment of existing data, including from a 2001 Landmine Impact Survey, the IMSMA database, and operators’ records, along with a number of field visits and meetings with local stakeholders.[34]

Previously, in 2015, a total of more than 1.2km2 of suspected hazardous area (SHA) was confirmed by MAG and HI as contaminated with antipersonnel mines in the Tibesti, Moyen-Chari, and Chari Baguirmi regions.[35]

Clearance in 2016

MAG reported releasing a total of 575,120m2 of mined area in Tibesti region in 2016, with the destruction of 96 antipersonnel mines and 21 antivehicle mines. It stated that this figure included some area reduced by technical survey, but was unable to provide the precise amount.[36] This was an increase on land released from 2015, when MAG reported clearing 263,009m2 in Tibesti region.

In total, when MAG concluded operations in 2016 under the EU PADEMIN project, which began in February 2015, it reported releasing 98 areas with a size of nearly 1.4km2, along with more than 100,000m2 of traffic routes.[37]

Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Compliance

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty (and in accordance with the six-year extension granted by States Parties in 2013), Chad is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 January 2020. Chad is highly unlikely to meet this deadline.

Chad’s Article 5 deadline has already been extended three times. Its latest extension request, granted in 2013, noted as circumstances impeding compliance with its Article 5 obligations: lack of financial support; the size of the country and poor road network; information management problems; mismanagement at the CND; and lack of transparency in resources management; as well as security issues.

In 2014, Chad submitted its mine action plan for the extension period, which provides a more precise idea of its remaining contamination covering 103.5km2 and indicates a provisional and general timetable. However, the full extent of the challenge remains unknown, as further survey needs to be conducted. This, combined with the lack of a concrete plan to complete survey and intermittent clearance in previous years, makes it very difficult to believe that Chad is capable of meeting its 2020 deadline.

In 2013, Chad was requested by States Parties to report on the result of a mid-term evaluation of its national mine action strategy by the end of 2015, and to revise the strategy on the basis of updated information, if required. It was also requested to report on an annual basis on the clarity of remaining contamination, efforts to diversify funding, efforts to improve information management, and on weather conditions that affect Chad’s ability to meet its Article 5 obligations. As of mid-2017, it had yet to do so.[38]

In early 2017, both HI and MAG reiterated that Chad will not meet its 2020 deadline unless funding for mine action and capacity significantly increases.[39] Challenges also include the distance of contamination in northern Chad and the difficult conditions, including the desert climate (high temperatures, sand, and wind) as a significant challenge for logistics and human resources, alongside a lack of capacity and internal organization of the national mine action authorities.[40]

Chad’s mine action plan for 2014–2019 foresees expenditure of US$61 million ($40 million for operations and technical assistance, $4.5 million for equipment, and $16.6 million for the CND’s running costs). Chad has planned to contribute almost one-third of total funding ($16.6 million). In 2014, Chad reported contributing $2.76 million to the CND; no funding was, though, allocated to land release operations.[41] In 2017, MAG and HI reported that the government had not provided any funding for operational mine action in recent years.[42] According to its national plan, Chad’s budget for mine action activities in 2017 is just over $10.3 million.[43]

Facing the loss of the only international donor and the cessation of mine action operations in Chad with the end of the PADEMIN project in December 2016, the securing of EU funding for a new four-year demining project starting in 2017 was critical. Under the new project, MAG was set to begin operations in Tibesti and Lac regions and HI would carry out survey and mine clearance in Borkou and the west of Ennedi region. MAG expected to increase its non-technical survey and risk education capacity, and to deploy a community liaison team for seven months.[44] The Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) was set to provide technical support to the CND to train new demining teams and increase the technical and managerial capacity of senior CND staff.[45]

Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 Compliance

Under Article 4 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Chad is required to destroy all cluster munition remnants in areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 September 2023. It is unclear whether Chad is on track to meet this deadline.

 

 

The Monitor acknowledges the contributions of the Mine Action Review (www.mineactionreview.org), which has conducted the mine action research in 2017, including on survey and clearance, and shared all its resulting landmine and cluster munition reports with the Monitor. The Monitor is responsible for the findings presented online and in its print publications.

 


[1] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty 14th Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 2 December 2015. This was also reported in Chad’s Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form C.

[2] National High Commission for Demining (Haut Commissariat National de Déminage, HCND), “Plan d’action prévisionnel 2014–2019 de mise en œuvre de la composante déminage et dépollution de la Stratégie de l’action contre les mines au Tchad” (“Mine Action Plan 2014–2019”), May 2014.

[3] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty 14th Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 2 December 2015. Translation from the original. This was also reported in Chad’s Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form C.

[4] HCND, “Mine Action Plan 2014–2019,” May 2014.

[5] Ibid.; and responses to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, Country Director, MAG, 3 May 2017; and by Benjamin Westercamp, Head of Mission, and Seydou N’Gaye, Senior Technical Advisor, HI, 22 March 2017.

[6] Response to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, 3 May 2017.

[7] Email from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 2 May 2016.

[8] M. P. Moore, “This Month in Mines, February 2015,” Landmines in Africa blog, 12 March 2015.

[9] Email from Jeannette von Däniken, Programme Support Coordinator, Sahel and West Africa, MAG, 19 July 2017.

[10] HI, Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions (Brussels, 2006), p. 17; HI, Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (Brussels, 2007), p. 48; Survey Action Centre, “Landmine Impact Survey, Republic of Chad,” Washington, DC, 2002, p. 59; and Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Mines Action Canada, Ottawa, 2009), p. 56. 


[11] Emails from Liebeschitz Rodolphe, UNDP, 21 February 2011; and from Bruno Bouchardy, MAG Chad, 11 March 2011.

[12] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form F; and email from Llewelyn Jones, Director of Programmes, MAG, 31 May 2016. 


[13] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form H. 


[14] Response to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, received by email via Llewelyn Jones, MAG, 3 May 2017.

[15] Response to questionnaire by Benjamin Westercamp, and Seydou N’Gaye, HI, received by email via Julien Kempeneers, Deputy Desk Officer, Mine Action Department, HI, 22 March 2017.

[16] Email from Romain Coupez, MAG, 10 May 2017.

[17] Ibid.; and response to questionnaire, 3 May 2017.

[18] Statement of Chad, Convention on Cluster Munitions Third Meeting of States Parties, Oslo, 13 September 2012.

[19] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2013), Form F. 


[20]Tchad: grève des démineurs restés 10 mois sans salaire” (“Chad: deminers strike after 10 months without pay”), Agence de Presse Africaine, 10 May 2017; and email from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 26 September 2017.

[21] Response to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, 3 May 2017.

[22] Email from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 2 May 2016; and HI, “Landmine Clearance Efforts Begin in Chad,” undated.

[23]Tchad: grève des démineurs restés 10 mois sans salaire” (“Chad: deminers strike after 10 months without pay”), Agence de Presse Africaine, 10 May 2017; and email from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 26 September 2017.

[24] HCND, “Mine Action Plan 2014–2019,” May 2014. Previously, in 2013, the government of Chad had approved a strategic mine action plan for 2013–2017 that aimed, among other things, to develop and maintain an effective data collection and management system, strengthen national mine action capacities, and clear contaminated areas. “Mine Action Strategic Plan 2013–2017,” annexed to Third Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 2 May 2013. 


[25] HCND, “Mine Action Plan 2014–2019,” May 2014, p. 4. 


[26] Email from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 5 September 2017.

[27] Response to questionnaire by Benjamin Westercamp, and Seydou N’Gaye, HI, 22 March 2017.

[28] Email from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 5 September 2017.

[29] Responses to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, 3 May 2017; and email, 21 September 2017; response to questionnaire by Benjamin Westercamp, and Seydou N’Gaye, HI, 22 March 2017; and emails from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 5 September 2017, and 2 May 2016; and from Llewelyn Jones, MAG, 7 May 2016.

[30] Email from Llewelyn Jones, MAG, 31 May 2016; and Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form F. 


[31] Response to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, 3 May 2017.

[32] Email from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 5 September 2017.

[33] Response to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, 3 May 2017; and email, 19 September 2017. MAG reported carrying out an additional 16,843m2 of battle area clearance and 57,469m2 of road clearance, for a total of 649,432m2 of land released in 2016. In its Article 7 report for 2016, Chad reported demining in Zouar and Zouarké, in Tibesti region, by MAG, with clearance of just under 650,000m2 and the destruction of 94 antipersonnel mines, 21 antivehicle mines, and 2,847 items of UXO. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), Form J.

[34] Emails from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 5 and 26 September 2017.

[35] Ibid., 2 May 2016; and from Llewelyn Jones, MAG, 7 May 2016.

[36] Response to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, 3 May 2017; and email, 19 September 2017. MAG reported carrying out an additional 16,843m2 of battle area clearance and 57,469m2 of road clearance, for a total of 649,432m2 of land released in 2016. In its Article 7 report for 2016, Chad reported demining in Zouar and Zouarké, in Tibesti region, by MAG, with clearance of just under 650,000m2 and the destruction of 94 antipersonnel mines, 21 antivehicle mines, and 2,847 items of UXO. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), Form J.

[37] Response to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, 3 May 2017; and email, 19 September 2017.

[38] “Preliminary observations of the Committee on Article 5 Implementation (Chile, Costa Rica, Switzerland and Zambia),” Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 8–9 June 2017.

[39] Responses to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, 3 May 2017; and by Benjamin Westercamp, and Seydou N’Gaye, HI, 22 March 2017.

[40] Email from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 2 May 2016.

[41] HCND, “Mine Action Plan 2014–2019,” May 2014. 


[42] Responses to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, 3 May 2017; and by Benjamin Westercamp, and Seydou N’Gaye, HI, 22 March 2017.

[43] HCND, “Mine Action Plan 2014–2019,” May 2014. 


[44] Responses to questionnaire by Romain Coupez, MAG, 3 May 2017; and by Benjamin Westercamp, and Seydou N’Gaye, HI, 22 March 2017.

[45] Response to questionnaire by Benjamin Westercamp, and Seydou N’Gaye, HI, 22 March 2017.

Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 05 October 2015

Since 2010, the government of the Republic of Chad has contributed almost US$11 million to its mine action program, including $3.13 million in 2012, its largest contribution ever reported.[1] In 2014, Chad contributed US$2.77 million to its national mine action centre (Centre National de Déminage, CND), however, no funding was allocated to land release operations.[2]

In 2014, the European Union (EU) was Chad’s sole international mine action donor, contributing €767,000 ($1,019,880) as part of the PADEMIN project (Projet d’appui au secteur du déminage au Tchad) to conduct clearance in the northern regions of Borkou, Ennedi, and Tibesti.[3] This follows the European Commission decision of November 2013 to contribute €5.4 million ($7.1 million) to support demining efforts in Chad through the 10th European Development Fund, of which €3.5 million ($4.6 million) would be allocated to demining and land release operations and €300,000 (some $400,000 at the time) to information management.[4] PADEMIN project has allowed Mines Advisory Group (MAG), Chad’s sole international operator that previously had to withdrew from the country due to lack of funding, to resume its demining activities in late 2014.

In May 2014, Chad submitted its mine action plan for 2014–2019 in which it estimated its remaining contamination at 103.5km2, although more areas could still be identified as further survey needs to be conducted in four regions.[5] It also provided a budget of approximately US$61 million, including $40 million for operations and technical assistance, $4.5 million for equipment, and $16.6 million for CND’s running costs. Chad has planned to contribute about 30% of total funding ($16.6 million).[6] At the Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference in June 2014, Chad acknowledged the challenges faced by its national mine action centre and called for the resumption of technical and operational assistance in order to be able to comply with its Article 5 obligations.[7]

As of October 2015, support from the EU was the only international contribution mobilized for Chad’s extension period, meaning that $37 million is yet to be mobilized to carry out clearance without any further interruption.

Summary of contributions: 2010–2014[8]

Year

National contributions ($)

International contributions ($)

Total contributions ($)

2014

2,766,667

1,019,880

3,786,547

2013

N/R

702,943

702,943

2012

3,135,353

3,645,221

6,780,574

2011

2,934,000

1,843,636

4,777,636

2010

2,095,380

1,665,238

3,760,618

Total

10,931,400

8,876,918

19,808,318

Note: N/R = not reported

 



[1] High Commission for National Demining (HCND), Mine Action Plan 2014–2019, May 2014.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Email from Jérôme Legrand, Policy Officer, Weapons of Mass Destruction, Conventional Weapons and Space Division (K1), European External Action Service (EEAS), 11 June 2015; and MAG, “New Help For More Than 400,000 People in Chad,” 15 December 2014. Annual exchange rate for 2014: €1=US$1.3297. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 2 January 2015.

[4] European Commission Decision, C(2013) 7731 Final, 8 November 2013. Annual exchange rate for 2013: €1=US$1.3281. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 2 January 2015.

[6] Ibid, pp. 11–12.

[7] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference, Maputo, June 2014.

[8] See previous Monitor reports.

Casualties

Last updated: 13 July 2017

Casualties

Casualties Overview

All known casualties by end 2016

At least 3,011 (1,179 people killed; 1,632 injured; 200 unknown)

Casualties occurring in in 2016

27 (2015: 6)

2016 casualties by survival outcome

27 injured (2015: 4 injured; 2 unknown)

2016 casualties by device type

13 undefined mines; 12 explosive remnants of war (ERW); 2 undifferentiated mines/ERW

 

The Monitor recorded 27 mine/ERW casualties in the Republic of Chad in 2016.[1] This constituted a significant increase from the six casualties reported in Chad in 2015 and marked a continuation of the fluctuations in annual casualty totals of previous years: 79 in 2014, and 20 in 2013.[2] However, as in previous years, given the lack of national data collection and reporting systems, it is probable that there were a greater number of new casualties that went unreported.[3] Similarly, data reported in previous years was inconsistent and not indicative of trends.[4]

There were 20 civilian casualties and seven military casualties. At least 85% of annual casualties were reported in northern Chad, in the provinces of Borkou (67% in 2015).

At least 3,011 mine/ERW casualties had been identified by the end of 2016: 1,179 people were killed, another 1,632 were injured, and 200 were unknown.[5]

Cluster munition casualties

No cluster munition casualties were identified for 2016, however, as of 1 July 2017, Chad had not submitted its Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 report for calendar year 2016. In 2015, there were at least four casualties, three girls and one boy, caused by cluster munition remnants.[6] The number of casualties caused by unexploded cluster submunitions or the use of cluster munitions in Chad remains unknown due to a lack of detailed and comprehensive data collection.[7]



[1] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 1 March 2017.

[2] In 2013, the Monitor had reported nine casualties (one killed; eight injured) in Chad thanks to data provided by Zienaba Tidjani Ali, of the National Demining Center (Centre National de Déminage, CND), on 17 July 2014. However, in 2014, the CND reported that for 2013 it identified 20 victims (nine killed; 11 injured) in nine separate incidents. See, response to Monitor questionnaire by Zienaba Tidjani Ali, CND, 26 March 2015; and presentation of Chad, “18th International Meeting of Mine Action National Programme Directors and UN Advisors - Plenary Session Six: Victim Assistance and Mine/ERW Risk Education,” 17 February 2015.

[3] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Anne Catherine Roussel, Physical Rehabilitation Project Manager, ICRC, 1 August 2016.

[4] The CND reported 44 new mine/ERW casualties (13 killed; 31 injured) between 2010 and 2012, but did not provide differentiated data for each year. However, the total figure was inconsistent with previous CND reports of annual casualty rates and Monitor casualty data. In 2010, the CND reported 64 casualties for 2009, but by 2011 the 2009 casualty figure had been revised to 39. Email from Assane Ngueadoum, Technical Advisor for Strategic Planning and Operations, CND, 14 March 2011. Of the 131 casualties reported in Chad for 2008, 122 casualties were recorded by the CND and nine were identified through media monitoring from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2008. Monitor analysis of CND, “General list of mine/ERW victims/2008” (“Liste générale des victimes des mines et autres engins non explosés/2008”), provided by Assane Ngueadoum, CND, 15 April 2009; and email from Assane Ngueadoum, CND, 22 May 2009.

[5] In 2008, Chad reported that by December 2007, 2,632 casualties were recorded (1,143 killed; 1,489 injured). There were 131 casualties reported in 2008, 39 in 2009, 28 in 2010, 34 in 2011, 15 in 2012, 20 in 2013, 79 in 2014, six in 2015, and 27 in 2016. See previous editions of the Monitor on the Monitor website; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 1 March 2017.

[6] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form H, 5 March 2016.

[7] Handicap International (HI), Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (Brussels: HI, May 2007), p. 48. It is likely that there have been unexploded submunition casualties in Chad. However, despite ERW incidents in regions contaminated by cluster submunitions, unexploded submunition casualties were not differentiated from other ERW casualties. Landmine Impact Survey data also showed that the most common activity at the time of each incident was tampering with ERW.

Victim Assistance

Last updated: 13 July 2017

Action points based on findings

  • Improve and systematize casualty data collection.
  • Enhance victim assistance coordination and align with disability-rights coordination.
  • Adopt the revised National Plan of Action on Victim Assistance.
  • Implement the law protecting the rights of persons with disabilities.
  • Plan and undertake survivor identification and needs assessment.
  • Increase services in all areas of victim assistance, particularly physical rehabilitation and employment.
  • Improve facilities and professional capacity in the rehabilitation sector.
  • Coordinate government investment and support to rehabilitation and emergency care to ensure sustainability.

Victim assistance commitments

The Republic of Chad is responsible for a significant number of landmine survivors, cluster munition victims, and survivors of other explosive remnants of war (ERW) who are in need. Chad has made commitments to provide victim assistance through the Mine Ban Treaty and has victim assistance obligations under the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Chad signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in September 2012, but had not yet ratified as of 26 June 2017.

Victim Assistance

The total number of mine/ERW survivors in Chad is not known, though there were thought to be more than 1,764.[1] Between 1998 and 2013, the National Demining Center (Centre National de Déminage, CND) estimated that there were at least 2,834 survivors and family members of people killed by mines/ERW registered in Chad, but recognized that this data was not complete.[2] In 2014, 2015, and 2016, the CND did not report a new estimate, however new survivors were recorded throughout the years and therefore the total number most likely increased.[3]

Victim assistance since 2015

There remained an overall need to establish services and capacities outside the capital N’Djamena, especially in those remote and affected areas. Services for mine/ERW survivors in Chad had long been hampered by intermittent internal conflict and cross-border conflicts, as well as serious under-funding. Data on mine/ERW casualties was not adequate for use; information on the needs of survivors was not available. In 2015 and 2016, the ICRC was providing most of the support to the rehabilitation sector in Chad, but it withdrew its support at the end of 2016. Handicap International was set to follow up and provide support for the physical rehabilitation authorities who had been receiving ICRC assistance.[4] The National Action Plan on Victim Assistance—which was developed with the support of Handicap International (HI)—was extended without implementation or a budget. The plan was revised in 2016 and was pending adoption.[5]

Victim assistance in 2016

To access most services, many survivors still needed to be transferred to N’Djamena, where the existing facilities were located; however, the facilities were few and inadequate in view of the needs. While the exact number of persons with disabilities in need of physical rehabilitation services remained unknown, the two functioning centers—one in the country’s capital and the other in the southern city of Moundou—did not have the capacity to meet needs, in terms of infrastructure and human resources.[6]

Lack of financial support from the social system to cover the cost of treatment continued to mean that services were not free of charge unless covered by the ICRC, which also continued to provide a referral system and local staff training. Legislation addressing persons with disabilities was not adequately enforced, as the application decree for the domestic law protecting the rights of persons with disabilities, signed in 2007, remained pending the president’s signature to render it law, as of the beginning of 2017.[7]

Assessing victim assistance needs

Within the framework of the European Union Project to Support the Demining Sector in Chad (Projet d’Appui au secteur du déminage du Tchad, PADMIN Project), HI started a victim identification and needs assessment survey in the two pilot regions of Borkou and Ouaddaï, in September 2016. The project is set to be completed in October 2018.[8] In 2016, it was reported that HI had trained the CND to collect information on mine victims.[9]

Victim assistance coordination[10]

Government coordinating body/focal point

The CND’s Directorate of Awareness and Victim Assistance (Directorat de la Sensibilisation et Assistance aux Victimes)

Coordinating mechanism(s)

Directorate of Awareness and Victim Assistance through ad hoc meetings with relevant ministries and service providers

Plan

In May 2012, Chad adopted its 2012–2014 National Plan of Action on Victim Assistance; in 2013 the plan was extended to the period 2013–2017

 

This first National Plan of Action on Victim Assistance was adopted in May 2012, to be implemented from 2012–2014.[11] Because of a lack of resources for its implementation, little progress had been made towards achieving the objectives set out in the action plan and consequently in 2013, it was decided to extend the timeframe of the plan to 2017.[12] In 2015, further budget cuts prevented any further implementation. HI led a revision of the plan in early 2016. As of March 2017, the revised victim assistance action plan had not yet been approved.[13]

The objectives of the National Plan of Action on Victim Assistance have also been included in the Strategic Mine Action Plan 2013–2017.[14] In 2013, Chad developed and adopted an implementation strategy for the action plan, which includes seven victim assistance objectives.[15]

Unlike 2015, no victim assistance coordination meetings within the PADMIN Project framework were reported in 2016.

In May 2013, the Ministry of Public Health signed a decree creating a working group to specifically address physical rehabilitation needs in Chad, entitled Network of Rehabilitation Actors in Chad (Réseau des acteurs de la réhabilitation au Tchad, RART).[16] Members of this network include representatives of the CND, the Ministry of Social Action, National Solidarity, and the Family (Ministry of Social Welfare), international organizations such as UNICEF and the ICRC, the two rehabilitation centers, specialists, and disabled people’s organizations (DPOs), as well as mine survivors.[17] The network was strengthened throughout 2015 and allowed for the drafting and finalization of a national plan to address physical rehabilitation needs in Chad.[18] At the end of 2016, this plan was still awaiting approval of the Ministry of Health.[19]

The Ministry of Social Welfare was responsible for protecting the rights of persons with disabilities, while the Ministry of Public Health was responsible for physical rehabilitation.

Chad did not make a statement to provide updates on progress and challenges for victim assistance at the international meetings of the Mine Ban Treaty or Cluster Munition Convention. In March 2017, Chad submitted its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report for calendar year 2016, including form J, in which it provided information on victim assistance activities. As of June 2017, Chad had not yet submitted its Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 report for calendar year 2016.[20]

Inclusion and participation in victim assistance

Survivors did not participate as part of their country’s delegation in international meetings of the Mine Ban Treaty or Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Service accessibility and effectiveness

Victim assistance activities

Name of organization

Type of organization

Type of activity

Ministry of Social Welfare

Government

Conducting a micro-credit project for persons with disabilities

National Demining Center (Centre National de Déminage, CND)

National mine action center

Identification and registration of all known mine/ERW survivors, including new ones, in order to improve availability of and access to services; distribution of some mobility aids

Chad National Paralympics Committee

National authority

Advocacy to ensure that persons with disabilities have access to training in order to become “sports educators”

Voice of People with Disabilities (Voix des Personnes Handicapées, VPH)

National NGO

Social inclusion and psychological support activities using a community-based approach; advocacy for the ratification of the CRPD

Notre Dame House of Peace (Maison Notre Dame de Paix à Moundou, MNDP)

National NGO

Physical rehabilitation in Moundou, southern Chad

Kabalaye Limb-fitting and RehabilitationCenter (CARK)

National NGO

Physical rehabilitation and prostheses in N’Djamena

Association of Mutual Aid of Physically Disabled of Chad (Association d’Entraide aux Handicapés Physique du Tchad, AEHPT)

National NGO

Advocacy, psychological support, and social inclusion for all persons with disabilities

Handicap International (HI)

International organization

Support to victim assistance national coordination; advocacy; capacity-building of local NGOs and survivors associations; support to the rehabilitation sector

ICRC

International organization

Support to the two centers providing physical rehabilitation services in the country: CARK in N’Djamena and MNDP in Moundou; support of a referral system for persons with disabilities from eastern and northern Chad to access physical rehabilitation in CARK; advocacy towards improved access to physical rehabilitation in Chad

 

Emergency and continuing medical care

During 2016, Chad was increasingly impacted by military engagement and unrest in neighboring countries. Occasional incidents of communal violence, banditry, and social unrest over economic/political frustrations persisted. With ICRC support, the Red Cross of Chad strengthened its emergency-response capacities.[21]

Physical rehabilitation, including prosthetics

Access to rehabilitation remained difficult for most of those in need in 2016. Rehabilitation services were only available in six of the 23 regions in Chad. Access to rehabilitation was hampered by the lack of financial support from the social system to cover the cost of rehabilitation treatment (to be covered by the patients), the lack of facilities and professionals, and the burden of the cost of transport (when it was available). There was no direct involvement by the government in physical rehabilitation and patients had to pay for services.[22]

Throughout 2016, the ICRC continued to help local actors build their capacity to deliver suitable physical rehabilitation services to persons with disabilites, albeit with limited success as regards CARK in N’Djamena.[23]

CARK in N’Djamena and MNDP in Moundou treated 4,660 persons with disabilities, including 36 mine/ERW survivors in 2016. Children represented 36% and women 21% of the total beneficiaries.[24] Staff at ICRC-supported centers enhanced the quality of their services through training sessions.[25]

Due to increased needs for support to refugees coming into Chad from neighboring countries, the ICRC generally reduced the scale of its victim assistance activities.[26] It continued to help build local capacities and promoted efforts to address physical rehabilitation needs in the country as it prepared to progressively phase out its assistance to the sector. With this in mind, the ICRC encouraged the ministries for health and for social affairs to increase investment in physical rehabilitation services.[27]

In 2016, HI built the capacity of victim assistance and disability actors, including the CND, relevant national authorities, international organizations, and civil society organizations. It also provided support to the national physical rehabilitation sector, and provided advocacy and awareness raising trainings on victim assistance and disability rights. This project was implemented in N’Djamena, and in the provinces of Borkou, Tibesti, and Ouaddaï.[28]

Socio-economic inclusion

The government also operated education, employment, and therapy programs for persons with disabilities.[29] In 2016, HI led a social inclusion and inclusive education project with the NGO COOPI, in the lake region.[30]

HI is set to start a new project in July 2017, which will support inclusive education and economic inclusion activities.[31]

National laws and policies

The law protects the rights of and prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities, however, the government did not effectively enforce the law. No legislation or programs exist to ensure access to buildings for persons with disabilities.[32] The application decree for the domestic law number 007 protecting the rights of persons with disabilities, signed in 2007, has remained inoperative, pending the president’s signature to render it law.[33] Efforts were made to translate this law into Arabic in the hope of speeding up its adoption.[34] In 2016, on the ninth anniversary of the signing of law number 007, AEHPT and the National Union of the Associations of the Persons with Disabilities of Chad (Union nationale des associations des personnes handicapées du Tchad, UNAHPT) called for increased accessibility for persons with disabilities through the legislation while noting that persons with disabilities await the implementation of the decree and expect the ratification of the CRPD. DPOs also called for income-generating activities for all persons with disabilities and the opening of the Ngueli road, as well as positive discrimination for employment in the public service for graduates with disabilities.[35] UNAHPT reported that the organization wrote several times to the Minister of Social Action and the Prime Minister to raise these issues, though without a response.[36]



[1] The Monitor calculates that in total some 1,764 survivors have been reported through various sources. At least 1,588 survivors had been identified by the CND through December 2008. An additional 67 casualties were reported in 2009 and 2010, of which at least half were likely injured based on previously reported ratios of killed to injured casualties. Twenty-eight additional survivors were reported in 2011, 10 in 2012, 11 in 2013, 63 in 2014, four in 2015, and 27 in 2016. See previous editions of the Monitor; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 1 March 2017.

[2] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty Twelfth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 4 December 2012; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Zienaba Tidjani Ali, CND, 17 July 2014.

[3] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Zienaba Tidjani Ali, CND, 26 March 2015; Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 1 March 2016; Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form H, 5 March 2016; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 1 March 2017.

[4] Ibid.

[5] HI, “Country Card 2016,” 2016, p. 2.

[6] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programme (PRP), “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015.

[7] Coordination Sud, “Renforcement organisationnel et la gestion de projet de base des Organisations des Personnes Handicapées (OPH)” (“Organizational Strengthening and Basic Project Management for Organizations of Persons with Disabilities”), undated, but April 2017.

[8] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Julien Kempeneers, and the HI Chad team, HI, August 2016; and by Benjamin Westercamp, HI, 13 March 2017.

[9] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 1 March 2017.

[10] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socioeconomic Reintegration, Geneva, 23 May 2012; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Zienaba Tidjani Ali, CND, 2 April 2013, 17 July 2014, and 26 March 2015; and by Julien Kempeneers, and the HI Chad team, HI, August 2016; Chad National Plan of Action on Victim Assistance 2012–2014, May 2012; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Anne Catherine Roussel, ICRC, 16 February 2015, and 1 August 2016; statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 4 December 2013; ICRC, “Annual Report 2013,” Geneva, 14 May 2014; ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, May 2016; ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015; Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 1 March 2016; and Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form H, 5 March 2016.

[11] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socioeconomic Reintegration, Geneva, 23 May 2012.

[12] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Zienaba Tidjani Ali, CND, 17 July 2014.

[13] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Benjamin Westercamp, HI, 13 March 2017.

[14] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Zienaba Tidjani Ali, CND, 2 April 2013.

[15] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 4 December 2013.

[16] Ibid.; and ICRC, “Annual Report 2013,” Geneva, 14 May 2014, p. 132.

[17] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Zienaba Tidjani Ali, CND, 2 April 2013; and statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 4 December 2013.

[18] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Julien Kempeneers, and the HI Chad team, HI, August 2016; and ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, May 2016, p. 130.

[19] ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, May 2016, p. 130; and ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, May 2017, p. 121.

[20] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 1 March 2017.

[21] ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, May 2017, p. 118.

[22] Ibid., p. 121.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid., p. 122.

[25] A physiotherapist continued to upgrade his/her qualifications by attending a three-year course in Benin, while staff at the supported centers enhanced the quality of their services through training sessions. ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, May 2017, p. 121.

[26] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Anne Catherine Roussel, ICRC, 1 August 2016.

[27] ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, May 2017, pp. 119 and 121.

[28] HI, “Country Card 2016,” 2016, p. 2; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Benjamin Westercamp, HI, 17 March 2017.

[29] United States (US) Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Chad,” Washington, DC, March 2017.

[30] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Benjamin Westercamp, HI, 17 March 2017.

[31] HI, “Chef de Projet Insertion économique – TCHAD” (“Economic Inclusion Project Manager – Chad”), undated, but June 2017.

[32] US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Chad,” Washington, DC, March 2017.

[33] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Anne Catherine Roussel, ICRC, 1 August 2016; and by Julien Kempeneers, and the HI Chad team, HI, August 2016; and Coordination Sud, “Renforcement organisationnel et la gestion de projet de base des Organisations des Personnes Handicapées (OPH)”) (“Organizational Strengthening and Basic Project Management for Organizations of Persons with Disabilities”), undated, but April 2017.

[34] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Julien Kempeneers, and the HI Chad team, HI, August 2016.

[35] “Les handicapées du Tchad attendent toujours l’application de la loi qui les protège” (“The disabled of Chad are still awaiting the application of the law that protects them”), Tchadinfos, 13 May 2016; and “Tchad : l’association des personnes handicapées revendique leur réinsertion sociale” (“Chad: Association of disabled people calls for their social reintegration”), Tchadinfos, 15 October 2016.

[36]Tchad : l’association des personnes handicapées revendique leur réinsertion sociale” (“Chad: Association of disabled people calls for their social reintegration”), Tchadinfos, 15 October 2016.