Congo, Democratic Republic of

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 05 July 2017

Summary: Signatory the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (DRC) parliament approved ratification of the convention in November 2013, but the government still has not completed the ratification process. The DRC has expressed its intent to amend existing legislation to implement the convention’s provisions. The DRC has participated in every meeting of the convention and voted in favor of a key UN resolution on the convention in December 2016. The DRC has elaborated its views on several important issues for the interpretation and implementation of the convention.

In its voluntary transparency report for the convention in 2011, the DRC stated that it has never used, produced, or transferred cluster munitions, and does not possess a stockpile. Cluster munitions were used in the DRC in the past, but the party, or parties, responsible has never been conclusively identified.

Policy

The DRC signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 18 March 2009.

The current status of ratification efforts is not known. Previously, in June 2015, the DRC stated that ratification legislation had been adopted and was awaiting review by the Constitutional Court.[1] The senate adopted the ratification legislation on 28 November 2013.[2]

In 2014, a DRC official stated that its implementation legislation for the Mine Ban Treaty has been amended to incorporate provisions on cluster munitions, but the Monitor has not been able to obtain a copy of the law.[3]

Since 2011, the DRC has provided three voluntary Article 7 transparency reports for the Convention on Cluster Munitions, most recently in June 2014.[4]

The DRC actively participated in the Oslo Process that created the Convention on Cluster Munitions and strongly supported a comprehensive ban as well as the inclusion of provisions on international cooperation and assistance. Due to inadequate signing authority, the DRC was not able to sign the convention in Oslo in December 2008, but signed at the UN in New York three months later.[5]

The DRC has attended every Meeting of States Parties of the convention, except the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in September 2016. It participated in the convention’s First Review Conference in Dubrovnik, Croatia, in September 2015 and in intersessional meetings in 2011–2015, as well as regional workshops on cluster munitions.

In December 2016, the DRC voted in favor of a key UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution which urges states outside the Convention on Cluster Munitions to “join as soon as possible.”[6]

The DRC has elaborated its views on several important issues relating to the interpretation and implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. In 2012, the government’s national mine action coordinator said that the DRC agreed with the views of the CMC that the provisions of the convention forbid transit in, foreign stockpiling of, and investment in the production of cluster munitions, and also forbid the assistance with the use of cluster munitions in joint military operations with states not party.[7]

The DRC is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

The DRC has reported that it has never used, produced, or transferred cluster munitions, and does not stockpile them.[8]

It is not clear who used cluster munitions in the DRC in the past. In April 2014, the DRC stated that cluster munitions were used in armed conflict by foreign armies, both invited and not invited.[9] Cluster munition contamination includes BLU-755, BLU-63, BLU-55, ShAOB, and PM1-type submunitions.[10]

In May 2013, the DRC reported that an abandoned stockpile of 1,593 ShAOB submunitions was found and destroyed in Goma in 2011.[11]



[1] Statement by Sudi Alimasi Kimputu, Coordinator, Congolese National Center for the Fight Against Mines (National du Centre Congolais de Lutte Antimines), Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 22 June 2015.

[2] See, Convention on Cluster Munitions voluntary Article 7 Report, Form A, June 2014; and statement by Sudi Alimasi Kimputu, Congolese National Center for the Fight Against Mines, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 7 April 2014.

[3] Statement by Sudi Alimasi Kimputu, Congolese National Center for the Fight Against Mines, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 7 April 2014. This was not declared in the voluntary Article 7 transparency report it submitted in June 2014. See, Convention on Cluster Munitions voluntary Article 7 Report, Form A, June 2014.

[4] The initial Convention on Cluster Munitions voluntary Article 7 report submitted on 15 May 2011 covers the period from February 2002 to 15 May 2011, while the report provided on 10 April 2012 covers calendar year 2011, and the report provided in June 2014 covers calendar years 2012 and 2013.

[5] For details on the DRC’s cluster munition policy and practice through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 60–61.

[6] “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 71/45, 5 December 2016. The DRC voted in favor of the similar UNGA resolution in 2015 “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 70/54, 7 December 2015.

[7] Meeting with Sudi Alimasi Kimputu, National Focal Point of the Struggle Against Mines (Point Focal National pour la Lutte Antimines, PFNLAM), in Brussels, 15 April 2012.

[8] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Capt. Roger Bokwango, Deputy Coordinator, PFNLAM, 30 March 2010; and statement by Nzuzi Manzembi, Director, Directorate of International Organizations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 6 March 2009. Notes by the Congolese Campaign to Ban Landmines (CCIM).

[9] Statement by Sudi Alimasi Kimputu, Congolese National Center for the Fight Against Mines, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 7 April 2014. See also, statement of the DRC, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 28 June 2011.

[10] In May 2013, the DRC reported for the first time that BLU-55 type submunitions had been found and destroyed in Katanga and South Kivu provinces. It also reported for the first time that ShAOB-type submunitions were destroyed during clearance operations in Lubumbashi in 2012. It reported that in 2012, 55 submunitions of the type PM1 were destroyed in Bolomba, Équateur province, and a further nine PM1 submunitions destroyed in Lubutu, Maniema province in 2013. The official stated that BLU-755 and BLU-55 submunitions had been destroyed in Manono and Kabalo, Katanga province, and in Shabunda, South Kivu province. Statement of the DRC, Lomé Regional Seminar on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Lomé, Togo, 23 May 2013. Notes by AOAV. See also, statement of the DRC, Convention on Cluster Munitions First Meeting of States Parties, Vientiane, Lao PDR, 11 November 2010. Notes by the CMC; and statement of the DRC, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 28 June 2011.

[11] Convention on Cluster Munitions voluntary Article 7 Report, Form F, 10 April 2012; statement by Sudi Alimasi Kimputu, PFNLAM, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 18 April 2012. The DRC stated that the submunitions were left in the eastern part of the country by foreign troops invited onto its territory in recent armed conflicts. The stockpile consisted of three bombs containing 531 submunitions each. The armed forces gave the submunitions to mine action NGO Mines Advisory Group (MAG) to destroy.

Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 02 November 2011

Commitment to the Mine Ban Treaty

Mine Ban Treaty status

State Party

National implementation measures

Enacted implementation legislation, Law 11/007, on 9 July 2011

Transparency reporting

30 April 2011

Policy

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 2 May 2002, becoming a State Party on 1 November 2002. The National Commission to Fight Antipersonnel Mines was created in 2002.[1]

The DRC enacted legislation to implement the Mine Ban Treaty in 2011. “Law no. 11/007 implementing the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production, and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and on their Destruction in the Democratic Republic of the Congo” was promulgated by the President on 9 July 2011 and published in the official journal on 15 July 2011.[2] The law was first adopted in December 2010 and a final version adopted by Parliament on 16 June 2011.[3]

Law 11/007 prohibits the development, manufacture, production, acquisition, stockpiling, conservation, supply, sale, import, export, transfer, and use of antipersonnel mines or their components and also prohibits assistance, encouragement, or inducement in these activities.[4] The law establishes penal sanctions for persons violating its provisions of 10 years imprisonment and a fine of CDF10–20 million (about US$11,000–$22,000). The law also provides penal sanctions for legal entities (companies) guilty of violations of CDF10–20 million (about US$11,000–$22,000).[5] The law also contains provisions on victim assistance.

The DRC attended the Tenth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Geneva in November–December 2010 and the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in June 2011 where it made statements on its progress on meeting its Article 5 clearance extension request and on victim assistance.

It submitted its annual Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report on 30 April 2011, the ninth submitted since entry into force.

Production, transfer, use, stockpile destruction, and retention

The DRC is not known to have produced or exported antipersonnel mines. While government forces have used antipersonnel mines in the past, the Monitor has not received any allegations of such use since it acceded to the treaty. There were credible allegations of use of antipersonnel mines in the DRC by non-state armed groups (NSAGs) at least until 2004 and by Ugandan and Rwandan government forces in 2000.[6]

In May 2006, the DRC informed States Parties that it had completed the destruction of all 2,864 stockpiled antipersonnel mines it had been able to identify, thus fulfilling its treaty obligation to destroy stocks by 1 November 2006. It stated that if more stockpiled mines were discovered they would be destroyed in a timely fashion.[7]

Since May 2006, the DRC has destroyed newly discovered, seized, or turned in antipersonnel mines on many occasions. It reported an additional 198 mines destroyed in 2006, 936 in 2007, 631 in 2008, 101 in 2009, and 70 in 2010.[8]

In March 2010, a government official informed the Monitor that there were some live antipersonnel mines retained for training at the Military Engineers’ School in Likasi, but the types and numbers had not yet been reported.[9]  In its Article 7 report submitted in 2011, the DRC reported “not applicable” on Form D on mines retained for training or research purposes. In 2009, as in its previous report, the DRC stated that information on retained mines was “not yet available.”[10]

Non-state armed groups

NSAGs, both Congolese and foreign, remain active in the country.[11] In August 2009, a military officer reportedly stated that 25 soldiers had been killed by antipersonnel mines laid by the Democratic Liberation Forces of Rwanda (Forces Démocratiques de Liberation du Rwanda, FDLR, Rwandan Hutu rebels), and noted, “We are not aware of other antipersonnel mines planted in the area. Teams from the United Nations or other international bodies will be needed to clear the mines.”[12] The Monitor could not confirm if this constituted new use of antipersonnel mines, or if so, by whom.

 



[1] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, 30 April 2003; and see also Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 325.

[2] Email from André Tabaro, Coordinator, National Association of Landmine Survivors, 19 August 2011.

[3] The law was first adopted in December 2010, but there were differences between the versions adopted by the Senate and the National Assembly so a reconciled version was adopted on 16 June 2011. ICBL meeting with Sudi Kimputu, Coordinator, National Focal Point for Mine Action in DRC, and Charles Frisby, Chief of Staff, DRC Mine Action Coordination Center, in Geneva, 23 June 2011.

[4] “Proposition de loi portant mise en oeuvre de la Convention sur l’interdiction de l’emploi du stockage, de la production et du transfert des mines antipersonnel et sur leur destruction en Republic Democratique du Congo” (“Bill to implement the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production, and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and their Destruction in the Democratic Republic of Congo”), Assemblee Nationale-Senate Commission Mixte Paritarie, Kinshasa, June 2011, Articles 3 and 4.

[5] “Proposition de loi portant mise en oeuvre de la Convention sur l’interdiction de l’emploi du stockage, de la production et du transfert des mines antipersonnel et sur leur destruction en Republic Democratique du Congo” (“Bill to implement the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production, and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and their Destruction in the Democratic Republic of Congo”), Assemblee Nationale-Senate Commission Mixte Paritarie, Kinshasa, June 2011, Chapter 7. The law requires the immediate cessation of production of antipersonnel mines and for anyone, except government or other authorized public agencies, who produces or possesses antipersonnel mines or their components as referred to under Article 3, to immediately notify the Ministry of Defense or the Ministry of Civil Protection of the total stock, including the type, quantity, and where possible, lot number, for each type. Average exchange rate for 2010: US$1=CDF901.922. Oanda, www.oanda.com.

[7] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 326–327. In May 2006, a representative did not indicate the date on which the DRC considered the program completed. The 2,864 mines destroyed included mines held in the military regions, mines recovered from NSAGs, and mines abandoned across the country. Apparently, it only included seven mines (Claymore type) held by the armed forces.

[8] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Reports, Form G, 30 April 2011, 30 April 2010, 22 May 2009, and 20 May 2008; Landmine Monitor Report 2009, p. 327; and Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 280. In 2010, the DRC reported 38 PMA-2 mines found and destroyed: 33 by Mechem in Kisangani; two by Handicap International (HI) Belgium and two by HI Federation in Oriental province; and one by Mines Advisory Group (MAG) in Bas-Congo province. As well, 16 TS-50 mines were found and destroyed: 10 by DanChurchAid; five by MAG in Katanga; and one by Handicap International Belgium in Oriental province. One PPM-2 mine was found and destroyed by MAG in Bas-Congo; 14 M35 mines were found and destroyed (nine by DCA and five by MAG in Katanga); and two mines of unknown types found and destroyed by MAG in September 2010. In 2009, the DRC reported 8 PMA-2 mines found and destroyed (one by MAG in Ikela, one by HI Belgium in Yengeni, and six by Mechem in Sange, Kisangani, and Bangboka); 43 TS-50 mines found and destroyed (41 by DCA in Kabumba, Mitondo, and Lubandula, one by MAG in Kirungu, and one by Mechem in Kisangani); one M2A4 mine, found and destroyed by Mechem in Bangboka; 21 M35 mines found and destroyed (15 handed over by the national armed forces [Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo, FARDC] and destroyed by MAG in Lubumbashi, five by MAG in Lubumbashi and Selembe, and one by DCA at an unspecified location); one PROM 1 mine found and destroyed by MAG in Kasenga; two No. 4 mines found and destroyed by MAG in Ikela; eight Type 69 mines found and destroyed by MAG in Lubumbashi; and eight Type 58 mines found and destroyed by MAG in Gemena. The 101 reported also included nine Claymore Z1 mines, eight found and destroyed by MAG in Shamwana, Ikela, and Bomongo, and one by MECHEM in Bogoro. The reports do not explain whether the mines were discovered among FARDC arsenals or were discovered or seized from other sources, with the exception of 15 M35 mines handed over by the FARDC in November 2009.

[9] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Capt. Roger Bokwango, National Focal Point for Mine Action in DRC , 30 March 2010. In the original French: “Il y aurait quelques mines Antipersonnel réelles à l’école du Génie Militaire de Likasi, mais les types et les nombres n’ont pas encore été rapportés.”

[10] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 22 May 2009.

[11] Foreign armed groups reported to be active or present in DRC included the FDLR, the Interahamwe (Rwanda), and the Lord’s Resistance Army (Uganda).

[12] “350 Rwandan Hutu militiamen killed during Operation Kimia II in South Kivu province,” Radio Okapi, 29 August 2009, congoplanet.com.

Mine Action

Last updated: 31 October 2017

Contaminated by: landmines (light contamination), cluster munition remnants (light contamination), other unexploded ordnance (UXO), and abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO) (heavy contamination).

Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Deadline: 1 January 2021
(On track to meet deadline)

Signatory to the Convention on Cluster Munitions
(Clearance completed in 2017)

Summary

At the end of 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had a total of 0.85km2 of suspected and confirmed hazardous areas (CHAs) contaminated by antipersonnel mines. In 2016, 0.26km2 was cleared, 0.15km2 was reduced by technical survey, and 0.04km2 canceled by non-technical survey, a decrease on the previous year.

The cluster munition-contaminated land remaining at the end of 2016 was cleared by May 2017. In 2016, a total of 37,903m2 was released (35,032m2 was cleared and 2,871 released through technical survey), and 2,629m2 of land was confirmed to be contaminated by cluster munition remnants. In 2017, one area of unrecorded size was canceled, and 3,900m2 was cleared.

The DRC also has UXO and significant quantities of AXO.

Recommendations for action

  • The DRC should finalize a detailed workplan to fulfil its Article 5 obligations as soon as possible and create a new national mine action strategy.
  • The DRC should finalize the revised national mine action standards as soon as possible.
  • As soon as it is safe to do so, the DRC should conduct survey in Aru and Dungu territories.
  • The DRC should significantly improve the quality of the national mine action database to ensure that it is accurate, up to date, owned by national authorities, and able to produce accurate reports.
  • A focus should be placed on capacity-building of the national authorities and local mine action actors to be able to deal with any residual contamination following the exit of international operators.

Mine Contamination

The DRC is affected by antipersonnel and antivehicle mines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), a result of decades of conflict involving neighboring states, militias, and rebel groups since gaining its independence in 1960.[1] According to UNMAS, at the end of 2016, a total of 54 CHAs and suspected hazardous areas (SHAs) with a total size of 851,228m2 remained.[2] At the end of 2015, a total of 71 CHAs and SHAs remained covering an estimated 1.3km2; the total comprised 13 confirmed mined areas covering less than 0.2km2, and 58 SHAs covering just over 1.1km2.[3]

At the end of 2016, six of the DRC’s 11 provinces that have been affected still contained confirmed or suspected mine contamination, as set out in the table below.[4]

Antipersonnel mine contamination by province (as of end 2016)[5]

Province

CHAs

Area (m2)

SHAs

Area (m2)

Equateur (now South-Ubangi, North-Ubangi, Equateur)

3

38,527

21

434,204

Orientale (now Tshopo, Ituri, Bas-Uele)

2

22,384

16

301,083

Maniema

2

3,993

0

0

North-Kivu

0

0

8

8,442

Katanga (now Tanganyika)

0

0

1

42,000

Kasai-Occidental

0

0

1

595

Total

7

64,904

47

786,324

 

In April 2014, the DRC reported that 130 SHAs affected by mines remained in eight provinces (then Equateur, Kasaï Occidental, Kasaï Oriental, Maniema, North Kivu, Katanga, Orientale, and South Kivu) covering an estimated 1.8km2, on the basis of the results of a nine-month-long National Landmine Contamination Survey (NLCS) launched in March 2013.[6] The Aru and Dungu territories in former Orientale province, however, were not surveyed due to insecurity.[7]

As of December 2015, the DRC reported that 45 of the 130 SHAs had been cleared during the year, covering some 0.9km2, putting three of the DRC’s then eight remaining contaminated provinces in a position to be declared cleared of mines, once quality management had been completed.[8] Clearance of South Kivu province was completed following a Congolese Mine Action Center (Centre Congolais de Lutte Antimines, CCLAM) survey in early October 2015 that canceled the last remaining SHA.[9] UNMAS cautioned, however, that four SHAs were newly identified in 2016 and further hazards might be identified in the future, particularly in Aru or Dungu.[10]

As of September 2017, survey of Aru or Dungu had still not been possible due to security concerns, though according to UNMAS, survey could be completed by humanitarian demining organizations within a four-month period, once funding and access are secured.[11]

In 2017, UNMAS reported that antipersonnel mine contamination remaining in the DRC was limited and that only small numbers of antipersonnel mines were found on an annual basis by operators. Areas suspected to contain antipersonnel mines often proved to contain UXO, AXO, or small arms ammunition.[12]

Released land is used for agriculture and settlement development, in addition to opening up access to markets, water, and firewood.[13] Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) reported that, in April 2017, of all the land it had released and returned to local communities in 2016, 8% was found to be used for construction and 92% for other activities, such as agriculture and livestock grazing. Most areas were put back into productive use immediately after being handed over, it said.[14] Handicap International (HI) reported that land released to local inhabitants in Tshopo province in November was being cultivated four months later, having been blocked for years prior.[15]

Cluster Munition Contamination

At the end of 2016, only two areas of unknown size remained to be addressed in Bolomba, Equateur province, in the northwest of the country.[16] By April 2017, these remaining areas had been canceled and cleared.

Previously, at the start of 2016, the DRC had two remaining areas with a total size of 3,840m2 confirmed to contain cluster munition remnants, and two other areas of unknown size, in Equateur province.[17] The DRC identified the areas, all of which are believed to contain BL755 submunitions, in a national survey conducted in 2013.[18]

According to Mines Advisory Group (MAG), cluster munition contamination in the DRC previously impeded agriculture and freedom of movement. MAG reported that its clearance of cluster munition remnants and other UXO in areas of former Equateur and Katanga provinces had increased access to firewood, enabled use of once restricted land and new agricultural areas, and facilitated access to remote villages.[19] In addition to the cluster munition remnants it had previously cleared around airports, hospitals, and agricultural areas, and beside or on roads, in 2016, MAG reported clearing cluster munitions from farmland and areas frequently foraged for wood or food.[20]

Other explosive remnants of war and landmines

The DRC is affected by other ERW and a small number of landmines as a result of years of conflict involving neighboring states, militias, and rebel groups. Successive conflicts have also left the DRC with significant quantities of AXO.[21]

In 2016, ongoing conflict continued to cause new ERW contamination, and munitions remained a constant and significant risk to civilians, as well as placing wide-ranging restrictions on socioeconomic development and recovery.[22] Thousands of mine and ERW casualties have been recorded in the DRC (see the casualty profile for further details).

Program Management

CCLAM was established in 2012 with capacity-building support from the UN Mine Action Coordination Centre (UNMACC) and UNMAS.[23] UNMAS has reported that the transfer of responsibility to CCLAM for coordinating mine action activities was completed in early 2016.[24]

Prior to the transfer of coordination authority to CCLAM, UNMACC, established in 2002 by UNMAS, coordinated mine action operations through offices in the capital, Kinshasa, and in Goma, Kalemie, Kananga, Kisangani, and Mbandaka.[25] UNMACC was part of the UN Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO) peacekeeping mission. UN Security Council Resolution 1925 mandated UNMACC to strengthen national mine action capacities and support reconstruction through road and infrastructure clearance.[26]

In March 2013, Security Council Resolution 2098 called for demining activities to be transferred to the UN Country Team and the Congolese authorities.[27] As a consequence, UNMAS operated two separate projects after splitting its activities between, on the one hand, support for the government of the DRC and its in-country team, and, on the other, its activities in support of MONUSCO.[28] In accordance with Resolution 2147 of March 2014, demining is no longer included in MONUSCO’s mandate.[29] In 2017, UNMAS reported it was assisting MONUSCO operations and mitigating the threat from ERW through explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations and risk education.[30]

Strategic planning

The DRC’s national mine action strategic plan for 2012–2016 set the goal of clearing all areas contaminated with antipersonnel mines or submunitions by the end of 2016.[31] This goal was not achieved.

In June 2017, following the expiration of the DRC’s 2012–2016 national strategy, which was developed with the support of the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), the GICHD reported that, together with UNMAS, it would work closely with CCLAM to develop the DRC’s next national mine action strategy.[32] The first strategy development workshop was organized in Kinshasa in September 2017, bringing all relevant national and international stakeholders together to analyze the context, agree on the mine action program’s overall vision and mission, and define strategic goals and objectives. Fulfilment of the DRC’s Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 obligations will be a main focus of the next national strategy, it said.[33]

In granting the DRC’s second Article 5 deadline extension request, Mine Ban Treaty States Parties called on the DRC to present a detailed workplan by 30 April 2015 on the implementation of its remaining clearance obligations throughout its extension period. It did not, however, do so, and as of September 2017 had still to submit a workplan.

Standards

In September 2017, UNMAS reported that the DRC’s outdated National Technical Standards and Guidelines (NTSGs) had been revised and national mine action standards had been developed, which, following review by CCLAM, were expected to be published by the end of the year.[34]

Operators

Five international operators carried out mine survey and clearance operations in the DRC in 2016: DanChurchAid (DCA), HI, MAG, Mechem, and NPA, along with a national demining organization, AFRILAM.[35]

In 2016, UNMAS contracted two multi-task teams (MTTs) for clearance operations in Kasai Central, Kasai Oriental, Lomami, and Maniema provinces. The teams primarily carried out EOD tasks, destruction of AXO, and battle area clearance (BAC). UNMAS also contracted three MTTs directly in support of MONUSCO operations in the provinces of Haut-Uele, Ituri, North Kivu, South Kivu, and Tanganyika; the teams mainly provided explosive hazard management support for the mission’s activities.[36]

In 2016, MAG employed 24 demining personnel for survey and clearance activities.[37]

NPA began operating with one MTT, one mine clearance team (MCT), and four technical survey teams, with a total of 52 personnel. In April, the teams were reconfigured into non-technical and technical survey teams, but with the focus on technical survey. As of November 2016, two MTTs were deployed to assist the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC).[38]

HI commenced a two-year project in partnership with AFRILAM in 2016. AFRILAM deployed three teams of 14 deminers, while HI provided staff for quality management oversight and information management assistance.[39]

DCA had one team in 2016 which conducted mine clearance in Tshopo Province (Babola and Chamanka areas, in Kisangani territory, and in Banakanuke 2 area, in Ubundu territory).[40]

Under contract from UNMAS, from mid-2015 to mid-2016, MECHEM deployed five MCTs in the east of the country, until funding for its contract ceased in March 2016.[41]

MAG and NPA were the only operators to conduct cluster munition survey and clearance in the DRC in 2016. MAG deployed a total of 11 demining personnel to address cluster munition contamination, and NPA two technical survey teams of six deminers.[42]

Quality management

UNMAS controlled external quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) prior to handing over responsibility for quality management to CCLAM.[43] According to UNMAS, only limited QA was carried out by CCLAM in 2016 due to a lack of funding for travel or the deployment of personnel. UNMAS stated it undertook regular QA of UN-contracted operators, but reported that the geographical size of the country and lack of adequate and affordable transportation and infrastructure often restricted the provision of timely quality management. No sampling was undertaken in 2016.[44]

Information management

CCLAM assumed responsibility from UNMAS for information management in January 2016. Concerns persisted over the quality of information management: gaps in the database, a lack of maintenance, a lack of capacity to extract and share information from the database, and the absence of coordination meetings with operators, were all evident during the year. NPA, which hosted information management training courses together with the GICHD for CCLAM in 2016, reported that while the center had competent technical staff, its limited administrative and financial resources continued to adversely affect its ability to maintain the database and that, as a consequence, a system of parallel reporting to CCLAM and UNMAS had developed.[45] CCLAM did not provide information in response to requests for data in 2017.

In September 2017, UNMAS reported it was working on a data reconciliation project together with the GICHD to try and ensure that the database is up-to-date and accurate in order to facilitate compliance with the DRC’s Article 5 obligations by the end of 2019.[46]

Land Release (mines)

A total of less than 0.44km2 of mined area was released in 2016, of which 0.38km2 was by clearance and technical survey, and a further 0.04km2 canceled by non-technical survey. This is a decrease from the total mined area in DRC released in 2015 of just over 0.74km2 of mined area, including 0.43km2 by clearance and technical survey, and a further 0.31km2 by non-technical survey.[47]

Survey in 2016 (mines)

In 2016, operators canceled a total of 37,682m2 by non-technical survey and additionally reduced nearly 148,941m2 of antipersonnel mined area through technical survey, while confirming just over 234,771m2 as mined.[48] This compares to results in 2015 when 0.31km2 of mined area was canceled by non-technical survey, 0.12km2 of mined area was reduced, and 0.17km2 was confirmed as mined.[49]

Mine survey in 2016[50]

Operator

SHAs canceled

Area canceled (m²)

SHAs confirmed as mined

Area confirmed (m²)

Area reduced by TS (m2)

MECHEM

0

0

0

0

0

NPA

3

37,682

0

0

120,127

DCA

0

0

3

114,352

21,643

HI

0

0

4

120,419

7,171

Total

3

37,682

4

234,771

148,941

Note: TS = technical survery

Clearance in 2016 (mines)

A total of just over 257,119m2 was released by clearance in 2016, with the destruction of 35 antipersonnel mines and 101 items of UXO.[51] This is a decrease from the total mined area cleared in 2015 of just over 314,000m2.[52]

In addition, in 2016, NPA stated that two fuzeless antipersonnel mines and one antivehicle mine were found and destroyed in spot tasks.[53] MAG reported destroying one antivehicle mine in a spot task and HI reported destroying one antipersonnel mine and eight items of UXO outside its demining tasks.[54]

Mine clearance in 2016[55]

Operator

Areas cleared

Area cleared (m²)

AP mines destroyed

AV mines destroyed

UXO destroyed

MECHEM

3

45,835

22

0

0

NPA

17

180,645

0

0

101

DCA

4

26,792

7

0

0

HI

1

3,847

6

0

0

Total

25

257,119

35

0

101

Note: AP = antipersonnel; AV = antivehicle.

Land Release (cluster munition remnants)

The total cluster munition-contaminated area released in 2016 was just under 0.038m2, resulting in the release of all known cluster munition-contaminated areas.[56]

Survey in 2016 (cluster munition remnants)

In 2016, NPA confirmed an area with a total size of 2,629m2 as contaminated with cluster munition remnants and released an area with the size of 2,871m2 through technical survey.[57]

Previously, in 2015, MAG confirmed two SHAs as containing cluster munition contamination with a total size of 75,845m2 in Katanga (Tanganyika) and Equateur provinces, along with canceling 65 SHAs through non-technical survey.[58]

Clearance in 2016 (cluster munition remnants)

For a three-month period in 2016, MAG continued its clearance of cluster munition-contamination tasks, which began in 2011, prior to suspending operations March 2016 due to the expiry of funding.[59] During the year, it cleared one area in Equateur province with a total size of 32,403m2 and destroyed 15 submunitions, along with two other items of UXO.[60] This compared to 2015, when MAG cleared a total of 75,845m2 of cluster munition-contaminated area, and destroyed a total of 65 submunitions.[61]

NPA, which was conducting mine survey and clearance operations in Equateur province, was requested by CCLAM to clear a cluster munition-contaminated area with a size of 5,500m2 in Bolomba. During 17 October–18 November 2016, NPA cleared a total of 2,629m2 and released 2,871m2 through technical survey, and destroyed 31 submunitions, including 3 M61 and 28 BL 61, and seven items of UXO.[62]

Clearance of cluster munition-contaminated areas in 2016[63]

Operator

Areas cleared

Area cleared (m²)

Submunitions destroyed

UXO destroyed

MAG

1

32,403

15

2

NPA

1

2,629

31

7

Total

2

35,032

46

9

 

Also, in February 2016, NPA found one BL755 submunition in Katelwa village and two other BL755 submunitions in Sambi village, in Kabalo, Tanganyika (former Katanga) province, in an area not previously reported as an SHA. The area did not, however, appear to contain a footprint of a cluster munition strike, and the individual submunitions were cleared as spot tasks.[64]

Completion of cluster munition land release in 2017

Cluster munition clearance was completed in 2017. One SHA with an unrecorded size was canceled by NPA in April 2017, and NPA completed clearance of the other area, with a size of 3,900m2, on 12 May 2017.[65] It did not expect that more cluster munition remnants would be found in the DRC after its completion of the task in Equateur province, which was the only region where there were reports that cluster munitions had been used.[66]

Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Compliance

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty and in accordance with the six-year extension request granted by States Parties in June 2014, the DRC is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 January 2021. It is on track to meet this deadline. As of mid-2017, according to UNMAS, the DRC should complete clearance by 2019. This is in advance of its deadline but later than the end-2016 deadline set out in its national mine action strategy.[67]

The purpose of its current (second) Article 5 deadline extension is to “(a) conduct technical surveys and clear the 130 identified mined areas; and (b) conduct non-technical and technical surveys as well as clear and/or release areas in the territories of Aru and Dungu in the Orientale province.”[68]

The DRC’s first Article 5 deadline request in 2011 largely blamed poor survey by demining operators for the failure to meet its deadline, though poor management and insufficient national ownership of the program were also major factors.[69] The DRC requested a 26-month interim extension primarily to carry out the national survey to provide it with the information needed to submit another definitive extension request in 2014.[70]

In April 2014, the DRC submitted a second request to extend its Article 5 deadline, starting in January 2015. The extension indicated that at least 30% of the total mined area could be released through technical survey, indicating that some 1.3km2 would need to be cleared.[71] The extension request estimated that on average 0.21km2 would be cleared each year.[72]

The extension request included annual projections of progress to be made during the extension period, though without providing a detailed workplan with a monthly breakdown of activities for each operator in each area in order to achieve these.[73] It also foresaw expenditure of US$20 million, of which some $19.4 million would go to demining the 130 mined areas, while the remainder will be spent on survey and clearance in Aru and Dungu.[74] It announced that the government of the DRC had committed to contribute FC579,831,000 (about $600,000) a year to mine action activities, starting in January 2015.[75] Operators reported, however, that in 2016 no funding was provided by the government for mine action operations, and only very limited support was given to CCLAM.[76] According to UNMAS, in 2017 the government of the DRC did not have a budget allocation for mine action operations.[77]

Over five years in 2012–2016, demining organizations cleared a total of nearly 1.3km2 of mined area (see table below).

Mine clearance in 2012–2016

Year

Area cleared (m2)

2016

257,119

2015

314,562

2014

225,484

2013

110,961

2012

354,189

Total

1,262,315

 

As of September 2017, the DRC had not submitted a detailed workplan on the implementation of its extension request targets nor any annual Article 7 transparency reports since 2014.

The DRC has reported that challenges for implementing its current extension request-planned milestones, include funding and logistics, security, geography, and climate, including dense vegetation and heavy rainy seasons.[78] In June 2015, the DRC reported to States Parties that after six months of implementation of its second extension request, it had concerns over declining international funding and the consequences for its ability to achieve its extension targets.[79]

Operators MAG, HI, and NPA were initially optimistic that DRC would meet its national goal of completing clearance by the end of 2016, but became increasingly less so as the year went on, though they remained confident that the DRC would be able to meet its 2021 Article 5 deadline on time, if not earlier. They attributed the DRC’s inability to finish by the end of 2016 to a lack of access and the remote, difficult terrain of remaining areas, and additional concerns over sustained funding, upcoming elections, and deteriorating security in certain areas.[80]

In 2017, MAG and NPA raised concern over declining funding for mine action in the DRC.[81] UNMAS expected mine action capacity to decrease over the course of the year due to difficulties in obtaining funding, donor concerns over the current political impasse in the country, and higher-impact humanitarian crises such as cholera and yellow fever outbreaks, flooding, and increasing displacement of populations.[82]

 

 

The Monitor acknowledges the contributions of the Mine Action Review (www.mineactionreview.org), which has conducted the mine action research in 2017, including on survey and clearance, and shared all its resulting landmine and cluster munition reports with the Monitor. The Monitor is responsible for the findings presented online and in its print publications.



[1] An escalation of conflict between rebel group M23 and the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) with support of the UN Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO), from August to November 2013, prior to the disbanding of M23, also resulted in new contamination of large areas of land, including roads and access routes, with UXO. UNMAS, “2015 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects, Democratic Republic of the Congo,” undated.

[2] Email from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 20 September 2017. CCLAM, however, reported in December 2016, that a total of 65 CHAs and SHAs comprising 36% of all known mine contamination remained to be addressed, primarily in the north and east of the country. Statement by Sudi Alimasi Kimputu, Coordinator, CCLAM, Mine Ban Treaty Fifteenth Meeting of States Parties, Santiago, 3 December 2016.

[3] Email from Colin Williams, Chief of Operations, UNMAS DRC, 1 September 2016.

[4] Email from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 4 September 2017. On 9 January 2015, the National Assembly of the DRC passed a law that enacted the proposed redistricting under the 2006 Constitution of the DRC’s 11 provinces into 25 provinces, plus Kinshasa.

[5] Email from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 4 September 2017.

[6] Mine Ban Treaty Second Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 7 April 2014, p. 10; and UNMAS, “2015 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects, Democratic Republic of the Congo,” undated.

[7] Mine Ban Treaty Second Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 7 April 2014, p. 10; and UNMAS, “2015 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects, Democratic Republic of the Congo,” undated.

[8] Statement by Sudi Alimasi Kimputu, CCLAM, Mine Ban Treaty Fourteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 1 December 2015. The three provinces were Bandundu, Bas-Congo, and Kinshasa.

[9] Email from Colin Williams, UNMAS, 16 October 2015.

[10] Emails from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 4 September; and from Colin Williams, UNMAS, 17 October 2016, and 16 October 2015; and response to questionnaire by Colin Williams, UNMAS, 19 May 2015.

[11] Email from Pehr Lodhammar, Programme Manager, UNMAS, 5 April 2017.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Response to questionnaire from Michelle Healy, UNMACC, Kinshasa, 29 April 2013. In addition, MONUSCO uses released land for their field bases and airport terminals.

[14] Email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 18 April 2017.

[15] Response to questionnaire by Seydou N’Gaye, and Maryam Walton, HI, 23 March 2017.

[16] Emails from Jean-Denis Larsen, Country Director, NPA, 19 May 2017; from Matthieu Kayisa Ntumba, Operations Manager, NPA, 18 and 20 June 2017; from Colin Williams, UNMAS, 12 June 2017; and from Pehr Lodhammar, UNMAS, 14 April 2017.

[17] Emails from Colin Williams, UNMAS, 6 and 12 June 2017, and 6 May 2016. UNMAS previously reported in 2016 that there were four remaining areas with a total size of 3,840m2 confirmed to contain cluster munition remnants in Equateur province at the end of 2015. In June 2017, it clarified that there were in fact two areas with a size of 3,840m2 and two other areas that had no size estimates at the end of the year. An additional area with a size of 3,900m2 was also identified by NPA in 2016 and cleared in May 2017.

[18] Response to questionnaire by Colin Williams, UNMAS, 19 May 2015; and Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Reports (for calendar years 2012 and 2013), Form F. 


[19] Email from Llewelyn Jones, Director of Programmes, MAG, 7 May 2016. On 9 January 2015, the National Assembly of the DRC passed a law that reorganized the DRC’s 11 provinces into 25 provinces, plus Kinshasa. The area where MAG was operational in Katanga province was renamed as Tanganyika province after the redistricting began to be implemented in July 2015. C. Rigaud, “RDC: le découpage territorial a voté à l’Assemblée” (“DRC: territorial subdivision voted on at the Assembly”), Afrikarabia, 10 January 2015; and email from Fabienne Chassagneux, Regional Director, West and Central Africa, MAG, 15 July 2016. 


[20] Response to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, Country Director, MAG, received by email from Llewelyn Jones, MAG, 8 May 2017.

[23] Response to Cluster Munition Monitor questionnaire by Michelle Healy, UNMACC, 29 April 2013.

[24] UNMAS, “About UNMAS Support of One UN and the GODRC,” March 2016. 


[25] UNMAS, “DRC, Overview,” updated August 2013. 


[26] UN Security Council Resolution 1925, 28 May 2010. 


[27] UN Security Council Resolution 2098, 28 March 2013. 


[28] UNMAS, “DRC: Support to UN Country Team and the Government,” undated. 


[29] UN Security Council Resolution 2147, 28 March 2014; and UNMAS, “DRC Overview,” updated April 2014.

[30] UNMAS, “Support to one UN and the GO of DRC,” March 2017.

[31] DRC, “Plan Stratégique National de Lutte Antimines en République Démocratique du Congo, 2012–2016” (“National Mine Action Strategic Plan in DRC, 2012–2016”), Kinshasa, November 2011, p. 28.

[32] Information provided to Mine Action Review by Åsa Massleberg, Advisor, Strategic Management, GICHD, 20 June 2017.

[33] Information provided to Mine Action Review by Åsa Massleberg, GICHD, 20 June and 21 September 2017.

[34] Email from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 4 September 2016. 


[35] Email from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 14 April 2016.

[36] Email from Pehr Lodhammar, UNMAS, 5 April 2017.

[37] Response to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017.

[38] Email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 18 April 2017.

[39] Response to questionnaire by Seydou N’Gaye, and Maryam Walton, HI, 23 March 2017.

[40] Email from Charlotte Billoir, Programme Cordinator, DCA, 10 November 2017.

[41] Email from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 20 September 2017.

[42] Response to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 23 May 2017.

[43] Response to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 19 May 2017.

[44] Email from Pehr Lodhammar, UNMAS, 5 April 2017.

[45] Email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 18 April 2017.

[46] Email from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 20 September 2017.

[47] Emails from Colin Williams, UNMAS, 6 May 2016, and 19 May 2015.

[48] Responses to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and by Seydou N’Gaye, and Maryam Walton, HI, 23 March 2017; and emails from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 18 April 2017; and from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 4 and 20 September 2017.

[49] Email from Colin Williams, UNMAS, 2 September 2016.

[50] Responses to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and by Seydou N’Gaye, and Maryam Walton, HI, 23 March 2017; and emails from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 18 April and 20 September 2017; from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 20 September 2017; from Maryam Walton, HI, 22 September 2017; from Charlotte Billoir, DCA, 10 November 2017; and from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 4 and 20 September 2017. UNMAS reported discrepancies between the figures reported here by operators and the information contained in the national database.

[51] Responses to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and by Seydou N’Gaye, and Maryam Walton, HI, 23 March 2017; and emails from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 18 April 2017; and from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 4 and 20 September 2017.

[52] Email from Colin Williams, UNMAS, 2 September 2016.

[53] Email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 18 April 2017.

[54] Responses to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and by Seydou N’Gaye, and Maryam Walton, HI, 23 March 2017; and email from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 20 September 2017.

[55] Responses to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and by Seydou N’Gaye, and Maryam Walton, HI, 23 March 2017; and emails from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 18 April and 20 September 2017; from Maryam Walton, HI, 22 September 2017; from Charlotte Billoir, DCA, 10 November 2017; and from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 4 and 20 September 2017. HI reported that clearance of the two areas was not completed in 2016 and remained ongoing as of March 2017. UNMAS reported discrepancies between the figures reported here by operators and the information contained in the national database. According to the information held in the national database, a total of 201,946m2 was cleared in 2016; however, UNMAS stated that operators’ records were not always sent to UNMAS.

[56] Email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 19 May 2017; and responses to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and by Julia Wittig, MAG, 29 May 2015. 


[57] Email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 19 May 2017.

[58] Email from Llewelyn Jones, MAG, 7 May 2016. 


[59] Response to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and email, 9 June 2017.

[60] Email from Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 9 June 2017.

[61] Email from Llewelyn Jones, MAG, 7 May 2016. The majority of which—68,073m2—was in Equateur province, with a further 7,772m2 in Katanga/Tanganyika province.

[62] Emails from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 19 and 23 May 2017.

[63] Email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 19 May 2017; and response to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017.

[64] Emails from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 19 May 2017; and from Matthieu Kayisa Ntumba, NPA, 5 June 2017.

[65] Emails from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 23 May 2017; and from Matthieu Kayisa Ntumba, NPA, 18 and 20 June 2017.

[66] Emails from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 19 and 23 May 2017; from Matthieu Kayisa Ntumba, NPA, 18 and 20 June 2017; from Colin Williams, UNMAS, 12 June 2017; and from Pehr Lodhammar, UNMAS, 14 April 2017.

[67] Email from Steven Harrop, UNMAS, 4 September 2017.

[68] Analysis of DRC’s Article 5 deadline Extension Request, submitted by the President of the Third Review Conference on behalf of the States Parties mandated to analyze requests for extensions, 18 June 2014, p. 5.

[69] Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2011, pp. 3 and 49.

[70] Ibid; and statements of DRC, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Standing Committee on Mine Action, Geneva, 21 June 2011, and 27 May 2013.

[71] Mine Ban Treaty Second Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 7 April 2014, p. 48. 


[72] Ibid., p. 49. 


[73] Ibid., p. 81. 


[74] Ibid., p. 12. 


[75] Ibid., p. 52.

[76] Responses to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and by Seydou N’Gaye, and Maryam Walton, HI, 23 March 2017; and email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 18 April 2017.

[77] Email from Pehr Lodhammar, UNMAS, 5 April 2017.

[78] Analysis of DRC’s Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 18 June 2014, pp. 5–6. The DRC had estimated that on the basis of operational and financial capacity for demining in 2009–2013, mine clearance could be completed within four years; however, additional time would be needed to conduct survey and clearance in the Aru and Dungu territories, thereby totaling the six years requested.

[79] Statement of DRC, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 25 June 2015.

[80] Emails from Llewelyn Jones, MAG, 7 May 2016; from Julien Kempeneers, HI, 14 April 2016; and from Pehr Lodhammar, NPA, 12 April 2016.

[81] Response to questionnaire by Gerard Kerrien, MAG, 8 May 2017; and email from Jean-Denis Larsen, NPA, 18 April 2017.

[82] Email from Pehr Lodhammar, UNMAS, 5 April 2017.

Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 12 November 2017

In 2016, seven donors contributed US$6.2 million toward mine action in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which represents an increase of 6% from 2015.[1]

The largest contributions came from the United States (US) ($1.8 million) and Japan ($1.7 million), together providing more than half the funding.

DRC also received in-kind assistance from Switzerland valued at CHF750,000 ($761,575) to support clearance operations.[2]

Since March 2014 and the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2147, demining activities are no longer included in the mandate of the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO), and consequently since July 2014, MONUSCO is no longer providing support to mine action in DRC through its assessed budget.[3]

DRC has never reported any contributions to its mine action program, but in its Second Article 5 deadline Extension Request submitted in April 2014, DRC committed to providing CDF579,831,000 (approximately $630,000) a year, starting in January 2015.[4]

International contributions: 2016[5]

Donor

Sector

Amount (national currency)

Amount (US$)

US

Clearance and risk education

$1,750,000

1,750,000

Japan

Clearance and risk education

¥187,705,804

1,727,460

Germany

Clearance

€952,454

1,054,557

Norway

Clearance

NOK8,200,000

976,935

Netherlands

Clearance and risk education

€531,365

588,327

United Nations Association (UNA)-Sweden

Risk education

N/A

53,158

South Korea

Clearance and risk education

N/A

25,000

Total

   

6,175,437

 

Since 2012, international contributions to mine action activities in DRC totaled some $44 million, an average of $9 million per year.

DRC’s most recent Mine Ban Treaty extension request projected that a budget of $20 million would be required for 2015–2020, of which $19.4 million would go to demining operations, while the remainder would be used for survey and clearance efforts in Aru and Dungu territories.[6]

Summary of international contributions: 2012–2016[7]

Year

International contributions (US$)

2016

6,175,437

2015

5,811,610

2014

11,262,810

2013

8,722,071

2012

13,213,199

Total

45,185,127

 



[1] Germany, Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) Amended Protocol II Annual Report, Form E, and Annex, 31 March 2017; Japan, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2017; response to Monitor questionnaire by Olivia Douwes, Policy Officer, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 16 June 2017; email from Ingrid Schoyen, Senior Adviser, Section for Humanitarian Affairs, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 31 May 2017; South Korea, CCW Amended Protocol II Annual Report, Form B, 26 April 2017; UNMAS, “Annual Report 2016,” March 2017, p. 32; and email from Steve Costner, Deputy Office Director, Weapons Removal and Abatement, US Department of State, 30 October 2017.

[2] Switzerland, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form I, 28 April 2017. Average exchange rate for 2016: CHF0.9848=US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 4 January 2017.

[3] UN Security Council Resolution 2147, 28 March 2014; and UNMAS, “DRC Overview,” undated.

[4] DRC, Mine Ban Treaty Second Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 7 April 2014, p. 52. Average exchange rate for 2014: US$1=CDF923.986, Oanda.com, Historical Exchange Rates.

[5] Average exchange rate for 2015: €1=US$1.1072; ¥108.66=US$1; NOK8.3936=US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 4 January 2017.

[7] See previous Monitor reports. Totals for international support in 2015 and 2014 have been rectified as a result of revised US funding data.

Casualties

Last updated: 16 June 2017

Casualties Overview

All known casualties by end 2016

2,579 (1,073 killed; 1,500 injured; 6 unknown)

Casualties occurring in 2016

37 (2015: 16)

2016 casualties by survival outcome

9 killed; 28 injured (2015: 7 killed; 9 injured)

2016 casualties by device type

36 explosive remnants of war (ERW); 1 improvised mine

 

The UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) reported 37 mine/ERW casualties in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for 2016.[1] As in previous years, children constituted a significant portion of all casualties, with nearly three quarters of casualties being minors (27). All casualties were civilians, including 10 females (two women; seven girls; 1 of unknown age) and 27 males (four men; 20 boys; three of unknown age).[2]

All casualties were caused by ERW, except one that was caused by an improvised mine (victim-activated improvised explosive device, IED).

The 2016 casualty total represented a significant increase from the 16 mine/ERW casualties recorded for 2015, but remained less than the 47 casualties recorded by UNMAS for 2014.[3]

It has been frequently and repeatedly reported that available casualty data significantly underrepresents the true number of people killed and injured, due to the absence of a national data collection system for mine/ERW casualties and the fact that parts of the country remain inaccessible, owing to a lack of infrastructure and security constraints.[4]

UNMAS reported 2,579 mine/ERW casualties between 1964 and the end of 2015,[5] with 1,073 people killed, 1,500 injured, and six cases in which it was unknown if the casualties survived.[6] Of all casualties, 1,660 were male and about a quarter (629) were female.[7] Children represented 44% (1,127) of the total casualties. Casualties were identified in all of DRC’s 11 provinces, although more than half of all casualties occurred in just three provinces: South Kivu (23%), Equateur (21%), and North Kivu (19%).[8]

Cluster munition casualties

Unexploded cluster submunitions caused 207 casualties in DRC through the end of 2016.[9] The last unexploded submunition casualties identified in disaggregated data occurred in 2010.



[1] Email from King Venance Ngoma Kilema, National Operations Officer, UNMAS, 2 May 2017.

[2] The age and sex of two casualties were unknown.

[3] Emails from King Venance Ngoma Kilema, UNMAS, 22 July 2015, and 27 May 2016.

[4] Ministry of Social Affairs, “Plan Stratégique National d’Assistance aux Victimes des Mines/REG et autres Personnes en Situation de Handicap: Novembre 2010–Octobre 2011” (“National Strategic Plan for Assistance for mine/ERW Victims and other Persons with Disabilities: November 2010–October 2011,” PSNAVH), Kinshasa, 24 February 2011, p. 20; email from King Venance Ngoma Kilema, UNMAS, 22 July 2015; statement of DRC, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Standing Committee Meetings, Geneva, 19 May 2016; response to Monitor questionnaire by Baudouin Asubeti Milongo, Victim assistance focal point, Congolese Mine Action Center (Centre Congolais de Lutte Anti-Mines, CCLAM), 11 July 2016; and email from King Venance Ngoma Kilema, 2 May 2017.

[5] In 2017, UNMAS reported 2,573 mine/ERW casualties and noted that the UNMAS database is only able to disaggregate data from 2014 until 2017; prior to 2014 the data was not disaggregated and some data was lost.

[6] Analysis of casualty data provided by Aurélie Fabry, UNMAS, Kinshasa, 15 April 2014; and analysis of casualty data provided by King Venance Ngoma Kilema, UNMAS, 22 July 2015.

[7] The sex of 301 casualties was unknown.

[8] Analysis of casualty data provided by Aurélie Fabry, UNMAS, Kinshasa, 15 April 2014; and by King Venance Ngoma Kilema, UNMAS, 22 July 2015, and 27 May 2016. In May 2017, UNMAS reported that the total number of casualties in DRC was 2,573, slightly less than the figure reported by the Monitor for the end of 2015. However, UNMAS stated that some data had been lost. Email from King Venance Ngoma Kilema, UNMAS, 2 May 2017.

[9] Analysis of casualty data provided by Aurélie Fabry, UNMAS, Kinshasa, 15 April 2014; and by King Venance Ngoma Kilema, UNMAS, 22 July 2015, and 27 May 2016. In the limited casualty dataset for DRC provided in 2017, only 157 submunition casualties were recorded. Analysis of casualty data provided by King Venance Ngoma Kilema, UNMAS, 2 May 2017.

Victim Assistance

Last updated: 30 October 2017

Action points based on findings

  • Improve the availability of physical rehabilitation and psychosocial services significantly throughout the country, especially outside the capital city; increase resources to establish these services.
  • Identify sustainable resources for assistance as a key priority; since most funding ended, many NGOs that provide victim assistance depend on irregular international funding channeled through the mine action sector.
  • Ensure that effective mechanisms are in place for victim assistance coordination.
  • Work towards forming a sustainable planning and coordination mechanism that recognizes and addresses victim assistance requirements at national and local levels.

Victim assistance commitments

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is responsible for a significant number of survivors of landmines, cluster munition victims, and survivors of other explosive remnants of war (ERW) who are in need. DRC has made commitments to provide victim assistance through the Mine Ban Treaty and has obligations to cluster munition victims as a signatory to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

DRC acceded to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 30 September 2015.

Victim Assistance

By the end of 2016, UNMAS had recorded 1,073 killed mine/ERW survivors in DRC.[1]

Victim assistance since 2015

Victim assistance stakeholders have largely worked from the results of the 2011 victim identification and needs assessment campaigns, conducted as part of the implementation of the National Strategic Plan for Assistance for Mine/ERW Victims and other Persons with Disabilities: November 2010–October 2011 (Plan Stratégique National d’Assistance aux Victimes des Mines/REG et autres Personnes en Situation de Handicap: Novembre 2010–Octobre 2011, PSNAVH).[2] Close to 500 mine/ERW survivors were identified among 1,000 persons with disabilities surveyed, identifying needs in healthcare, physical rehabilitation, and economic inclusion.[3]

Most persons with disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors, in DRC continued to be unable to access services. Due to conflict, poverty, and mass displacement, the many needs of persons with disabilities were not met. Access to services ranged from limited to non-existent and was further hampered by long distances, inaccessible terrain, and cost. Most services have been provided by NGOs. Conflict increased demands on services at the same time that some NGOs also faced funding difficulties.

The physical rehabilitation sector remained under-resourced and the few functioning centers remained dependent on international support. Social workers within the healthcare system had received some basic training. Opportunities for psychological assistance were limited to ad hoc NGO projects.

Victim assistance in 2016

The security situation in DRC remained volatile in 2016 and further deteriorated in several provinces, primarily North Kivu, Tanganyika (formerly part of the Katanga province), and Kasai towards the end of the year. Armed violence, ethnic tensions, and criminality were on the rise in these areas, which continued to have the most casualties, suffering from displacement, the destruction of livelihoods and property, and other abuses against civilians. This was further exacerbated by the postponement of presidential elections, which generated political unrest and the general deterioration of the socioeconomic situation throughout the country.[4] International funding for victim assistance was worryingly low in 2016. Diminished funding for victim assistance, or a lack thereof, has been experienced in DRC for several years, leading to already insufficient services to either be unable to respond to the needs or disappear altogether. In 2016, this situation further led to a stagnation in the number of actors and geographical coverage.[5] Psychological support and care remained among the biggest challenges in mine/ERW victim assistance in DRC in 2016, as it has been for several years.[6]

As in previous years, the size of the country, combined with the lack of transportation and infrastructure, armed violence, and the financial cost of obtaining assistance all made it difficult for survivors to access the limited number of services, which were available only in major cities.[7]

Assessing victim assistance needs

No new victim assistance needs assessments were conducted in 2016.[8]

From January to March 2016, the Ministry of Social Affairs conducted a wide-area data collection exercise on persons with disabilities in 11 provincial capital cities (Goma, Bukavu, Kindu, Lubumbashi, Mbandaka, Matadi, Kinshasa, Mbuji-Mayi, Kanaga, Bandundu, and Kisangani). This exercise was aimed at informing the development of a five-year strategic plan on the protection and promotion of persons with disabilities in DRC.[9]

Victim assistance coordination in 2016[10]

Government coordinating body/focal point

Ministry of Social Affairs, Humanitarian Action, and National Solidarity (Ministry of Social Affairs)

Coordinating mechanism

No effective mechanism

Plan

PSNAVH (November 2010–October 2011); the National Mine Action Strategy 2012–2016 also includes a section on victim assistance

 

From 2013 through 2016, the Working Group on Victim Assistance (Groupe de Travail sur l’Assistance aux Victimes)—created in 2011 and chaired by the Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs of the Ministry of Social Affairs[11]—remained inoperative,[12] and at least one NGO considered that this working group no longer existed.[13] Since the disengagement of UNMAS, starting in 2014 with the closure of several offices[14] and transfer of coordination efforts to the Congolese Mine Action Center (Centre Congolais de Lutte Anti-Mines, CCLAM), there has been a general halt in coordination efforts.[15] The Sub-cluster on Disabilities, falling under the Health Cluster, assumed for a while the role of coordination and planning,[16] however, since 2014, this sub-cluster did not meet.[17] The only coordination mechanism that remained active and effective in 2016 was the Physical Rehabilitation Sub-Group, facilitated by the ICRC in Kinshasa,[18] which met once every quarter.[19]

The National Strategic Mine Action Plan for the period 2012–2016 included a chapter on victim assistance that draws on the PSNAVH.[20] Five strategic objectives have been set for victim assistance: (1) improved information and data management on survivors and their needs; (2) strengthened physical rehabilitation nationally; (3) development of psychological support in accordance with victims’ needs; (4) ensuring access to socioeconomic and professional rehabilitation; and (5) strengthened coordination mechanisms on victim rehabilitation.[21]

Funding to ensure the implementation of the victim assistance section of the National Mine Action Plan remained a key challenge throughout 2016.[22] Since UNMAS ended funding for victim assistance in 2014, many local NGOs that depended almost entirely on funds raised by UNMAS had to suspend or close their operations, which led to a significant decrease in the number of service providers.[23] In November 2015, Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) received funding from the government of Japan for a Mine Action project, which included capacity-building for the CCLAM, in particular for keeping and updating mine action databases, including on victim assistance.[24] However, no significant improvement in the availability of data on new victims and survivors was noted in 2016.

DRC made a statement at the Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings in May 2016, in which it noted the severe lack of funding for victim assistance and also said that it needs to improve the availability of physical rehabilitation and psychosocial services significantly.[25] As of 1 October 2017, DRC had not submitted its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report for calendar year 2014, 2015, or 2016. Victim assistance was reported in Form H of DRC’s voluntary Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 reports submitted in 2011, 2012, and 2013, but only briefly, with no detail or data.

Inclusion and participation in victim assistance

In 2016, mine/ERW survivors and their representative organizations, as well as disabled persons’ organizations (DPOs), were invited to the few meetings organized on victim assistance held in Kinshasa.[26] In 2016, survivors participated in the provision of economic inclusion services, as well as in advocacy activities and peer support programs carried out by NGOs.[27]

Service accessibility and effectiveness

Victim assistance activities in 2016[28]

Name of organization

Type of organization

Type of activity

Changes in quality/coverage of service in 2016

National Community-Based Rehabilitation Program (Programme National de Réadaptation à Base Communautaire, PNRBC)

Government

Ministry of Health’s coordinating body for community-based rehabilitation (CBR); physical rehabilitation; capacity-building in communities

Increased geographical coverage: extended activities to Kasai and Kwilu provinces for the delivery of wheelchairs. However, insecurity in Kasai led to the suspension of activities in this province

National Committee of Organizations for Persons with Disabilities and on Mine Victim Assistance (Collectif National des Organisations des Personnes Handicapées et d’Assistance aux Victimes de Mines, CNOPHAVM)

Coalition of National NGOs

Peer support activities; advocacy, advocacy training for survivors

Ongoing

Action for the Complete Development of Communities (Action pour le Développement Intégral par la conservation Communautaire, ADIC)

National NGO

Victim assistance services; economic inclusion activities; advocacy and awareness-raising activities

Reduced coverage due to lack of funding

Bureau for Development and Emergency Actions (Bureau des Actions de Développement et des Urgences, BADU)

National NGO

Victim assistance services; economic inclusion activities; advocacy and awareness-raising activities

Reduced coverage due to lack of funding

Africa for the Struggle against Landmines (Afrique pour la Lutte Antimines, AFRILAM)

National NGO

Victim assistance services; economic inclusion activities

Ongoing

ANASDIV

National NGO

Social and economic inclusion; advocacy activities for assistance to mine/ERW survivors and other persons with disabilities; peer support through CNOPHAVM

Opened a new office in Beni, North Kivu province

 

Congolese Campaign to Ban Landmines and Cluster Munitions (CCBL)

National NGO

Victim assistance service provision (economic inclusion and psychological support); victim assistance advocacy on CRPD ratification and a national disability law; peer support through CNOPHAVM

Reduced geographical coverage due to lack of funding and only active in Kinshasa in 2016

Synergy for the Struggle against Landmines (Synergie pour la Lutte Antimines, SYLAM)

National NGO

Social and economic inclusion; services for mine/ERW victims in the eastern part of North Kivu

Ongoing

Handicap International (HI)

International NGO

Physical rehabilitation services; capacity-building of local NGOs and physical rehabilitation stakeholders; advocacy; psychosocial support

Launched a new project for assistance of victims of conflict in North Kivu province, which includes physical rehabilitation and psychosocial support activities

ICRC

International organization

Physical rehabilitation and prosthetics, including training staff; treatment, transport, and accommodation costs for beneficiaries, and supporting a referral network; social inclusion of survivors and victims of conflict

Efforts to progressively increase support in the social inclusion sector

 

Medical care

Emergency and continuing medical care continued to have limited support through government medical structures and there was a lack of accessible healthcare across DRC.[29] It was reported that, in most cases, survivors are not able to receive appropriate support in cases of mine/ERW incidents, resulting in more fatalities.[30]

Physical rehabilitation including prosthetics

The long distances to services, high financial costs of attaining them, and insecurity remained the greatest obstacles to accessing physical rehabilitation.[31] The PSNAVH estimated that just 20% of the population in need of physical rehabilitation services were able to access them.[32] There were only six rehabilitation centers operating effectively in the entire country. Even these lacked sufficient materials to produce enough prosthetics to meet existing needs. Trained orthopedic technicians were needed, especially in mine-affected areas.[33] In 2016, the ICRC continued to providing technical support, equipment, and materials to four physical rehabilitation centers (located in Bukavu, Goma, and Kinshasa) and a workshop.[34] Support of Handicap International (HI) to the Kinshasa General Provincial Reference Hospital’s Orthopedic Center allowed for increased availability of quality services.[35]

The ICRC also continued to cover the treatment costs of people directly affected by the conflict, including 44 mine/ERW survivors. The ICRC improved services at 22 health facilities, including physical rehabilitation centers with construction and repairs.[36] The number of prostheses produced overall with ICRC support in 2016 was similar compared to 2015, and thus remained significantly higher than in previous years.[37] However, in 2016, mine/ERW survivors only received 6% of all prosthetic devices produced with the assistance of the ICRC,[38] which was the same as in the previous two years, but continued the decrease compared to 16% in 2012 and 10% in 2013.[39]

In 2016, HI continued to provide funding and support to the General Provincial Reference Hospital in Kinshasa and its orthopedic workshop, which opened the previous year. Twelve local technicians were trained within the framework of the TEAM CONGO project (Training, economic empowerment, and medical/physical (re)habilitation services for the Democratic Republic of the Congo).[40]

Social and economic inclusion

The USAID-funded TEAM project implemented by HI also promoted the socioeconomic inclusion of persons with disabilities—in particular women and girls—living in Kinshasa and Kananga.[41]

In 2016, the Ministry of Education increased its special education outreach efforts but estimated it was educating fewer than 6,000 children with disabilities.[42] Throughout the year, HI worked to improve access to inclusive education for children with disabilities, particularly girls, through the support of 10 schools where the organization trains teachers, improves the accessibility of school buildings, and reaches out to parents in the community to encourage them to send children with disabilities to school.[43] In 2016, the ICRC also supported inclusive education by taking care of school fees for 13 children with disabilities, of whom eight were conflict victims, in Goma, Bukavu, and Kinshasa.[44]

In 2016, mine/ERW survivors in Kinshasa gathered every month through the Association for the Unity of Mine Survivors (Association pour le Rassemblement des Survivants de Mines, ARASM) to ensure peer support and overcome trauma.[45] In 2016, the ICRC continued to strengthen its activities on psychosocial support and inclusion for persons with disabilities. Psychosocial assistance was provided at two centers and the Goma hospital. The ICRC also provided support to the Congolese team participating in the 2016 Summer Paralympics.[46]

Laws and policy

The 2005 constitution includes special mention of support of war veterans and persons with disabilities resulting from war. It also prohibits discrimination against all persons with disabilities, stipulates that all citizens must have access to public services (including education), and provides that persons with disabilities are afforded specific protection by the government.[47] However, the legislation was not effectively enforced and persons with disabilities often found it difficult to obtain employment, education, or government services. The legislation did not mandate access to buildings or government services for persons with disabilities.[48] New regulations on physical accessibility of school buildings were adopted in 2015 by the ministry responsible for primary and secondary education, with the support of HI’s inclusive education project,[49] but these regulations were not successfully implemented.[50]

A legislative proposal for a new law on protecting persons with disabilities and promoting their rights was drafted in 2012, with the involvement of NGOs. By December 2016, the draft had not been approved.[51] In June 2016, the Ministry of Social Affairs organized high-level consultations on disabilities and adopted a National Strategic Plan for the Promotion and Protection of Persons with Disabilities.[52]



[1] Casualty data provided by King Venance Ngoma Kilema, UNMAS, 27 May 2016, and 2 May 2017.

[2] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Louis Ibonge Numbi, Ministry of Social Affairs, Kinshasa, 3 May 2013; by Douglas Kilama, UNMACC, Kinshasa, 3 June 2013; by Francky Miantuala, National Committee of Organizations for Persons with Disabilities and on Mine Victim Assistance (Collectif National des Organisations des Personnes Handicapées et d’Assistance aux Victimes de Mines, CNOPHAVM), Kinshasa, 20 April 2013; by Valentin Tshitenge, Head of Medico-Social Care for Persons with Disabilities at the National Program for Community-Based Rehabilitation (Programme National de Réhabilitation à Base Communautaire, PNRBC), Kinshasa, 8 April 2013; and by Christophe Asukulu M’Kulukulu, Action for the Complete Development of Communities (Action pour le Développement Intégral par la conservation Communautaire, ADIC), Bukavu, 14 March 2014.

[3] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Louis Ibonge Numbi, Ministry of Social Affairs, Kinshasa, 25 May 2012.

[4] ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, 6 June 2017, p. 124.

[5] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, Coordinator, Congolese Campaign to ban Landmines (CCBL), Kinshasa, 31 May 2017; by Ngubo Selemani Longange, Head of MRE and Victim Assistance Department, CCLAM, Kinshasa, 2 June 2017; by Franck Mbizi Mwana Mu Mwana, Directorate for the Coordination of Rehabilitation activities towards Persons with Disabilities (DICOREPHA), Ministry of Social Affairs, Kaza Vubu, 24 May 2017; and by Valentin Tshitenge, PNRBC, Kinshasa, 24 May 2017.

[6] See previous editions of the Monitor.

[7] Ministry of Social Affairs, “PSNAVH,” Kinshasa, 24 February 2011; statement of DRC, Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference, Maputo, 24 June 2015; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Valentin Tshitenge, PNRBC, 18 July 2016.

[8] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017; and by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017.

[9] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Franck Mbizi Mwana Mu Mwana, DICOREPHA, Ministry of Social Affairs, 24 May 2017; by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017; and by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017; and Ministry of Social Affairs, Humanitarian Action, and National Solidarity, “Data collection report on persons with disabilities in DRC,” prepared by Félicité Langwana and Jean Bitumba, March 2016.

[10] Statement of DRC, Mine Ban Treaty Twelfth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 4 December 2012; statement of DRC, Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference, Maputo, 24 June 2014; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Louis Ibonge Numbi, CCLAM, Kinshasa, 17 April 2014; by Michel Omba Mabangi, CCLAM, 20 May 2015; by Baudouin Asubeti Milongo, CCLAM, 11 July 2016; by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017; by Jean Marie Kiadi Ntoto, UNMACC, Kinshasa, 12 April 2012; by Francky Miantuala, CNOPHAVM, 2 April 2014, 11 May 2015, and 11 April 2016; by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017; by Maryam Walton, Mine Action Coordinator, Handicap International (HI), Goma, 31 May 2017; and by Valentin Tshitenge, PNRBC, 18 July 2016, and 24 May 2017; interview with Francky Miantuala, CNOPHAVM, in Geneva, 21 June 2015; and National Strategic Mine Action Plan in the Democratic Republic of Congo 2012–2016.

[11] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Louis Ibonge Numbi, CCLAM, Kinshasa, 25 May 2012; and by Jean Marie Kiadi Ntoto, UNMACC, Kinshasa, 12 April 2012.

[12] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017; and by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017.

[13] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maryam Walton, HI, Goma, 31 May 2017.

[14] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Michel Omba Mabangi, CCLAM, 20 May 2015; and interview with Francky Miantuala, CNOPHAVM, in Geneva, 21 June 2015.

[15] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Baudouin Asubeti Milongo, CCLAM, 11 July 2016.

[16] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CNOPHAVM, Kinshasa, 11 May 2015; and by Michel Omba Mabangi, CCLAM, 20 May 2015; and interview with Francky Miantuala, CNOPHAVM, in Geneva, 21 June 2015.

[17] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Valentin Tshitenge, PNRBC, 18 July 2016; and by Francky Miantuala, CNOPHAVM, 11 April 2016.

[18] Responses to Monitor questionnaires by Valentin Tshitenge, PNRBC, 24 May 2017; by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017; and by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017.

[19] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Valentin Tshitenge, PNRBC, 24 May 2017.

[20] Statement of DRC, Mine Ban Treaty Twelfth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 4 December 2012; and responses to Monitor questionnaire by Michel Omba Mabangi, CCLAM, 20 May 2015; and by Francky Miantuala, CNOPHAVM, Kinshasa, 11 May 2015.

[21] National Strategic Mine Action Plan in the Democratic Republic of Congo 2012–2016, pp. 38–40.

[22] Statement of DRC, Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference, Maputo, 24 June 2014; and responses to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CNOPHAVM, Kinshasa, 11 April 2016; by Baudouin Asubeti Milongo, CCLAM, 11 July 2016; by Valentin Tshitenge, PNRBC, 24 May 2017; and by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017.

[23] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CNOPHAVM, Kinshasa, 11 May 2015; and interview in Geneva, 21 June 2015.

[24] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Baudouin Asubeti Milongo, CCLAM, 11 July 2016.

[25] Statement of DRC, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 19 May 2016.

[26] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017.

[27] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017.

[28] Ibid.; by Valentin Tshitenge, PNRBC, 24 May 2017; by Marc Liandier, Head of Physical Rehabilitation Project, ICRC, Kinshasa, 1 June 2017; by Maryam Walton, HI, 31 May 2017; by Franck Mbizi Mwana Mu Mwana, DICOREPHA, Ministry of Social Affairs, 24 May 2017; by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017; and by Christiane Matabaro, ANASDIV, Kinshasa, June 2017; ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, May 2016; United States (US) Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Democratic Republic of the Congo,” Washington, DC, 3 March 2017; and HI, “DRC Country Profile,” undated.

[29] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017; and by Valentin Tshitenge, PNRBC, 24 May 2017.

[30] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Ministry of Social Affairs, “PSNAVH,” Kinshasa, 24 February 2011, p. 20.

[33] Ministry of Social Affairs, “PSNAVH,” Kinshasa, 24 February 2011.

[34] ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, 6 June 2017, p. 126.

[35] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017; and by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017.

[36] ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, May 2016, pp. 126 and 128.

[37] Ibid., p. 128; ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, May 2016, p. 138; ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, pp. 33–34; ICRC, “Annual Report 2013,” Geneva, 14 May 2014, p. 141; ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2012,” Geneva, September 2013, p. 32; ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2011,” Geneva, May 2012, p. 31; and ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2010,” Geneva, June 2011, p. 27. ICRC-supported centers produced 670 prostheses in 2010, 356 prostheses in 2011, 272 prostheses in 2012, 289 prostheses in 2013, 320 prostheses in 2014, 493 prostheses in 2015, and 438 prostheses in 2016.

[38] ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, May 2016, p. 128.

[39] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2012,” Geneva, September 2013, p. 32; ICRC, “Annual Report 2013,” Geneva, 14 May 2014, p. 141; ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, pp. 29–30; and ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, May 2016, p. 128.

[40] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017; and by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017.

[41] HI, “DRC Country Profile,” undated; and responses to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017; and by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017.

[42] US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Democratic Republic of the Congo,” Washington, DC, 3 March 2017.

[43] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017; and HI, “DRC Country Profile,” undated.

[44] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Marc Liandier, ICRC, 1 June 2017.

[45] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017.

[46] ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, May 2016, p. 126; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Marc Liandier, ICRC, 1 June 2017.

[48] US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Democratic Republic of the Congo,” Washington, DC, 3 March 2017.

[49] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Baudouin Asubeti Milongo, CCLAM, 11 July 2016.

[50] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017.

[51] Ibid.; and by Franck Mbizi Mwana Mu Mwana, DICOREPHA, Ministry of Social Affairs, 24 May 2017.

[52] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Franck Mbizi Mwana Mu Mwana, DICOREPHA, Ministry of Social Affairs, 24 May 2017; by Francky Miantuala, CCBL, 31 May 2017; and by Ngubo Selemani Longange, CCLAM, 2 June 2017; and report of the Consultations on the situation of persons with disabilities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, 2–4 June 2016.