Last updated: 26 June 2018



All known casualties

Unknown. Estimates vary, including of up to 60,000 or over 88,000 persons injured by mines/explosive remnants of war (ERW)[2]

Casualties in 2017

Annual total


2% decrease from 44 in 2016

Survival outcome

25 killed; 18 injured

Device type causing casualties

12 antipersonnel mines; 3 antivehicle mines; 23 ERW; 5 undifferentiated mines/ERW

Civilian status

42 civilian; 1 deminer

6 unknown

Age and gender

17 adults:
1 woman; 15 men; 1 unknown

20 children:
18 boys; 2 girls



Casualties in 2017—details

There is no national casualty surveillance system. The 2017 mine/ERW casualty data for the Republic of Angola was provided by three demining operators: HALO Trust, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), and Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA). Therefore, casualties were only reported in the provinces where these NGOs are conducting mine clearance: Benguela, Bié, Huambo, Kuando Kubango, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, and Zaire.

MAG reported that in the three provinces whaere it works—Moxico, Lunda Norte, and Lunda Sul—accidents probably go unreported due to lack of communication and reporting systems.[3] In a 2015 report, HALO also noted that “anecdotally, the heavy toll of landmines in Angola is well known. However, at national and provincial levels Angola has always lacked an effective mechanism for systematic recording of accident data and as a result, its impact is underestimated.”[4]

HALO conducted a desk review of all mine/ERW incidents in the country between 1975 and 2015, combining media reports with their own survey and data records. In 2016 and 2017, HALO updated its findings based on resurvey of mined areas. As of 31 March 2017, HALO has identified 1,651 casualties from 815 mine/ERW incidents in nine provinces.[5] While not representative of all casualties in those provinces over the time period, the review indicates that antivehicle mines are the most common cause of injury and that the fatality rate from explosive devices was higher than previously believed. The review also indicates that the years with the most mine/ERW casualties were 2002 and 2003, when Angolans returned to their homes after the conclusion of the civil war.[6]

As of the end of 2014, the National Intersectorial Commission for Humanitarian Demining and Assistance (CNIDAH) had registered 9,165 survivors in the provinces of Benguela, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huíla, Malanje, Namibe, Uíge, and Zaire as part of its national mine/ERW victim survey.[7] The survey was suspended due to a lack of funds. CNIDAH estimates that the total number of injured mine/ERW casualties may be between 40,000 and 60,000.[8]

The Angolan government conducted a nationwide census in 2014, according to which, 88,716 people were living with a disability caused by landmines or other explosive devices. Survivors were identified in all 18 provinces with one-quarter living in Luanda. Mine and ERW survivors represented one-eighth of the total population of persons with disabilities, with 2.5% of the Angolan population identified as persons with disabilities.[9]

Cluster munition casualties

CNIDAH’s national victim survey identified at least 354 cluster munition survivors, all in the province of Huambo.[10] The 2014 and 2015 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reports included these figures. Subsequent information has not reconfirmed this data and calls this total into question. The survey of survivors in Huambo was conducted by the Institute for the Support of Vulnerable Children (Instituto ao Apoio a crianca Vulneravel, IACV), which is not a mine action organization, and the survey questionnaire used by the IACV did not specifically identify cluster munitions as a possible cause of injury.[11] In 2015, HALO conducted a desk review of all known landmine and ERW incidents from 1975 through 2015. While the review was limited to HALO’s area of operations, including Huambo province, in the course of the review it could not identify any cluster munition victims.[12] NPA compiled a desk review on potential cluster munition contamination in Angola but did not record any cluster munition casualties, despite documenting clearance and identifying some unexploded cluster munitions.[13] As such, reports of cluster munitions victims in Angola could not be confirmed as of May 2017.

[1] Unless otherwise indicated, casualty data for 2017 is based on emails from Joaquim da Costa, Acting Country Director, Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), 22 February 2018; from Gerhard Zank, Programme Manager, HALO Trust, 17 February 2018; and from Jeanette Dijkstra, Country Director, MAG, 8 February 2018.

[2] Interview with Adriano Goncalves, Head of International Relations, National Intersectorial Commission for Humanitarian Demining and Assistance (CNIDAH), Geneva, 8 June 2018.

[3] Email from Jeanette Dijkstra, MAG, 8 February 2018.

[4] HALO Trust, “Mine/ERW Accident Report: Angola 1975–2015; Benguela, Bié, Huambo, Huila, Kuando Kubango and Kwanza Sul,” undated.

[5] Email from Gerhard Zank, HALO Trust, 23 April 2017; and see, HALO Trust, “Angola ERW Accident Report: 1975–2015; Bie, Benguela, Huambo, Huila, Kuando Kubango and Kwanza Sul,” undated. The nine provinces where casualties have been reported are Bie, Bengo, Benguela, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kuando Kubango, Namibe, and Kwanza Sul.

[6] HALO Trust, “Angola ERW Accident Report: 1975–2015; Bie, Benguela, Huambo, Huila, Kuando Kubango and Kwanza Sul,” undated.

[7] There were nine provinces still to be surveyed as of the end of 2014. CNIDAH, “Relatório Anual do ‘Projecto Nacional de Recolha e Actualização de Dados sobre as Pessoas com deficiência Vítima de Minas’ – 2014” (“Annual Report of ‘National Project to Collect and Update Data regarding Persons with Disabilities, Mine Victims’ – 2014”), Luanda, undated.

[8] Interview with Adriano Goncalves, CNIDAH, Geneva, 8 June 2018.

[9] National Institute of Statistics (INE), “Resultados Definitivos Recenseamento Geral da Populacao e Habitacao – 2014,” 28 March 2016. Quadro 8 - População portadora de deficiência por província e área de residência, segundo as causas da deficiência e sexo. Angola had previously estimated that there were 70,000 to 80,000 mine survivors in Angola, representing 78% of all persons with disabilities. Approximately two-thirds of survivors being concentrated in Luanda, with others found in the mine-affected provinces of Bié, Huambo, Malange, and Moxico. For this and other estimates of casualty totals see previous victim assistance profiles in the Monitor.

[10] Email from Nsimba Paxe, CNIDAH, Luanda, 3 April 2013. Angola also reported identifying 1,497 cluster munition victims in Huambo province through the same survey. Statement of Angola, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fourth Meeting of States Parties, 9–13 September 2013.

[11] Interview with Nsimba Paxe, CNIDAH, in Luanda, 27 June 2016.

[12] HALO Trust, “Angola ERW Accident Report: 1975–2015; Bie, Benguela, Huambo, Huila, Kuando Kubango and Kwanza Sul,” undated.

[13] Mario Nunes, NPA, “Cluster Munitions Remnants: Desk Assessment Report,” 5 February 2016.