Cluster Munition Ban Policy
Summary: Signatory Indonesia has made little progress to ratify the convention after years of stakeholder consultations. It has participated in many of the convention’s meetings, most recently in September 2016. Indonesia voted in favor of a key United Nations (UN) resolution promoting the convention in December 2017.
Indonesia states that it has never used, produced, or exported cluster munitions. It has yet to disclose the types and quantities of its stockpiled cluster munitions.
The Republic of Indonesia signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008.
Indonesia has made little progress to ratify the convention over the past decade other than stakeholder consultations. In October 2017, a government representative said that stakeholder consultations on the convention are continuing. Previously, in 2015, another official said that Indonesia was consolidating internal issues relating to its implementation of the convention. Another representative said the convention was awaiting parliamentary approval.
Indonesia actively participated in the Oslo Process that created the Convention on Cluster Munitions and was one of the strongest supporters of a comprehensive ban on the weapon. It hosted a regional conference on the convention in Bali in November 2009.
Indonesia has participated in several meetings of the convention, most recently in September 2016. It was invited to but did not attend the Seventh Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in September 2017. Indonesia attended the convention’s intersessional meetings in 2011–2015. It has participated regional workshops on the convention, most recently in Bangkok, Thailand in March 2017.
In December 2017, Indonesia voted in favor of a key UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution that urges states outside the Convention on Cluster Munitions to “join as soon as possible.” It voted in favor of previous UNGA resolutions promoting the convention in 2015 and 2016.
Indonesia has voted in favor of UNGA resolutions expressing outrage at the use of cluster munitions in Syria. It has also voted in favor of Human Rights Council resolutions condemning the cluster munition attacks.
Indonesia is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.
Use, production, and transfer
Indonesia has stated that it has never used, produced, or exported cluster munitions.
Indonesia stockpiles cluster munitions, but it has not disclosed information on the types and quantities.
According to Jane’s Information Group, it possesses US-made Rockeye cluster bombs.
Indonesia has not responded to an April 2017 letter from the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) requesting clarification on a report that it received Brazilian-made ASTROS II, a type of multi-barrel rocket launcher, and SS-40, SS-60, and/or SS-80 cargo rockets in or after 2012. Rockets containing explosive submunitions are prohibited by the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
 Indonesia has conducted extensive consultations on the convention since 2010 as part of its ratification of the convention. Indonesia’s armed forces, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Law and Human Rights Affairs, and members of parliament have reviewed and discussed the ban convention. Statement of Indonesia, Convention on Cluster Munitions Second Meeting of States Parties, Beirut, 13 September 2011; interview with Roy Soemirat, Head of Section, Directorate of International Security and Disarmament, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Jakarta, 5 April 2011; and email from Luna Amanda Fahmi, Directorate of International Security and Disarmament, Department of Foreign Affairs, 18 June 2010.
 Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) meeting with Danny Rahdiansyah, First Secretary, Permanent Mission of Indonesia to the UN, New York, 18 October 2017.
 CMC campaign meeting with Amb. Agus Sardjana, in Dubrovnik, 9 September 2015. Notes by the CMC.
 Monitor interview with Lynda K. Wardhani, Counsellor, Permanent Mission of the Republic of Indonesia to the UN, Geneva, 24 June 2015.
 For more details on Indonesia’s policy and practice up to early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 91–92.
 Indonesia participated in the convention’s Meetings of States Parties in 2011–2012 and 2016 as well as the First Review Conference in 2015.
 Final Report of the South East Asia Regional Seminar, “Cooperating to implement the CCM: The country coalition concept,” Bangkok, Thailand, 16–17 March 2017.
 “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 72/54, 4 December 2017.
 “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 71/45, 5 December 2016; and “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 70/54, 7 December 2015.
 “Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution 71/203, 19 December 2016.
 “The continuing grave deterioration in the human rights and humanitarian situation in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UN Human Rights Council Resolution 28/20, 27 March 2015.
 Statement of Indonesia, Lima Conference on Cluster Munitions, 24 May 2007. Notes by Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF).
 In 2010, a Ministry of Foreign Affairs representative stated that Indonesia was conducting an inventory of its stockpile of cluster munitions. Email from Luna Amanda Fahmi, Department of Foreign Affairs, 18 June 2010.
 Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air-Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey, UK, Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2004), p. 840.
 Jane’s 360, “ASTROS II boosts firepower,” 5 November 2014. See also, Defense Studies, “Astros II Mk 6 MLRS Milik TNI AD,” Militerhankam.com (military defense, in Indonesian), undated; and CMC letter to Retno Lestari Priansari Marsudi, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia, 18 April 2017. According to a Brazilian media article, the purchase agreement was signed in 2012. Roberto Godoy, “Brasileira Avibrás fecha contrato de US$ 400 milhões com a Indonésia,” Estado, 21 November 2012.
Mine Ban Policy
Commitment to the Mine Ban Treaty
Mine Ban Treaty status
National implementation measures
Emergency Law No. 12/1951
21 June 2011
Destroyed 2,524 mines previously retained for training
The Republic of Indonesia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997 and ratified it on 20 February 2007, becoming a State Party on 1 August 2007. Indonesia submitted its fourth Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report on 21 June 2011.
Indonesia states that its Emergency Law No. 12/1951 on Fire Arms and Explosives provides for the imposition of penal sanctions as required by the treaty. Previously a Ministry of Foreign Affairs official said that the ministry has raised the possibility of new implementation legislation specifically for the Mine Ban Treaty in interagency meetings. In March 2011 a Foreign Ministry official said this was still under review and asked for guidelines.
Indonesia participated in the Tenth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Geneva in November–December 2010 where it served as vice-president of the meeting and co-rapporteur on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies and made a presentation as outgoing co-chair on Stockpile Destruction and on its implementation of the treaty. Indonesia attended the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in June 2011 and made a statement on partnerships and coordination.
A Foreign Ministry official previously stated to the Monitor that Indonesia believes that, “any mines, even anti-vehicle ones, which are fitted with sensitive fuzes or anti-handling devices which can be triggered by the presence or proximity of human activity qualify as antipersonnel mines according to Article 2, [and] should be banned.”
Indonesia is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.
Production, transfer, stockpile destruction, and retention
Indonesia initially stated that it would retain 4,978 mines for training purposes. However, after reviewing its need to retain that number of mines, Indonesia destroyed 2,524 mines on 15 December 2009. At the end of 2010, Indonesia reported retaining 2,454 mines, including 1,500 PMA-1 mines, seven PMRS mines, and 947 K-440 directional fragmentation mines. In February 2011, an Indonesian military official informed the Monitor that Indonesia had plans to conduct verification of its data on mines retained to determine which of the mines should be destroyed.
Mines retained for training purposes are under the control of the Director General of Defense Strength in the Ministry of Defense. Indonesia has not provided specific details, but has said the mines will be used as “instruction/teaching materials” to enhance the identification, detection, and destruction of mines in general, and “particularly for the purpose of preparing Indonesia’s participation for UN peacekeeping operations.”
In June 2010, a Foreign Ministry official said that the training program had not yet begun, and that the government “is still in the process of reviewing its need to retain live mines.”
In March 2011 a Ministry of Defense official informed the Monitor that it needs to retain live mines because dummy mines would not be taken seriously by new recruits. He stated that mines are used in yearly training of new recruits, including demonstration of the mines’ destructive force. He reiterated previous statements that mines retained would be needed for possible future training of Indonesian peacekeepers. Also in March 2011, a Ministry of Foreign Affairs official stated that Indonesia would retain live mines for training, and noted that Indonesia participates in military missions outside the UN under the Organization of Islamic Conference framework and bilaterally under arrangements in Southeast Asia, such as Mindanao. Indonesia stated that it has plans to send observers to Cambodia and Thailand.
Indonesia has not reported that it has consumed any of the mines it has retained for training in the past four years. A Ministry of Foreign Affairs official explained that mines had not been used in military trainings due to a need to bring in specialists.
 The report covers calendar year 2010. Indonesia submitted previous Article 7 reports on 3 June 2010, 17 April 2009, and 21 January 2008.
 Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, 21 June 2011. The law was appended to Indonesia’s initial Article 7 report and provides for the death penalty, life imprisonment, or imprisonment for a maximum of 20 years for the import, transfer, receiving, acquiring, possession, ownership, transportation, hiding, bringing, use or export of firearms, munitions, or explosives, including mines.
 Email from Andy Rachmianto, Deputy Director, Directorate for International Security and Disarmament, Department of Foreign Affairs, 23 March 2009.
 Interview with Roy Soemirat, Head of Section, Directorate of International Security and Disarmament, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Jakarta, 5 April 2011.
 Email from Luna Amanda Fahmi, Desk Officer for Disarmament Affairs, Directorate for International Security and Disarmament, Department of Foreign Affairs, 18 June 2010.
 Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form E, 21 June 2011; and statement of Indonesia, Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Mine Ban Treaty, Geneva, November 2010. There have been conflicting reports about past mine use by Indonesian forces in West Papua in 1961–1962 and in East Timor in the 1970s. See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 452–453.
 Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form F, 17 April 2009. In Form G, Indonesia reports that the 11,603 destroyed mines also included 78 Kayu mines and nine BG M35 mines. In total, Indonesia reports destroying 9,828 Yugoslav PMA-1; 1,612 Yugoslav PMRS; 78 Russian Kayu; 32 Korean K-440; 26 Yugoslav Armadila; 10 Yugoslav Honckin; nine Belgian BG M35; and eight Indian MK I. The nomenclature for several of the mines in Indonesia’s Article 7 report, such as the Kayu, Armadila, and Honckin, are not standard.
 Statement of Indonesia, Ninth Meeting of States Parties, Mine Ban Treaty, Geneva, 26 November 2008.
 Email from Luna Amanda Fahmi, Department of Foreign Affairs, 18 June 2010.
 Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form G, 3 June 2010. Indonesia reports that it destroyed 1,031 PMA-1 and 1,493 PMRS antipersonnel mines, all on 15 December 2009 in Pameungpeuk, West Java.
 Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 21 June 2011. Indonesia’s previous Form H, indicated the K-440s are electrically fuzed. If these “Claymore-type” mines can only be used in command-detonated mode (as opposed to victim-activated, usually with a tripwire), then they do not qualify as antipersonnel mines under the Mine Ban Treaty.
 Interview with Col. Jimmy Alexander Adirman, Head of Inventory Sub-Directorate, Material Directorate, General Defense Strength Directorate, Ministry of Defense, Jakarta, 10 February 2011.
 Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D (1)(b), 3 June 2010. The same language is used in an email from Luna Amanda Fahmi, Department of Foreign Affairs, 18 June 2010.
 Email from Luna Amanda Fahmi, Department of Foreign Affairs, 18 June 2010. This was the response to a question from the Monitor about whether Indonesia needed to retain live mines, as opposed to inert mines, for training purposes.
 Interview withBrig.-Gen.Robby Tuilan, Chief of Industry, Research and Development Center, Ministry of Defense, Jakarta, 7 March 2011.
 Interview with Roy Soemirat, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Jakarta, 7 March 2011.
 Article 7 Reports, Form D, 21 June 2011, 3 June 2010, 17 April 2009, and 21 January 2008.
 Interview with Roy Soemirat, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Jakarta, 7 March 2011.