Summary: Non-signatory Romania acknowledges the humanitarian concerns raised by cluster munitions, but has not taken any steps to accede to the convention. Romania has never participated in a meeting of the convention, even as an observer. It abstained from voting on a key United Nations (UN) resolution promoting the convention in December 2017.
Romania states it has never used or produced cluster munitions, but there is clear evidence of past production. It possesses a stockpile of cluster munitions, but the types and quantities are not known.
Romania has not acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
In October 2017, Romania endorsed a joint statement with four other European Union (EU) member states that are not party to the convention—Estonia, Greece, Finland, and Poland—that expresses support for the convention’s “humanitarian goal,” but also the importance of meeting the “legitimate security concerns and military and defence needs” of states.
Romania has acknowledged the humanitarian concerns raised by cluster munitions, but has not taken any steps to accede to the convention. In 2015, Romania stated that it is not able to join the convention “at this moment” but supports efforts aimed at “identifying solutions to all humanitarian problems.”
Romania attended the February 2007 conference that launched the Oslo Process, but did not endorse the conference’s Oslo Declaration, which pledged to conclude in 2008 a legally binding instrument prohibiting cluster munitions that cause unacceptable harm to civilians. At the time, Romania explained that it wanted to wait for the outcome of deliberations on cluster munitions by the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), to which it is a party. Romania attended several diplomatic conferences of the Oslo Process that resulted in the Convention on Cluster Munitions, but did not actively engage in discussions. It participated in the formal negotiations in Dublin in May 2008 as an observer and therefore did not join in the consensus adoption of the convention.
Romania participated as an observer in one meeting of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, the Second Meeting of States Parties in Beirut, Lebanon in September 2011.
Romania abstained from voting on a UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution in December 2017, which urges states outside the Convention on Cluster Munitions to “join as soon as possible.” In 2015 and 2016, Romania abstained from the vote on previous UNGA resolutions promoting the convention and also endorsed a 2016 joint statement with other EU member states that have not joined the convention.
Romania has voted in favor of UNGA resolutions expressing outrage at the use of cluster munitions in Syria, most recently in December 2017.
Romania is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty.
In 2015, a government representative said, “Romania has never used and does not intend to use cluster munitions in operational theatres.” Romanian officials have made similar comments in previous years.
Production, transfer, and stockpiling
Romania states that it is not a producer of cluster munitions. In a 2011 letter to the Monitor, the Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs asserted that “Romania is not a producer of cluster munition[s].” The Ministry of Foreign Affairs repeated in 2013 that “Romania is not a producer of cluster munition[s].”
There is clear evidence Romania produced cluster munitions in the past and the Monitor will continue to list Romania as a cluster munition producer until it formally commits to never produce cluster munitions again.
According to Jane’s Information Group, the company ROMAIR developed and produced the CL-250 cluster bomb, which is described as similar in appearance to the Soviet RBK-250, and reportedly carries BAAT-10 and BF-10T bomblets.
The company Romarm has listed two types of 152mm dual-purpose improved conventional munition (DPICM) artillery projectiles, the CG-540 and CG-540ER, on its website in the past. According to Jane’s Information Group, the cluster munitions contain GAA-001 submunitions that were produced by Romanian company Aeroteh SA as part of a joint production and marketing venture with Israel Military Industries (IMI).
Romania possesses a stockpile of cluster munitions, but has not provided information on the quantities and types.
 In April 2015, a Romanian official informed the Monitor that the convention had been considered in Bucharest, but “now is not the right moment” for it to join. He could not provide an official reason for Romania’s reluctance to accede, but stated that the Convention on Cluster Munitions was the only disarmament treaty Romania was not party to and that it “cannot be ignored.” Monitor meeting with Traian Filip, Minister Plenipotentiary Deputy Permanent Representative of Romania to the UN in Geneva, Convention on Conventional Weapons Protocol V Meeting of Experts, Geneva, 7 April 2015.
 Letter to Paul Hannon, Executive Director, Mines Action Canada (MAC), from Amb. Maria Ligor, Embassy of Romania to Canada, undated but received in the second half of 2015.
 For details on Romania’s cluster munition policy and practice through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 229–230.
 “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 71/45, 5 December 2016.
 “Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution 72/191, 19 December 2017. Romania voted in favor of similar resolutions in 2013–2016.
 Letter to Paul Hannon, MAC, from Amb. Ligor, Embassy of Romania to Canada, undated but received in the second half of 2015.
 Letter from Monica Matei, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to Mary Wareham, HRW, 29 May 2013; letter from Doru Costea, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2011; email from Eugen Mihut, Permanent Mission of Romania to the UN in New York, 21 October 2010; letter from Mihail Dumitru, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to Judith Majlath, CMC-Austria, 24 June 2010; and letter from Amb. Adrian Vierita, Embassy of Romania to the United States, to HRW, 3 March 2009.
 Letter from Doru Costea, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2011.
 Letter from Monica Matei, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to Mary Wareham, HRW, 29 May 2013.
 Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2004), p. 290.
 The GAA-001 submunition has been described as identical to the Israeli M85 DPICM submunition. Leland S. Ness and Anthony G. Williams, eds., Jane’s Ammunition Handbook 2007–2008 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2007), pp. 605–606.
 In 2011, Romania informed the Monitor that it “does not possess KMGU dispensers, RBK-250, RBK-275, and RBK-500 cluster bombs.” Letter from Doru Costea, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2011. Jane’s Information Group has listed Romania as possessing KMG-U dispensers (which deploy submunitions), and RBK-250, RBK-250-275, and RBK-500 cluster bombs.