Ethiopia

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 19 June 2019

Summary: Non-signatory Ethiopia has expressed interest in the convention but has not taken any steps to join it. Ethiopia rarely participates in meetings of the convention but voted in favor of a key United Nations (UN) resolution supporting the convention in December 2018.

Ethiopia states that it has never produced cluster munitions and denies that it has stockpiled or used cluster munitions, despite evidence to the contrary.

Policy

The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has not acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Ethiopian officials have told the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) that the government is considering accession to the convention, most recently in August 2016. [1] In late 2008, an official said it was not a question of whether Ethiopia would sign, but rather when. [2]

Ethiopia attended a few meetings of the Oslo Process that created the Convention on Cluster Munitions, but it participated only as an observer in the formal negotiations in Dublin in May 2008. [3]

Ethiopia has participated as an observer in one Meeting of States Parties to the convention, in 2013. It was invited to, but did not attend, the Eighth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in September 2018. It attended intersessional meetings in 2012–2014 and regional workshops on the convention, most recently in Addis Ababa in August 2016. [4]

Ethiopia voted in favor of a UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution on the convention in December 2018 which urged states to “join as soon as possible.” [5] It voted in favor of a similar resolution in 2017.

Ethiopia is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

Ethiopia stated in April 2013 that it has never produced or used cluster munitions. [6] In a June 2012 letter to the Monitor, Ethiopia stated that it “does not possess cluster bombs and did not possess them during the Ethiopia-Eritrea conflict.” [7]

Ethiopia and Eritrea both used cluster munitions during their 1998–2000 war. Although Ethiopia has denied it, there is ample evidence that it attacked several parts of Eritrea with cluster munitions. The Mine Action Coordination Center of the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea has identified approximately 30–40 cluster munition strikes inside Eritrea. [8] There have also been reports of Ethiopia using cluster bombs in other areas in the late 1980s and early 1990s. [9]

In the 2012 letter, Ethiopia stated, “[Cluster] munitions from the former military regime era were left at the former Ethiopian Air Force base in Asmara, Eritrea. The Eritrean regime used some of these cluster bombs to attack an elementary school in Ayder, Tigray National Regional State on 5 June 1998 during the Ethio-Eritrean conflict. The remnants of these cluster munitions are still found in the area, some of which were presented as evidence to the Ethiopia-Eritrea Claims Commission in The Hague.” [10]

Cluster munition remnants including air-dropped PTAB-2.5M and AO-1SCh submunitions have been found near Somalia’s border with Ethiopia, near the Somali border town of Dolow. [11] The contamination is believed to date from the 1977–1978 Ogaden War between Somalia and Ethiopia, but it is unclear who was responsible for the use. [12]

The Monitor and others have consistently reported that Ethiopia likely still possesses cluster munition stockpiles, including UK-made BL755 cluster bombs, Soviet-era RBK series cluster bombs containing PTAB submunitions, and Chilean CB-500 cluster bombs. [13] Ethiopia also possesses Grad 122mm surface-to-surface rockets, but it is not known if these include versions with submunition payloads. [14]



 [1] ICBL-CMC meeting with Assefa Chemere Kinde, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Yahwehnsi Fikru, Legal Adviser at the Ministry of Defense, and Tesfaye Daba Wakjira, Chairperson of the Foreign Affairs Standing Committee of Ethiopia’s Parliament, Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, 5 August 2016. See also, telephone interview with Fortuna Dibaco, Director, Specialized Agencies and Intergovernmental Organizations Affairs Directorate, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 27 February 2011; and CMC meeting with Fortuna Dibaco, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in New York, 21 October 2010.

 [2] CMC, “CMC Newsletter, October 2008,” Issue 4, 17 November 2008.

 [3] For details on Ethiopia’s policy and practice regarding cluster munitions through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 201–202.

 [4]The Addis Ababa Commitment on Universalization and Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” Africa Regional Workshop on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, 5 August 2016.

 [5]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 73/54, 5 December 2018.

 [6] Statement of Ethiopia, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 16 April 2013.

 [7] Letter 066/2012-A from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to the UN in Geneva, 13 June 2012.

 [8] For additional information, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), p. 201.

 [9] Africa Watch, “Ethiopia: ‘Mengistu has Decided to Burn Us like Wood,’ Bombing of Civilians and Civilian Targets by the Air Force,” News from Africa Watch, 24 July 1990, pp. 16–17; and Africa Watch, “Evil Days: 30 Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia,” September 1991, pp. 241–242.

 [10] Letter 066/2012-A from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to the UN in Geneva, 13 June 2012. In April 2009, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission in The Hague awarded Ethiopia US$2.5 million “in respect of deaths and injuries, medical expenses and property damage resulting from the dropping of cluster bombs in the vicinity of the Ayder School in Mekele.” See, Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, “Ethiopia’s Damages Claims between the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the State of Eritrea,” The Hague, 17 August 2009. According to the report, “Ethiopia’s claim in the present case is based…upon the fact that Eritrean aircraft also dropped cluster bombs that killed and wounded civilians and damaged property in the vicinity of the Ayder School and the surrounding neighborhood in Mekele town. Ethiopia states that those bombs killed 53 civilians, including 12 school children, and wounded 185 civilians, including 42 school children.” Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, “Partial Award–Central Front–Ethiopia’s Claim 2, between the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the State of Eritrea,” The Hague, 28 April 2004, p. 24.

 [11] Interview with Mohammed A. Ahmed, Director, Somalia Mine Action Authority, in Geneva, 16 April 2013.

 [12] Email from Mohammed A. Ahmed, Somalia Mine Action Authority, 17 April 2013. Photographs of the cluster munition remnants are available here. It is not possible to determine definitively who was responsible for this cluster munition use. The Soviet Union supplied weapons and munitions to both sides in the Ogaden War, and foreign military forces known to have cluster munitions fought in support of Ethiopia, including the Soviet Union and Cuba.

 [13] The types listed are based on the unexploded submunitions identified by clearance organizations at cluster munition strike sites in Eritrea. See, Mines Action Canada and Landmine Action, Explosive remnants of war and mines other than anti-personnel mines: Global Survey 2003–2004 (London: Landmine Action, 2005), pp. 60 and 64–65; Landmine Action, Explosive remnants of war: Unexploded ordnance and post-conflict communities (London: Landmine Action, 2002), pp. 5053; and Rae McGrath, Cluster Bombs: The Military Effectiveness and Impact on Civilians of Cluster Munitions (London: Landmine Action, 2000), p. 38.

 [14] International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2011 (London: Routledge, 2011), p. 424.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 18 December 2019

Policy

The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 17 December 2004, becoming a State Party on 1 June 2005. Ethiopia has not reported on measures to enact specific legislation to enforce the Mine Ban Treaty, but it has listed three laws that it states are “consistent with Article 9.”[1]

Ethiopia attends meetings of the treaty semi-regularly, most recently attending the Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in November 2018, where it provided a statement on victim assistance.[2] However, Ethiopia did not attend the Third Review Conference in Maputo in June 2014, nor did it attend more recent intersessional meetings of the treaty in Geneva in May 2019. Ethiopia initially submitted consistent Article 7 transparency reports, but since 2012 has submitted just two.

Ethiopia is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons, nor is it party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Production, stockpiling, transfer, and use

Ethiopia has stated that it has not produced antipersonnel mines, and has not imported the weapon since the 1991 overthrow of the Mengistu regime.[3]

The Mine Ban Treaty required that Ethiopia destroy all of its stockpiled antipersonnel mines by 1 June 2009. In a July 2008 report, Ethiopia reported that 39,759 items described as stockpiled antipersonnel mines were destroyed between 2004 and 2007. Of the declared items, only 5,867 appear to be antipersonnel mines.[4] In November 2008, Ethiopia reported that, as a result of inventories carried out by the Ministry of Defense during 2008, it concluded its original stockpile to be 55,569 antipersonnel mines, of which 40,189 had already been destroyed.[5] In April 2009, Ethiopia stated that 54,455 antipersonnel mines had been destroyed, fulfilling the Article 4 stockpile destruction obligation on 2 April 2009.[6]

In March 2011, Ethiopia reported that it has retained a total of 303 mines for training by the Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO), the same number as reported in the Article 7 reports submitted since 2008. Ethiopia indicated the mines are used in mine detection dog training programs.[7] In 2017, Ethiopia reported retaining 107 mines for training and research, and in 2019 reported zero mines retained. However, Ethiopia did not provide information about how the mines were consumed.[8]

The UN Monitoring Group on Somalia has alleged transfer of antipersonnel mines from Ethiopia to Somalia, most recently in 2006.[9] In 2007, Ethiopia described the allegations as “without foundation…unsubstantiated…[and] false.”[10] Attempts by two presidents of Meetings of States Parties of the Mine Ban Treaty to clarify and seek further information from the UN Monitoring Group about its reports of mine transfers have gone unanswered.[11]

There have been no reports of new use of antipersonnel mines since the end of the 1998–2000 war with Eritrea.[12] Between 2003 and 2008 there were incidents caused by newly laid antivehicle mines in the Temporary Security Zone separating Eritrea and Ethiopia, according to news reports and the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) Mine Action Coordination Center (MACC).[13]



[1] Certain sub-articles of Ethiopia’s Constitution, Regulation No. 70/2001 establishing the EMAO, and Ethiopia’s Penal Code specifically Articles 500, 499, 497, and 481. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, 30 April 2009; Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, April 2010; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, 31 March 2011. Ethiopia provided the same information in 2017 and 2019.

[2] Statement of Ethiopia, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 27 November 2018.

[3] Ethiopia first made this statement in 1997. Statement by Amb. Dr. Fecadu Gadarmu, Embassy of Ethiopia to Canada, Mine Ban Treaty Signing Ceremony, Ottawa, 3 December 1997, p. 2.

[4] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form G, 5 July 2008. Antipersonnel mines declared destroyed are as follows: PMD-6M (111), PMN (4,227), TS-50 (one), M2A3B (two), M3 (620), M14 (306), M16 (21), POMZ-2M (361), V-5 (two), M69 (151), M35 (10), M21 (14), GOYYATA (29), “Egypt antipersonnel mine” (two), and antipersonnel mines of unknown type (10). The remaining items included detonators, blocks of explosives, practice mines, signal mines, fuzes, and booby-traps.

[5] Ethiopia stated its intention of destroying a further 14,266 mines (54,455 in total) before its June 2009 deadline, with the remaining 1,114 mines to be retained for training purposes. Statement of Ethiopia, Ninth Meeting of States Parties, Mine Ban Treaty, Geneva, 26 November 2008.

[6] Ethiopia indicated that 40,189 mines had been destroyed in 2008 and another 14,266 mines in 2009, again providing a list, which included many items that do not appear to be antipersonnel mines. Of the 54,455 items listed, it appears that 32,650 were antipersonnel mines. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form F, 30 April 2009. The 32,650 mines include: PMN (14,318), M16 (7,023), PMD-6M (6,178), POMZ-2M (3,471), M3 (503), M14 (390), M69 (318), MD-9 (182), Goyyatta (132), MK-1 (30), PPMI (29), V5 (23), M2A3 (17), GOYTA (13), M35 (nine), unknown (eight), NR490 (three), and MON-50 (three). The other items include detonators, fuses, strikers, detonating cord, blasting caps, TNT, and plastic explosives. In its 2010 and 2011 Article 7 reports, Ethiopia reaffirmed that 54,455 antipersonnel mines of different types had been destroyed.

[7] This included PMD (76), PMN (60), M14 (58), POMZ (43), M16 (43), M3 (13), and Type 69 (10). Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 31 March 2011.

[8] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 24 April 2017; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form , 25 April 2019.

[9] In 2006, the UN Monitoring Group reported that in September 2006 the Ethiopian military transferred 180 antipersonnel mines and other unspecified mines to Puntland and Qeybdiid militias. “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council resolution 1676 (2006),” S/2006/913, 22 November 2006, pp. 19–22. It also reported transfers of antivehicle mines and unspecified mines to other Somali entities.

[10] It stated that “Ethiopia is in full compliance of its obligations under the Convention.…[T]here has never been any transfer of antipersonnel mines to any third party including in Somalia.” Letter from Amb. Samuel Assefa, Embassy of Ethiopia to the United States, 11 July 2007.

[11] For details of statements and actions by the two Presidents relating to the UN Monitoring Group reports, see, Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 373.

[12] While not openly acknowledging the use of antipersonnel mines during the border conflict with Eritrea from 1998–2000, in April 2002 Ethiopia provided the UN with detailed maps of mines laid by Ethiopian forces in Eritrea during the conflict. Email from Phil Lewis, Chief Technical Advisor, UNMEE MACC, 23 April 2002.


Mine Action

Last updated: 12 October 2018

 

Treaty status

Mine Ban Treaty

State Party
Article 5 deadline: 1 June 2020
Not on track

Mine action management

National mine action management actors

Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO), reporting to the Ministry of National Defense’s Engineering Main Department (MoND-EMD)

Mine action strategic plan

2017–2020 workplan

Mine action standards

National Mine Action Standards (NMAS), to be updated according to the 2017–2020 workplan

Operators in 2017

National:
Military demining companies

Extent of contamination as of end 2017

Landmines

7.18km2 CHA and 1,185.9km2 SHA, of which only 2–3% are expected to contain mines

Cluster munition remnants

No contamination

Other ERW contamination

UXO contamination, extent unknown

Land release in 2017

Landmines

No land release reported

Progress

Landmines

Reports on the number and size of mined areas have been plagued with inconsistencies. Ethiopia has not reported on progress made to meet the projected milestones contained in its 2015 extension request. An updated workplan was developed for 2017–2020,which includes milestones for training and land release through non-technical survey, technical survey, and clearance. It states that it is “realistic” that all mined areas can be addressed within the extension time period. However, no land release has been reported since 2013

Note: CHA = confirmed hazardous area; SHA = suspected hazardous area; ERW = explosive remnants of war; UXO = unexploded ordnance.

Contamination

In October 2017, the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia continued to report that a total of 314 confirmed and suspected hazardous areas remained to be addressed across six regions of the country, including 45 CHAs covering a total area of just under 7.2km2, along with 269 SHAs with a size of nearly 1,186km2, of which it expected about only about 2–3% would contain mines.[1] On this basis, Ethiopia reported that in order to declare compliance with its Article 5 obligations, it expected a total of close to 1,162km2 will be released by survey and up to 31km2 will be released through clearance.[2]

However, since 2015, Ethiopia’s reporting on the number and size of areas suspected or confirmed to be mined has been plagued with inconsistencies, including the figures contained within its 2015 Article 5 extension request, its response to subsequent requests for clarification, statements at Mine Ban Treaty meetings, and its last Article 7 transparency report on the status of contamination as of 30 April 2017.

It appears that Ethiopia’s updated 2017–2020 workplan attempts to clarify conflicting past estimates of remaining contamination by presenting one consistent set of figures throughout the document regarding the number and size of the suspected and confirmed hazardous areas remaining to be addressed as of October 2017, as set out in the table below.[3] This estimate is reportedly based on re-survey efforts in 2012 following an inflated Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) concluded in 2004.[4]

As of October 2017, CHAs and SHAs continued to remain across six regions (Afar, Benishangul, Gambela, Oromia, Somali, and Tigray), as set out in the table below. The Somali region is believed to be by far the most heavily affected, followed by the Afar region; however, Ethiopia’s updated 2017–2020 workplan notes that the full extent of contamination “is not yet fully known, especially in the Somali region as some communities remain inaccessible due to poor infrastructure conditions” near to the border with Somalia.[5]

CHAs and SHAs by region (at October 2017)[6]

Region

SHAs

Area (km2)

CHAs

Area (km2)

Afar

8

1.9

6

1.76

Benishangul

0

0

2

0.05

Gambela

20

0.8

0

0

Oromia

5

1.0

8

0.10

Somali

236

1,182.2

26

3.81

Tigray

0

0

3

1.46

Total

269

1,185.9

45

7.18

 

Ethiopia has also noted that estimates of contamination do not include the area along the Ethiopia-Eritrea confrontation line where no survey has been carried out and the border has not been demarcated. The area was previously under the control of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE). When asked what efforts it had made to address this contamination, Ethiopia reported in 2015 that it had carried out clearance behind its own defensive lines, but it was not possible to enter or clear the area between the two countries’ defensive lines due to security concerns, and clearance would have to wait until the demarcation has been completed.[7]

Ethiopia’s mine problem is a result of internal and international armed conflicts dating back to 1935, including the Italian occupation and subsequent East Africa campaigns (1935–1941), a border war with Sudan (1980), the Ogaden war with Somalia (1997–1998), internal conflict (1974–2000), and the Ethiopian-Eritrean war (1998–2000).

Mines and ERW are reported to continue to cause socio-economic harm, including through: denying access to agricultural and pasture land, contributing to food insecurity and serious economic hardship for certain communities; blocking access to water for communities and particularly for nomadic pastoralists; and blocking secondary and tertiary roads important to local communities.[8] In its updated 2017–2020 workplan, Ethiopia stated that the actual and perceived threat of mines and ERW continued to obstruct humanitarian activities, hinder agriculture, development, and construction efforts, and prevent the safe resettlement of displaced populations.[9]

Program Management

In 2001, following the end of the conflict with Eritrea, Ethiopia’s Council of Ministers established EMAO as an autonomous civilian body responsible for mine clearance and mine risk education.[10] EMAO developed its operational capacities effectively with technical assistance from Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), the UN Development Programme (UNDP), and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF).[11] In 2011, however, EMAO’s governing board decided that the Ministry of Defense was better suited to clear the remaining mines because Ethiopia had made significant progress in meeting its Mine Ban Treaty clearance obligations and the remaining threat did not warrant a structure and organization the size of EMAO. It has further asserted on numerous occasions that a civilian entity such as EMAO would have difficulty accessing the unstable Somali region.[12]

In response to the decision to close EMAO and transfer demining responsibility to the army’s Combat Engineers Division, NPA ended its direct funding support[13] and had completed the transfer of its remaining 49 mine detection dogs (MDDs) to EMAO and the federal police by the end of April 2012.[14] The Combat Engineers Division took over management of the MDD Training Centre at Entoto where it conducted training in demining in early 2012.

Strategic planning

The transition of EMAO to the Ministry of National Defense appeared to be in limbo until September 2015, when Ethiopia reported that oversight of national mine action activities had been re-established as “one Independent Mine Action Office” under the Combat Engineers Main Department.[15] In its updated 2017–2020 workplan, Ethiopia confirmed that this “autonomous legal entity” had been re-named the Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO), and was responsible for survey, clearance, and mine risk education activities, accountable to the Ministry of National Defense’s Engineering Main Department (MoND-EMD). The workplan includes an organigram of the department, which is structured around a number of sub-departments, including for risk education, information management, quality assurance, training, and operations, under which demining companies, technical survey and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) teams, and a mechanical demining team are to report.[16]

However, since the re-establishment of the national mine action office was announced in 2015, Ethiopia has continued to report that resource constraints were impeding the construction of the Demining Training Center started by the former EMAO, and that demining equipment was nearing the end of its operational life.[17]

Legislation and standards

In the updated 2017–2020 workplan, Ethiopia stated that in 2017, its National Mine Action Standards (NMAS) would be “developed and updated” and that standing operating procedures (SOPs) for mine clearance and land release would be updated according to the current International Mine Action Standards (IMAS). It had previously reported that this would happen in 2015, according to its extension request targets.[18]

Quality management

Ethiopia has reported that operations have been “employing overall quality management including quality assurance and quality control efforts to ensure that operations are in accordance with NMAS and IMAS.”[19] In its 2017–2020 workplan, it is stipulated that quality assurance reports on operations will be submitted on a weekly basis.[20]

Information management

Ethiopia also reported that, prior to 2015, EMAO had installed and customized a new version of the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database and had been working on capacity development to upgrade data processing. However, it stated that database challenges remained and until issues with the IMSMA system were resolved, the National Defense Force would “continue using alternative data processing packages together with IMSMA for planning, reporting, and analysis.” In its 2015 extension request and 2017–2020 workplan, Ethiopia requested technical advisory and training support to make the IMSMA database fully functional.[21] In June and October 2017, Ethiopia reiterated its appeals for assistance for resources and skills training for personnel to operate the IMSMA database and for strategic planning projects.[22]

Operators

Under its extension request, Ethiopia stated that from 1 December 2015 to the end of May 2020, it would deploy four demining companies and four survey and rapid-response teams.[23] In its 2017–2020 workplan, Ethiopia states that these teams were set to be deployed in November 2017.[24] The workplan lists the following capacity to be deployed for the duration of the extension request period: four manual clearance companies, two technical survey and rapid-response teams, two EOD teams, and six ground preparation machines.[25]

In April 2017, Ethiopia reported that using its own resources, 412 personnel attended a basic demining course.[26] The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) reported that it provided demining training for 45 personnel from the Combat Engineering Division in 2017, as a follow-up to training conducted in 2016, which it said was intended to strengthen its capacity to clear mined areas. However, it also reported that after their training, a number of the recipients were deployed to peacekeeping support missions abroad. It likewise did not report that any demining had begun.[27]

Land Release

As of October 2017, Ethiopia did not report that any survey or clearance activities had taken place during the year. As stated above, in its updated 2017–2020 workplan, Ethiopia pledged that four demining teams and four technical survey and rapid-response teams would re-start clearance and survey operations in November 2017, despite having reported previously in its extension request that the teams would be deployed in November 2015.[28]

While no survey or clearance operations took place in 2017, or the previous year, Ethiopia reported that in 2016 on the basis of reports from the local population, 30 items of ordnance had been destroyed by the mine action office: 10 antivehicle mines and 20 items of UXO.[29]

Previously, in April 2014, Ethiopia had informed States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty that in January–November 2013 its rapid-response teams had visited more than 10 ERW-impacted communities in “Amhar, Oromiya, south and Somalia regional states” clearing more than 100,000m2 and destroying 10 antipersonnel mines and 176,000 items of UXO.[30] No details were given as to the exact location of the spot tasks. Historically, in 2002–2012, Ethiopia stated that almost 60km2 of mined areas were cleared while nearly 1,200km2 of SHAs were released by technical survey, with the destruction of 9,260 antipersonnel mines, 1,466 antivehicle mines, and 197,985 items of UXO.[31]

Article 5 Compliance

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty (and in accordance with a five-year extension granted by States Parties in 2015) Ethiopia is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 June 2020. It is not on track to meet this deadline.

Ethiopia’s original Article 5 deadline expired on 1 June 2015. In March 2015, Ethiopia submitted a request for an extension of five years until 1 June 2020 to complete survey and clearance of all remaining mined areas.[32] It failed, however, to submit an extension request with sufficient time to allow States Parties to consider extending the deadline prior to its expiry, thus placing Ethiopia in violation of the convention until the approval of the late request by the Fourteenth Meeting of States Parties on 4 December 2015.

Ethiopia has listed the following reasons for its inability to comply with its initial 2015 Article 5 deadline: insecurity in and around some mined areas; the lack of basic social services and infrastructure necessary for operations in rural areas; continuous redeployment of demining teams in scattered mined areas; lack of funding; the identification of additional hazardous areas; climate (such as a three-month rainy season); and a lack of precise information on the number and location of mined areas.[33]

Previously, in 2010, Ethiopia said it would clear all mines by 2013 (two years ahead of its deadline) if sufficient funding were available.[34] In March 2013, however, following the closure of EMAO and transfer of responsibility for mine action to the Ministry of Defense, Ethiopia reported it was unlikely to meet its Article 5 deadline due to secondment of demining units to Sudan, and gaps in training, equipment, and funding.[35]

In its updated 2017–2020 workplan, Ethiopia continued to report that funding was its primary concern. However, it also raised concerns that a lack of capacity, lack of technical support, population movements, high metallic content of soil in hazardous areas, and heavy rainy seasons could delay clearance progress. It stated Ethiopia’s hope that international NGOs would provide technical support, materials, and funding to assist with clearance.[36]

The 2017–2020 workplan states that it is “realistic” that all 314 areas can be addressed using “all available demining assets in Ethiopia” within the extension time period, while also stating that donor funding will enable it “successfully to complete the clearance of contaminated areas from land mines and fulfil the legal obligations of the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention by 2020.”[37]

According to the workplan, the following milestones will be met:

  • 2017: demining course training, establishment of rapid response teams (RRT) and EOD teams; 26.9km2 released through non-technical and technical survey and clearance of over 2.8km2 in Afar, Benishangul, Somali, and Tigray regions;
  • 2018: address over 518.5kmthrough non-technical and technical survey by concluding survey of Afar, Gambela, Oromia, Afar, and Benishangul regions, along with ongoing survey in Somali region, and the clearance of just under 8km2;
  • 2019: complete clearance of Gambela region and conclude survey in Somali region, addressing 647.8km2 through non-technical and technical survey and clearing nearly 10.5km2;
  • 2020: continue clearance in Somali region with over 9.6km2 released by clearance, and “submit by April 2020 an updated development to the [Mine Ban Treaty] States Parties based on more precise information gathered through operations.”[38]

Ethiopia has been asked by Mine Ban Treaty States Parties on numerous occasions to clarify its estimates of contamination and to present accurate information on the number and estimated size of CHAs and SHAs.[39] It is not possible to definitively reconcile information reported in Ethiopia’s updated 2017–2020 workplan with statements made in 2017 on its progress in implementing its Article 5 obligations, or information provided in its 2015 extension request, along with other previous reports. Additionally, Ethiopia did not report on progress to meet the projected milestones contained in its extension request for 2015–2017, nor it does not appear that any progress to meet these targets was actually made.

In April 2017, for the first time since 2012, Ethiopia submitted an updated Article 7 report. However, the quality of Ethiopia’s reporting on its mine action activities in recent years has been inconsistent and poor. Its March 2015 extension request is riddled with inconsistent figures and mathematical errors, and the Article 7 report does not contain precise information on the location and size of contaminated areas. Ethiopia subsequently failed to submit the updated Article 7 report, which was due by April 2018.

With no functioning mine action program as of the end of 2017, and little progress reported in clearance since September 2011, Ethiopia is unlikely to meet its future extension request plan. The lack of progress since the submission of its extension request in 2015, combined with a lack of any apparent increase in capacity, makes it increasingly difficult to see how Ethiopia will complete clearance by June 2020.

Mine clearance in 2013–2017[40]

Year

Area cleared (km2)

2017

0

2016

0

2015

0

2014

0

2013

0.10

Total

0.10

 

In its 2017–2020 workplan, Ethiopia claimed that US$46.3 million is required to complete clearance of antipersonnel mine contamination by its 2020 deadline, which it reported includes all associated costs to establish a national capacity to address residual mine and ERW contamination.[41] This is despite the previously forecast total of US$37 million required to complete clearance by June 2020 as reported in its 2015 extension request, and a further seemingly inexplicable increase from the US$10 million that EMAO reported was required to clear all remaining areas by 2012.[42] According to the 2017–2020 workplan, the government of Ethiopia will contribute 7% of the $46.3 million required, or approximately $3.2 million to cover the mine action program’s administrative costs.[43]

Ethiopia has called on a number of occasions since 2015 for technical and financial support from international NGOs to meet its mine clearance obligations.[44] In June 2017, it requested assistance and training in information management and planning, stating it faced a shortage of resources and skilled manpower.[45] It reiterated these requests in its 2017–2020 workplan, again stating that Ethiopia would welcome international support and technical assistance.[46]

 

The Monitor acknowledges the contributions of the Mine Action Review (www.mineactionreview.org), which has conducted the primary mine action research in 2018 and shared all its country-level landmine reports (from“Clearing the Mines 2018”) and country-level cluster munition reports (from “Clearing Cluster Munition Remnants 2018”) with the Monitor. The Monitor is responsible for the findings presented online and in its print publications.



[1] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, pp. 1–3, & 9. See also, statement of Ethiopia, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 8 June 2017; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), Form C. In its March 2015 Article 5 deadline extension request, Ethiopia stated that, based on past operational experience, after technical survey as little as 0.5% of the estimated area of SHAs would contain mines, which would amount to a total of less than 5.6km2. At the same time, it also reported higher estimates that 2% or 3% of the total size of the SHAs could be expected to be confirmed. Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, pp. 7 and 42. Ethiopia has also reported different estimates of the percentage of SHAs expected to be confirmed in its Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016) and in its March 2015 Article 5 deadline Extension Request.

[2] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, pp. 3 & 9.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid., p. 1.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid., p. 2.

[7] “Response to Committee on Article 5 Implementation request for additional information on its Article 5 deadline Extension Request,” submitted 26 September 2015; and Analysis of Ethiopia’s Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 19 November 2015, p. 3.

[8] Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, p. 6. 


[9] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, p. 2.

[10] Council of Ministers, Regulation No. 70/2001, 5 February 2001. 


[11] A. Borchgrevink et al., “End Review of the Norwegian People’s Aid Mine Action Programme in Ethiopia 2005–2007: Final Evaluation,” Norad Collected Reviews 36/2008, June 2008, p. 5. 


[12] Statements of Ethiopia, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 25 June 2015, April 2014, and 24 May 2012.

[13] Email from Aubrey Sutherland-Pillai, Programme Manager, NPA, 22 August 2012.

[14] Emails from Kjell Ivar Breili, Programme Manager, NPA, Ethiopia, 25 May 2010; and from Aubrey Sutherland-Pillai, NPA, 22 August 2012; and GICHD, “Transitioning Mine Action Programmes to National Ownership: Ethiopia,” p. 11.

[15] Statements of Ethiopia, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 9 April 2014, and 25 June 2015; “Response to Committee on Article 5 Implementation request for additional information on its Article 5 deadline Extension Request,” submitted 26 September 2015; and Analysis of Ethiopia’s Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 19 November 2015, p. 3.

[16] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, pp. 2 & 32. In its 2015 extension request, Ethiopia reiterated that the Ministry of Defense was better placed to hold responsibility for the national mine action program as, in addition to the military having better access to remaining mined areas, it would be better placed to budget for operations with limited funding, and would more effectively employ available mine action capacity, on the basis that Ethiopian forces participate widely in peacekeeping operations around the world. Analysis of Ethiopia’s Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 19 November 2015, p. 3.

[17] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, p. 8; and statement of Ethiopia, Mine Ban Treaty Fifteenth Meeting of States Parties, Santiago, Chile, 29 November 2016.

[18] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, p. 12; and Mine Ban Treaty,Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, p. 11.

[19] Mine Ban Treaty, Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, p. 8.

[20] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, p. 11.

[21] Ibid., pp. 11 & 17; and Mine Ban TreatyArticle 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, p. 37.

[22] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, p. 17; and statement of Ethiopia, Mine Ban TreatyIntersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 8 June 2017.

[23] Mine Ban TreatyArticle 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, p. 44.

[24] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, p. 11.

[25] Ibid., p. 27.

[26] Mine Ban TreatyArticle 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), Form J; and statement of Ethiopia, Mine Ban TreatyIntersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 8 June 2017.

[27] ICRC, “ICRC Annual Report 2017,” undated, p. 140.

[28] Mine Ban TreatyArticle 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, pp. 11 & 44.

[29] Statement of Ethiopia, Mine Ban TreatyIntersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 8 June 2017; and Mine Ban TreatyArticle 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), Form G. At the intersessional meetings in June 2017, Ethiopia also reported that 109,000m2 of contamination “which was not identified before” had been cleared. This appears to refer to the just over 100,000m2 it reported had been cleared in 2013. See, statements of Ethiopia, Mine Ban TreatyIntersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 25 June 2015, and 9 April 2014.

[30] Statements of Ethiopia, Mine Ban TreatyIntersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 25 June 2015 and 9 April 2014.

[31] Mine Ban TreatyArticle 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, p. 24. “Response to Committee on Article 5 Implementation request for additional information on its Article 5 deadline Extension Request,” submitted 26 September 2015; and Analysis of Ethiopia’s Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 19 November 2015, p. 2.

[32] Mine Ban TreatyArticle 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, p. 10.

[33] Ibid., pp. 40–41.

[34] Statements of Ethiopia, Mine Ban TreatyIntersessional Meetings, Standing Committee on Mine Action, Geneva, 23 June 2010; and Mine Ban TreatyTenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 2 December 2010.

[35] Presentation of Ethiopia, African Union/ICRC Weapon Contamination Workshop, Addis Ababa, 5 March 2013.

[36] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, p. 26.

[37] Ibid., pp. 9 & 27.

[38] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, pp. 21–22.

[39] “Response to Committee on Article 5 Implementation request for additional information on its Article 5 deadline Extension Request,” submitted on 26 September 2015; and Analysis of Ethiopia’s Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 19 November 2015, p. 3.

[40] GICHD, “Transitioning Mine Action Programmes to National Ownership: Ethiopia,”pp. 16–17; and statement of Ethiopia, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 9 April 2014.

[41] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, p. 26.

[42] Ibid., p. 4; Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, p. 48; and statement of Ethiopia, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Standing Committee on Mine Action, Geneva, 24 May 2012. Ethiopia also reported that the government had contributed a total of US$8 million to demining in 2001–2012. It reported that over the same period US$80 million of donor funding had been spent on demining in Ethiopia. Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 31 March 2015, p. 33.

[43] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, p. 26.

[44] Ibid., pp. 48–49.

[45] Statement of Ethiopia, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Committee on Article 5 Implementation, Geneva, 8 June 2017.

[46] Revised National Mine Action Plan for 2017–2020, October 2017, p. 26.


Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 07 October 2013

In 2012, the mine action program in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia was transferred from the Ethiopia Mine Action Office (EMAO) to the Ministry of National Defense. At the same time, EMAO reported it needed US$10 million to clear the remaining mined areas, but with mine action transferred to the Ministry of National Defense,[1] funding was impeded because donors that support humanitarian demining through their foreign aid programs are generally constrained from providing funds to the army. The funding for clearance in 2012 went to Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), who have since closed its mine action program in Ethiopia.[2]

The United States (US) contribution through the Leahy War Victims Fund of the US Agency for International Development went to the ICRC to support rehabilitation centers in Ethiopia.[3]

International contributions: 2012[4]

Donor

Sector

National currency

Amount ($)

Norway

Clearance, victim assistance

NOK6,915,350

1,188,592

US

Victim assistance

$939,700

939,700

Austria

Victim assistance

€150,000

192,885

Netherlands

Clearance

€150,000

192,885

Total

 

 

2,514,062

Summary of international contributions: 2008–2012[5]

Year

Amount ($)

2012

2,514,062

2011

3,797,268

2010

10,780,398

2009

7,578,249

2008

9,463,549

Total

34,133,526

 

 



[1] Statement of Ethiopia, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 24 May 2012.

[2] Email from Aubrey Sutherland-Pillai, Programme Manager, NPA, 22 August 2012.

[3] ICRC, “ICRC Annual Report 2012,” p.538.

[4] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ingunn Vatne, Senior Advisor, Department for Human Rights, Democracy and Humanitarian Assistance, Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 11 April 2013; ICRC “ICRC Annual Report 2012,” p.538; response to Monitor questionnaire by Robert Gerschner, Unit for Arms Control and Disarmament in the framework of the UN, Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs, Austria, 26 February 2013; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabienne Moust, Policy Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands, 19 March 2013. Average exchange rate for 2012: NOK5.8181=US$1 and €1=US$1.2859. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2013.

[5] See Landmine Monitor reports 2008–2011; and ICBL-CMC, “Country Profile: Ethiopia: Support for Mine Action,” 26 August 2011.


Casualties

Last updated: 26 July 2017

Casualties Overview

All known casualties by end 2016

16,849 (9,431 killed; 7,401 injured; 17 unknown)

 

No mine/explosive remnants of war (ERW) casualties were reported in 2016.[1] The extent of contamination in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia suggests that casualties were likely in 2016, but have gone unreported.

The last identified (mine) casualties were in 2010, when two deminers were injured.[2]

There were at least 16,849 casualties (9,431 killed; 7,401 injured; and 17 for whom the outcome was unknown) through the end of 2013. Between 2004 and the end of 2014, the Monitor identified 233 casualties (90 killed; 126 injured; 17 unknown).[3] The most complete single data source remains the Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) completed in 2004, which recorded 16,616 mine/ERW casualties (9,341 killed; 7,275 injured).[4]

Cluster munition casualties

At least 272 casualties occurred during the use of cluster munitions in Mekele and Adigrat, Ethiopia, in 1998.[5] No unexploded submunition casualties were recorded.



[1] Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire, Meried Mengesha Berhe, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (MOLSA), 10 April 2017.

[2] Information provided to the Monitor in writing by the Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO), Addis Ababa, 15 March 2011. In March 2011, EMAO was reported as saying that deminers had been injured during clearance, but that there were no known reports of civilian casualties. Henry Guyer, “The remnants of war: Ethiopia’s buried killers,” The Ethiopian Reporter, 26 March 2011.

[3] See previous editions of the Monitor available on the Monitor website.

[5] Handicap International (HI), Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (Brussels: HI, May 2007), p. 52.


Victim Assistance

Last updated: 21 October 2018

Victim assistance action points

  • Develop a multi-year rehabilitation strategy to ensure the long-term sustainability of services.
  • Establish a national supply chain for importing and distributing materials and equipment in order to sustain physical rehabilitation services.
  • Involve Federal and Regional States’ National Implementation and Monitoring Coordinating Committees (NIMCCs) for the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in monitoring and disaggregation of statistics on assistance to mine/ERW survivors.
  • Increase the quality and quantity of services provided at the recently established rehabilitation centers in Assosa and Gambella.
  • Build on lessons learned from Ethiopian Centre for Disability and Development (ECDD) pilot projects to increase the socio-economic inclusion of persons with disabilities.

Victim assistance planning and coordination[1]

Government focal point

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA)

Coordination mechanisms

Ministry-based implementation committees for the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

Coordination regularity/frequency and outcomes/effectiveness

Monthly (12 times). Meetings focused on awareness of stakeholders about the rights protected by the CRPD and the victim assistance provisions of the Mine Ban Treaty

MoLSA also provided financial and technical support to disabled peoples’ organizations (DPOs).

Plans/strategies

National Disability Mainstreaming Guideline, 2017, issued by MoLSA with specific guidance documents for the health sector and vocational training providers

Disability policy and action in Ethiopia is governed by the National Plan of Action of Persons with Disabilities 2012–2021

Disability sector integration

Victim assistance has been mainstreamed into disability activities under the National Plan of Action of Persons with Disabilities 2012–2021 and relevant policies and strategies (see laws and policies section)

Survivor inclusion and participation

Respondents report increased inclusion in awareness-raising sessions and regular invitations to meetings hosted by MoLSA

The ICRC conducted biannual feedback and technical assessments that included interviews with survivors among a random selection of beneficiaries[2]

Reporting (Article 7 and statements)

The last Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report submitted was for calendar year 2016. However Ethiopia submitted a detailed report specifically on victim assistance implementation to the Mine Ban Treaty Implementation Support Unit covering Ethiopian fiscal year 2016–2017[3]

 

International commitments and obligations

Mine Ban Treaty

State Party with significant numbers of landmine survivors and needs

Convention on Cluster Munitions

No

Convention on Conventional Weapons Protocol V

No

CRPD

Next report to the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is due in 2020

 

Laws and policies

There are three national strategic plans relevant to victim assistance in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the second Growth and Transformation Plan, 2015/16–2019/20; the National Plan of Action on Disability, 2012–2021; and a five-year National Physical Rehabilitation Strategy. Under the second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II), availability of physical rehabilitation services was expected to increase such that the number of people receiving services will triple by the conclusion of the plan.[4]

Other relevant legislation includes the law on the right to employment of persons with disabilities (2008); and following the ratification of the CRPD in 2010, the social protection Policy (2014), the inclusive Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Guide (2014), and the law providing for the inclusion of disability in the duties and responsibilities of government ministries (2015).[5]

Major developments in 2017–2018

Several national guidelines were released in 2017 including the National Disability mainstreaming guideline 2017, the National Disability mainstreaming guideline for the health sector, national guideline for physical rehabilitation in referral hospitals, and the disability mainstreaming guideline for training and vocational education. A draft of the national standard operating procedures for physical rehabilitation is anticipated in 2018.[6]

Needs assessment

The anticipated 2018 National Population and Housing census was planned to collect and disaggregate data to identify survivors among persons injured by other explosive remnants of war (ERW). The results of the census would describe the population, distribution, and needs of mine/ERW survivors.[7]

Medical care and rehabilitation

A general increase in medical care and rehabilitation services was reported.[8] Access to healthcare increased after two health centers were made physically accessible, which allowed many survivors and persons with disabilities to access reproductive health services.[9] In 2016–2017 mine/ERW victims made up 178 of 778 persons with disabilities receiving free health treatment through the Ministry of Health.[10]

CBM provides community-based rehabilitation in three regional states.[11]

The ICRC continued to support a countrywide network of nine physical rehabilitation centers and one orthopedic workshop where persons with physical disabilities, including mine survivors, received free physical rehabilitation services. The ICRC provided raw materials, equipment, and technical assistance. Seven of the nine rehabilitation centers were fully functional—Arba Minch, Assela, Bahir Dar, Dessie, Dire Dawa, Menegesha, and Nekemte. The ICRC covered transportation, food, and administrative costs for the most vulnerable patients. In 2017, 300 mine/ERW survivors received services at ICRC-supported centers, including 203 men, 68 women, and 29 children.[12] Rehabilitation centers with ICRC assistance were managed by regional governments through regional Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs (BOLSA), or by local NGOs.[13]

The same level of resources, in terms of materials and technical support, were provided for mine/ERW survivors receiving physical rehabilitation services from ICRC-supported centers. Overall, the ICRC’s direct support for rehabilitation transitionally reduced compared to previous years, due to the increased participation of regional authorities in the functions of physical rehabilitation centers. This has included increased financing and resources where required. ICRC partners conducted outreach services to address the needs of all persons with disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors.It was thought that most survivors have been benefactors of rehabilitation services for many years and are therefore familiar with their rights and available services.[14]

The prosthetic and orthotic program at the Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa, which the ICRC ran in coordination with the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA), the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Education, and the medical faculty of Addis Ababa University, was concluded successfully in 2016.[15] The ICRC discontinued its support for efforts to establish a local bachelor’s degree course in prosthetics and orthotics because of persistent administrative delays. Little progress was made in setting up a national supply chain for importing and distributing materials and equipment crucial for sustaining physical rehabilitation services. This was primarily due to complex bureaucracy.[16] Interrupted provision of services remained a problem at two of the most recently established centers, in Assosa and Gambella. In 2016, the ICRC suspended support for the Mekele Othro-Physotherpy center due to “irreconcilable differences.”[17] The Mekele center continued to operate under Tigray Disabled Veterans Association (TDVA) management.[18]

Socio-economic and psychosocial inclusion

The ICRC and the Ethiopia Basketball Federation (EBF) hosted a 10-day training camp in wheelchair basketball for landmine survivors and other persons with disabilities from six regions. The goal of the training was to create a national wheelchair basketball association that will be able to compete internationally.[19] The ICRC and the EBF also support the 3rdNational Wheelchair Basketball Tournament, held to coincide with the International Day of Persons with Disabilities, on 3 December. The ICRC provided dozens of sport wheelchairs and spare parts to enable more persons to participate.[20]

MoLSA launched urban and rural safety net programs that are intended to benefit persons with disabilities, including landmine survivors.[21] In addition, Cheshire Services Ethiopia (CSE), the Ethiopian Center for Disability and Development (ECDD), and Survivors Recovery and Rehabilitation Organization (SRaRO) offer support for economic integration activities—vocational training, small business support, internship programs—to persons with disabilities and landmine survivors.[22]

The ECDD continues to support inclusive education efforts by making primary schools and technical and vocational training centers physically accessible. The ECDD’s university outreach provides assistive devices to universities as well as targeted training to include leadership, job hunting, and braille for university students.[23]

Cross-cutting

In general, ICRC services have focused more on women and children.[24] Rehabilitation and Development Organization (RaDO) offered services for persons with disabilities in Sherkole[25] and Bokolmanyo[26] refugee camps.[27] Humanity & Inclusion (HI, formerly Handicap International) provided physical rehabilitation services and assistive devices to persons with disabilities in two of the refugee camps in Ethiopia’s Somali region, for refugees from Somalia.[28]

Victim assistance providers and activities

Name of organization

Type of activity

Government

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs

Disability sector coordination; urban and rural safety net programs

Prosthetic and Orthotic Center (POC)

Provide prosthetic and orthopedic appliances; physical rehabilitation

National

Cheshire Services Ethiopia (CSE)

Physical rehabilitation; livelihood support; medical care and surgery; physiotherapy and hydrotherapy

Ethiopian Center for Disability and Development (ECDD)

Physical accessibility of health and education facilities; technical and financial support to small business groups; holistic approach to disability interventions and programing including inclusive healthcare, education, livelihoods

Federation of Ethiopian National Associations of Persons with Disabilities (FENAPD)

Coordination of DPOs; awareness raising; sub-grants for members; capacity building; bridging between government, donors and partners

Survivors Recovery and Rehabilitation Organization (SRaRO)

Vocational training; awareness raising; peer support, small grants, and economic support; provision of physical rehabilitative devices through purchase or referral to service providers; entrepreneurship training, linking with microfinance institutions

Tigray Disabled Veterans Association (TDVA)

Healthcare; training; physical rehabilitation, including prosthetics; mobility devices; and vocational training and employment[29]

International

CBM

Community-based rehabilitation

Humanity and Inclusion (HI)

Inclusive education; climate change resilience; assistance to refugees and their host communities

ICRC

Support to nine prosthetic and orthopedic centers; training for prosthetists and physical rehabilitation therapists; support disability sports

 



[1] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Meried Mengesha, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA), 7 May, 2018; by Tariku Wakuma, ECDD, 30 April 2018 and; by Bekele Gonfa, Survivors Recovery and Rehabilitation Organization (SRaRO),9 May 2018; by Wendwesen Getachew, POC, 14 May 2018; and Prem Saggurthi, Physical Rehabilitation Programme Manager, ICRC, 7 May 2018.

[2] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Prem Saggurthi, ICRC, 7 May 2018.

[3] Ethiopia, “Victim Assistance Report 2016–2017,” undated.

[4] Email from Assefa Baleher, MoLSA, 8 September 2016.

[5] Ethiopia, “Victim Assistance Report 2016–2017,” undated.

[6] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Meried Mengesha, MoLSA, 7 May 2018; and Ethiopia, “Victim Assistance Report 2016–2017,” undated.

[7] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Wendwesen Getachew, POC, 14 May 2018; and Ethiopia, “Victim Assistance Report 2016–2017,” undated.

[8] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Meried Mengesha, MoLSA, 7 May, 2018 by Yeneneh Kebede, CSE, 9 May 2018.

[9] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Tariku Wakuma, ECDD,30 April 2018.

[10] Ethiopia, “Victim Assistance Report 2016–2017,” undated.

[11] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Meried Mengesha, MoLSA, 7 May, 2018.

[12] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Prem Saggurthi, ICRC, 7 May 2018.

[13] Tigray Disabled Veterans Association (TVDA), “Mekelle Ortho-Physiotherapy Center,” undated.

[14] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Prem Saggurthi, ICRC, 7 May 2018.

[15] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report,” Geneva, 2017, p. 21.

[16] ICRC, “Facts and Figures: Activities in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, January–December 2017,” undated.

[17] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report,” Geneva, 2017, p. 21.

[20] ICRC, “Facts and Figures, ICRC Activities in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, January–December 2017,” undated.

[21] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Meried Mengesha, MoLSA, 7 May, 2018.

[22] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Yeneneh Kebede, CSE, 9 May 2018; by Tariku Wakuma, ECDD, 30 April 2018 and; by Bekele Gonfa, SRaRO, 9 May 2018.

[23] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Tariku Wakuma, ECDD, 30 April 2018 and; ECDD, “Our Work,” and “News and Events,”undated.

[24] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Prem Saggurthi, ICRC, 7 May 2018.

[25] Accommodating Sudanese refugees seeking international protection. However, the current population includes Sudanese, South Sudanese, and a minority community from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Uganda, and other countries in Africa.

[26] Accommodating Somali refugees.

[27] UNHCR, “Camp Profile: Bokolmanyo refugee camp,” 19 December 2018; and UNHCR, “Camp Profile: Sherkole refugee camp,” January 2018.

[28] HI, “Where We Work: Ethiopia,” undated.

[29] TDVA is the largest active NGO implementing victim assistance activities. See, Ethiopia, “Victim Assistance Report 2016–2017,” undated.