Cluster Munition Ban Policy
Summary: Non-signatory Mongolia has expressed support for the ban on cluster munitions but has not taken any steps to join the convention. Mongolia has participated in meetings of the convention and attended a regional workshop in June 2019. Mongolia voted in favor of a key United Nations (UN) resolution promoting the convention in December 2018.
Mongolia is not known to have used, produced, or exported cluster munitions. In 2014, Mongolia informed the Monitor that it does not have any stocks of the weapons.
Mongolia has not taken steps to accede to the convention but government officials have expressed interest in doing so. In 2013, Mongolia told States Parties that the convention prohibits “one of the most inhumane weapons of today” and said that “the only guarantee against the risk of the use and proliferation of these weapons is their total elimination.” 
Mongolia did not participate in the 2007–2008 Oslo Process that created the convention. Mongolia first participated in a meeting related to the convention in November 2009, when it attended a regional workshop on cluster munitions in Bali, Indonesia.
Mongolia has participated as an observer in the convention’s Meetings of States Parties, but not since 2014.  It attended an Asia-Pacific workshop on the convention in Manila, Philippines on 18–19 June 2019. 
In December 2018, Mongolia voted in favor of a UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution, which urges states outside the Convention on Cluster Munitions to “join as soon as possible.”  Mongolia voted in favor of the annual resolution promoting the convention since it was first introduced in 2015.
Mongolia is not party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.
Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling
Mongolia is not known to have used, produced, or exported cluster munitions.
In September 2014, a representative of Mongolia’s armed forces informed the Monitor that Mongolia possesses no stockpiles of cluster munitions. 
Jane’s Information Group reported in 2004 that the country’s air force had KMGU dispensers that deliver submunitions.  Mongolia possesses Grad 122mm surface-to-surface launchers, but it is not known if these include rockets with submunition payloads. 
 Statement of Mongolia, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Lusaka, 10 September 2013. Also in September 2013, Mongolian President Elbegdorj Tsakhia praised “the indispensable role of coalitions of states and of NGOs, when the disarmament machinery fails, as exemplified by the successful conclusion of the landmines convention in 1997 and of the cluster munitions convention in 2008.” Statement by President Elbegdorj Tsakhia of Mongolia, High-Level Meeting of the UNGA on Nuclear Disarmament, New York, 26 September 2013.
 Mongolia participated as an observer in the convention’s Meetings of States Parties in 2010, 2013, and 2014, but did not attend the First Review Conference in 2015 or any meetings since then.
 “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 73/54, 5 December 2018.
 Monitor interview with Col. Badarch Khadbaatar, Chief of Military Weaponry, General Staff of the Armed Forces of Mongolia, in San Jose, 2 September 2014. The Monitor has listed Mongolia as a stockpiler since publication of the first Cluster Munition Monitor Report in 2010 and will continue to do so until Mongolia provides a written statement that it does not stockpile cluster munitions.
 Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air-Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2004), p. 842.
 International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2011 (London: Routledge, 2011), p. 259.
Mine Ban Policy
Mongolia has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty and did not fulfill its objective, announced in 2004, of joining the treaty in 2008 through a step-by-step approach.
In June 2011, Mongolia informed States Parties that it “continues to pursue a step-by-step (or phased) policy towards accession to the Convention due to a range of security and economic concerns.” However, it did not mention the interagency action plan to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty that it had announced at the Tenth Meeting of States Parties and at the Second Review Conference. In 2010, Mongolia informed States Parties that it would join the treaty “in the near future.” Earlier, in October 2010, during a UN General Assembly (UNGA) debate, Mongolia stated that “Just a few days ago the Prime Minister re-affirmed Mongolia’s commitment to accede to the Convention.”
Mongolia has repeatedly stated that it has limited resources to implement the treaty, especially with respect to stockpile destruction, and it encouraged “cooperation, assistance and support” from other countries and international organizations. In the past, representatives from Mongolia have expressed concern about whether Mongolia will receive international assistance for both stockpile destruction and clearance of areas contaminated with unexploded ordnance, especially Soviet-era firing ranges.
Mongolia has infrequently attended Mine Ban Treaty meetings, and has not participated as an observer since the Eleventh Meeting of States Parties in November–December 2011.
On 5 December 2018, Mongolia voted in favor of Resolution 73/61 calling for universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty, as in previous years.
Mongolia is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), but not its Amended Protocol II on landmines or Protocol V on explosive remnants of war. Mongolia is also not party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
Use, stockpiling, production, and transfer
Mongolia submitted a voluntary Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report in August 2007. The report revealed a stockpile of 206,417 antipersonnel mines, exported by the Soviet Union. At the government’s invitation, in July 2009, technical experts from the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) investigated the condition of Mongolia’s mine stocks. At the Second Review Conference, Mongolia reported that it had destroyed 100 antipersonnel mines in the previous year and that it would destroy another 100 in the following year to help identify a destruction technology that is both environmentally safe and cost effective.
In December 2010, Mongolia stated that it had a stockpile of 206,317 antipersonnel mines (100 mines fewer than the number reported in August 2007) and would destroy another 380 mines in 2011 to demonstrate “our step-by-step approach to join the Convention.” However, in June 2011, Mongolia reported that it had 206,417 antipersonnel mines and that 110 had been destroyed to “define an appropriate mine destruction technique friendly to the environment.” A representative of the Ministry of Defense could not provide any information on the method of destruction used, but he did confirm that Mongolia would not necessarily need to retain any live mines for training purposes since it currently uses inert mines in its training programs.
 At the Second Review Conference, Mongolia stated that it had “drafted an interagency action plan,” but at the Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Mongolia stated that it was “drafting a collaborative interagency action plan to implement its step-by-step accession” to the convention. See, statement of Mongolia, Mine Ban Treaty Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 2 December 2010; and statement by Col. Lkhagva Gantumur, General Staff, Mongolian Armed Forces, Mine Ban Treaty Second Review Conference, Cartagena, 1 December 2009.
 Statement of Mongolia, 65th Session of the UNGA, First Committee General Debate, New York, 8 October 2010.
 At the Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Mongolia stated that “cooperation, assistance and support through bilateral channels and international organizations are appreciated for accelerating the process of our accession.” See, statement of Mongolia, Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Mine Ban Treaty, Geneva, 2 December 2010.
 “Implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction,” UNGA Resolution 73/61, 5 December 2018.
 The report is undated, with the reporting period listed as “2007 to 2008.” Mongolia has stated it submitted the report in August 2007, and it is listed by the UN as received in 2007. Statement by Col. Gantumur, Mongolian Armed Forces, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on General Status, Geneva, 25 May 2009. All forms are marked “not applicable” except Form B on types and quantities of stockpiled antipersonnel mines and Form H on technical characteristics of stockpiled mines. In June 2011, Mongolia stated that it has annually updated this report, but only one has been sent to the UN. See, statement of Mongolia, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation, Geneva, 20 June 2011.
 Mine Ban Treaty Voluntary Article 7 Report (for the period 2007–2008), Form B cites: 40,331 POMZ-2; 83,028 PMN-2; 996 PMN; 48,891 PMD-6; 29,997 OZM-72; 2,000 MON-50; 601 MON-100; and 573 MON-200 antipersonnel mines.
 Statement by Col. Gantumur, Mongolian Armed Forces, Mine Ban Treaty Second Review Conference, Cartagena, 1 December 2009.
 ICBL meeting with Col. Narankhuu Turbat, Deputy Chief of Strategic Management and Planning Directorate, Ministry of Defense, Geneva, 21 June 2011.
Contamination and Impact
Mongolia is not believed to be affected by antipersonnel mines. In its only voluntary Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report to date, Form C on the location of mined areas was marked as “Not Applicable.”
Explosive remnants of war
Mongolia is said to have an extensive problem with explosive remnants of war, including both unexploded ordnance and abandoned explosive ordnance. In 2008, for instance, abandoned antivehicle mines were reportedly discovered on several occasions.
Mine Action Program
There is no mine action program in Mongolia and the current extent of any clearance is not known.
 Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for the period 2007–2008), Form C.
 See, for example, Statement of Mongolia, Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 25 May 2009.
 See, for example, Kh. Ganaa, “Mongolia Contaminated with Live Mines,” Today’s Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar), 10 November 2008, www.olloo.mn.