Cluster Munition Ban Policy
Summary: Non-signatory Romania has not taken any steps to accede to the convention. It has never participated in a meeting of the convention, even as an observer. Romania abstained from voting on a key United Nations (UN) resolution promoting the convention in December 2018.
Romania states it has never used or produced cluster munitions, but there is clear evidence of past production and it possesses a stockpile of cluster munitions.
Romania has not acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
Romania is not prepared to join the convention, but says it stands ready to support “efforts” aimed at “identifying solutions to all humanitarian problems” raised by cluster munitions. 
Romania attended the February 2007 conference that launched the Oslo Process, but did not endorse the conference’s Oslo Declaration, which pledged to conclude in 2008 a legally binding instrument prohibiting cluster munitions that cause unacceptable harm to civilians. At the time, Romania said it wanted to wait for the outcome of deliberations on cluster munitions by the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), to which it is a party.
Romania attended several diplomatic conferences of the Oslo Process that resulted in the Convention on Cluster Munitions, but did not actively engage in discussions. It participated in the formal negotiations in Dublin in May 2008 as an observer and therefore did not join in the consensus adoption of the convention. 
Romania has participated as an observer in just one meeting of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, the Second Meeting of States Parties in Beirut, Lebanon in September 2011.
Since 2015, Romania has endorsed a joint statement to the annual UN General Assembly (UNGA) First Committee on Disarmament and International Security session on behalf of itself and four other European Union (EU) member states that are not party to the convention: Estonia, Finland, Greece, and Poland. The statement expresses support for the convention’s “humanitarian goal” but flags the desire of these states to meet “legitimate security concerns and military and defence needs.” 
In December 2018, Romania and these countries abstained from voting on a UNGA resolution urging states outside the Convention on Cluster Munitions to “join as soon as possible.”  These states have abstained from voting on the annual UNGA resolution promoting the convention since it was first introduced in 2015.
Romania is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty.
In 2015, a government representative said, “Romania has never used and does not intend to use cluster munitions in operational theatres.”  Romanian officials have made similar comments in previous years. 
Production, transfer, and stockpiling
Romania states that it is not a producer of cluster munitions. In a 2011 letter to the Monitor, the Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs asserted that “Romania is not a producer of cluster munition[s].”  The Ministry of Foreign Affairs repeated in 2013 that “Romania is not a producer of cluster munition[s].” 
There is clear evidence Romania produced cluster munitions in the past. The Monitor will continue to list Romania as a cluster munition producer until it formally commits to never produce cluster munitions again.
According to Jane’s Information Group, the company ROMAIR developed and produced the CL-250 cluster bomb, which is described as similar in appearance to the Soviet RBK-250, and reportedly carries BAAT-10 and BF-10T bomblets. 
The company Romarm has listed two types of 152mm dual-purpose improved conventional munition (DPICM) artillery projectiles, the CG-540 and CG-540ER, on its website in the past.  According to Jane’s Information Group, the cluster munitions contain GAA-001 submunitions that were produced by Romanian company Aeroteh SA as part of a joint production and marketing venture with Israel Military Industries (IMI). 
Romania possesses a stockpile of cluster munitions, but has not provided information on the quantities and types. 
 Letter from Amb. Maria Ligor, Embassy of Romania to Canada, to Paul Hannon, Executive Director, Mines Action Canada (MAC), undated but received in the second half of 2015.
 For details on Romania’s cluster munition policy and practice through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 229–230.
 Poland provided a similar statement in November 2018. Statement of Poland (on behalf of Estonia, Greece, Finland, and Romania), UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, New York, 8 November 2018; statement of Poland (on behalf of Greece, Estonia, Finland, and Romania), UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, New York, 31 October 2017; statement of Poland (on behalf of Greece, Estonia, and Finland, and Romania), UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, New York, 31 October 2016; and statement of Poland (on behalf of Greece, Estonia, and Finland), UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, New York, 4 November 2015.
 “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 73/45, 5 December 2018.
 Letter from Amb. Ligor, Embassy of Romania to Canada, to Paul Hannon, MAC, undated but received in the second half of 2015.
 Letter from Monica Matei, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to Mary Wareham, HRW, 29 May 2013; letter from Doru Costea, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2011; email from Eugen Mihut, Permanent Mission of Romania to the UN in New York, 21 October 2010; letter from Mihail Dumitru, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to Judith Majlath, CMC-Austria, 24 June 2010; and letter from Amb. Adrian Vierita, Embassy of Romania to the United States, to HRW, 3 March 2009.
 Letter from Doru Costea, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2011.
 Letter from Monica Matei, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to Mary Wareham, HRW, 29 May 2013.
 Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2004), p. 290.
 The GAA-001 submunition has been described as identical to the Israeli M85 DPICM submunition. Leland S. Ness and Anthony G. Williams, eds., Jane’s Ammunition Handbook 2007–2008 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2007), pp. 605–606.
 In 2011, Romania informed the Monitor that it “does not possess KMGU dispensers, RBK-250, RBK-275, and RBK-500 cluster bombs.” Letter from Doru Costea, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2011. Jane’s Information Group has listed Romania as possessing KMG-U dispensers (which deploy submunitions), and RBK-250, RBK-250-275, and RBK-500 cluster bombs.
Mine Ban Policy
Romania signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, and ratified it on 30 November 2000, becoming a State Party on 1 May 2001. Romania believes that existing legislation is sufficient to enforce the antipersonnel mine prohibition domestically.
Romania served on the Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction in 2001–2003 and 2011–2012. It also served as Vice President of the Twelfth Meeting of States Parties in 2012.
Romania has attended most meetings of the treaty, including the Third Review Conference in Maputo in June 2014. More recently, Romania attended the Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in November 2018 and the intersessional meetings in Geneva in May 2019, but did not provide a statement at either meeting.
Romania is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and its Amended Protocol II on landmines and Protocol V on explosive remnants of war. Romania is not party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
Production, transfer, use, and stockpiling
Romanian state factories produced seven types of antipersonnel landmines: the MAI 2 stake fragmentation mine, the MAI 68 blast mine, the MAI 75 blast mine, the MAI-GR 1 blast mine, the MAI-GR 2 blast mine, the MAIGA-4 directional fragmentation mine, and the MSS bounding mine. Romania was also a landmine exporter; its mines reportedly were used in the conflict in Iraqi Kurdistan. Antipersonnel mine production ceased in 1990 and an export moratorium entered into effect in 1995.
Romania completed the destruction of its stockpile of 1,075,074 antipersonnel mines in March 2004. It initially retained 4,000 antipersonnel mines for training purposes but revised this number to 2,500 in 2004. This number was further reduced to 2,395 in 2013, and has remained unchanged through the end of 2018.
Support for Mine Action
The UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) reported that Romania contributed US$117,369 in 2011 for Libya through the UN Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Action. This is the first reported international contribution from Romania for mine action.
 Email from Eugen Secareanu, Resource Mobilization Assistant, Resource Mobilization Unit, UNMAS, 30 May 2012.