Benin

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 13 September 2021

Summary

State Party Benin ratified the convention in July 2017. It has participated in several meetings of the convention, most recently in September 2019, and voted in favor of a key United Nations (UN) resolution promoting the convention in December 2020.

Benin provided its initial transparency report for the convention in June 2019, which confirms it has never used, produced, transferred, or stockpiled cluster munitions.

Policy

The Republic of Benin signed the convention on 3 December 2008, ratified on 10 July 2017, and the convention entered into force for the country on 1 January 2018.

Benin provided its initial Article 7 transparency report for the convention on 20 June 2019.[1] According to the report, Benin has not undertaken any national implementation measures, such as legislation to enforce the convention’s provisions.[2] As of July 2021, Benin has not provided any updated annual Article 7 transparency reports, due by 30 April each year.

Benin participated in the Oslo Process that created the Convention on Cluster Munitions and was a strong advocate for a comprehensive ban.[3]

Benin has attended most of the convention’s meetings, most recently the Ninth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in September 2019.[4] It was invited to, but did not attend the first part of the convention’s Second Review Conference held virtually in November 2020.

Benin voted in favor of a UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution urging implementation of the convention in December 2020.[5] It has voted in favor of the annual UNGA resolution promoting the convention since it was first introduced in 2015.

Benin has also voted in favor of UNGA resolutions expressing outrage at the use of cluster munitions in Syria, most recently in December 2020.[6]

Benin has not elaborated its views on certain important issues relating to its interpretation and implementation of the convention, such as the prohibition on transit, the prohibition on assistance during joint military operations with states not party that may use cluster munitions, the prohibition on foreign stockpiling of cluster munitions, the prohibition on investment in production of cluster munitions, and the need for retention of cluster munitions for training and development purposes.

Benin is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is also party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW).

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

Benin reported in June 2019 that it has never produced cluster munitions and does not stockpile them.[7] Previously, Benin said several times that it never used, produced, transferred, or stockpiled cluster munitions.[8]



[1] The initial report was originally due by 30 June 2018. As of 28 July 2021, Benin has not provided the annual updated report due by 30 April. 

[2] The report states “not applicable” under national implementation measures required by Article 9. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form A, 20 June 2019.

[3] For details on Benin’s cluster munition policy and practice up to early 2009, see Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 42–43.

[4] Benin has attended every meeting of States Parties of the convention, except in 2011, 2016, and 2018. It participated in the convention’s First Review Conference in 2015, intersessional meetings in 2011–2014, and several regional workshops on the convention.

[5]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 75/62, 7 December 2020.

[6]Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution 75/193, 16 December 2020. Benin voted in favor of similar resolutions in 2013–2016 and 2018–2019, but abstained from the vote in December 2017.

[8] Statement of Benin, Lomé Regional Seminar on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Lomé, Togo, 22 May 2013. Notes by Action on Armed Violence (AOAV); and statement of Benin, Convention on Cluster Munitions Third Meeting of States Parties, Oslo, 12 September 2012.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 12 November 2019

Policy

The Republic of Benin signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 25 September 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 March 1999. Legislation to enforce the antipersonnel mine prohibition domestically has not yet been enacted.

Benin last attended a meeting of the treaty in 2016 when it attended the Fifteenth Meeting of States Parties in Santiago in November–December 2016. Benin also attended the Third Review Conference in Maputo in June 2014. Benin submitted its seventh Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report on 24 June 2008, but has not submitted subsequent annual reports.

On 5 December 2018, Benin voted in favor the UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 73/61 promoting universalization and implementation of the convention.[1]

In 2002, Benin opened a regional demining training center for Economic Community of Western African States members.

Benin is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons, but not its Amended Protocol II on landmines or Protocol V on explosive remnants of war. Benin is party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Production, import, transfer, and stockpiling

Benin has never used, produced, imported, or stockpiled antipersonnel mines, including for training purposes.



[1] “Implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction,” UNGA Resolution 73/61, 5 December 2018.


Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 30 October 2015

Since 2011, the West African Humanitarian Mine Action Training Center (Centre de perfectionnement aux actions post-conflictuelles de déminage et de dépollution,CPADD) based in Ouidah in the Republic of Benin, has received almost US$3 million in international support.

France has been a major donor to the CPADD since it opened in 2003. In 2014, France contributed €70,785 ($94,123) to support training. In addition to financial support, France provided demining experts and logistical support to the CPADD (valued at €475,000/$631,608).[1] In 2013, France and Japan contributed a combined total of approximately $1.3 million.[2] France also provides trainers to the center.

Summary of international contributions: 2011–2014[3]

Year

Amount ($)

2014

94,123

2013

1,252,103

2012

970,578

2011

895,698

Total

3,212,502

 

 



[1] France, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, May 2015. Average exchange rate for 2014: €1=US$1.3297. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 2 January 2015.

[2] France, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2014; and Japan, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form I, 30 April 2014. Average exchange rate for 2013: €1=US$1.3281; ¥97.6=US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 2 January 2015.

[3] See previous Monitor reports.