Cluster Munition Ban Policy
Five-Year Review: State Party Hungary ratified the convention on 3 July 2012 after amending its penal code to establish sanctions applicable to the ban on cluster munitions. It has participated in nearly all of the convention’s meetings and has elaborated its views on a number of important matters relating to the interpretation and implementation of the convention.
According to its initial transparency report for the convention provided in 2013, Hungary has never produced cluster munitions. It has never used cluster munitions. Hungary completed the destruction of a stockpile of 287 cluster munitions and 3,954 submunitions on 8 July 2011.
The Republic of Hungarysigned the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008, ratified on 3 July 2012, and the convention entered into force for the country on 1 January 2013.
Hungary amended its penal code in 2012 to classify cluster munitions as an internationally prohibited weapon and establish penal sanctions for their “procurement, use, manufacturing and transfer.” Hungary has also reported its 2012 ratification law under national implementation measures.
Hungary submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report for the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 8 April 2013, but, as of 4 June 2015, had not provided any of the updated reports due annually by 30 April.
Hungary actively participated throughout the Oslo Process that resulted in the convention. In November 2007, Hungary enacted a national moratorium on the use of cluster munitions by its armed forces, which remained in place until it became a State Party.
Hungary has continued to engage in the work of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. It participated in the convention’s Meeting of States Parties in 2011, 2012, and 2013, but did not attend the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in San José, Costa Rica in September 2014. Hungary has participated in all of the convention’s intersessional meetings held in Geneva since 2011, most recently in June 2015. Hungary attended in a mine action symposium in Biograd, Croatia on 27–29 April 2015, which included discussion on cluster munitions.
Hungary has voted in favor of recent UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions condemning the use of cluster munitions in Syria, including Resolution 69/189 on 18 December 2014, which expressed “outrage” at the continued use.
In 2011, Hungary elaborated its views on a number of important matters relating to the interpretation and implementation of the convention, stating its belief that the convention prohibits foreign states from transiting cluster munitions across, and stockpiling on, the territory of a State Party. Hungary believes the convention prohibits States Parties from assisting states not party with prohibited acts, and that it prohibits investment in the production of cluster munitions.
Hungary is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is also party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.
Use, production, and transfer
Hungary has stated that it has never used cluster munitions “in the course of an armed conflict” and has never produced cluster munitions.
In April 2013, Hungary declared the completion of the destruction of its stockpile of 287 cluster bombs and 3,954 submunitions of three types: 247 BKF blocks containing 2,964 AO-2.5 submunitions, 23 BKF blocks containing 276 PTAB-2.5KO submunitions, and 17 RBK-250 cluster bombs containing 714 PTAB-2.5M submunitions. The Hungarian Defence Forces destroyed the cluster munitions at Erdőkertes outside of Budapest between 24 March and 8 July 2011. The total cost of the destruction was 38,120,000 HUF or €127,000.
Hungary is not retaining any cluster munitions for training or research purposes.
 The report covers the period until 31 December 2012. It incorrectly provides a submission date of 8 April 2012 instead of 8 April 2013. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, 8 April 2013.
 For more details on Hungary’s cluster munition policy and practice through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), p. 90.
 Email from Gyula Somogyi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23 July 2010.
 “Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution A/RES/69/189, 18 December 2014. Hungary voted in favor of similar resolutions on 15 May and 18 December 2013.
 Letter No. KÜM/6777/2011/ADM from János Martonyi, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2011.
 Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form B, 8 April 2013. Previously, in April 2011, Hungary said a total of 289 cluster bombs were being destroyed, which is a difference of two cluster munitions. Letter No. KÜM/6777/2011/ADM from János Martonyi, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2011.
 Katherine Harrison, “Report on the Special Event on Stockpile Destruction in Erdőkertes, Hungary, 24 March 2011,” Action on Armed Violence, 30 April 2011.
 Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form C, 8 April 2013. In April 2011, Hungary confirmed that the stockpile destruction process “encompasses Hungary’s entire cluster munitions stockpile.” Letter No. KÜM/6777/2011/ADM from János Martonyi, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2011.
Mine Ban Policy
The Republic of Hungary signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 6 April 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 March 1999. Legislation to enforce the antipersonnel mine prohibition domestically entered into force on 7 March 1998.
Hungary has attended most meetings of the treaty, including the Third Review Conference in Maputo in June 2014. More recently, Hungary attended the Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in November 2018 and the intersessional meetings in May 2019, but did not provide a statement at either meeting.
Hungary served as co-chair of the Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction from 1999–2000.
Hungary is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and its Amended Protocol II on landmines and Protocol V on explosive remnants of war. Hungary is also party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
Production, use, transfer, and stockpiling
Hungary is a former antipersonnel mine producer and exporter. Hungarian state facilities produced six types of landmines: the GYATA-64 blast mine (similar to Soviet PMN), the M62 and M49 blast mines (similar to Soviet PMD-6), the RAMP blast mine (WWII-era), the No. 1131 bounding mine, and the Model 36 fragmentation mine. Hungary’s mines have been used in Cambodia, Angola, South Africa, and elsewhere. Hungary destroyed 375,339 stockpiled antipersonnel mines from 1998–1999.
Hungary has no known mined areas but is contaminated by unexploded ordnance from World War II.
 US Department of Defense, “Mine Facts” CD ROM; and Eddie Banks, Antipersonnel Landmines: Recognizing and Disarming (London: Brassey’s, 1997), pp. 128–132.
Contamination and Impact
The Republic of Hungary was affected by mines as a result of the inaccurate emplacement of mines along the border with Croatia by Croatian forces during the armed conflict associated with the break-up of the former Yugoslavia during the early 1990s, and as a result of natural processes causing mines to shift across from the Croatian border. Hungary is affected by a legacy of unexploded ordnance (UXO), mostly remaining from World War II.
Hungary was contaminated with landmines. While mines were emplaced mainly on the Croatian side of the border during the conflict in the first half of the 1990s, Hungary identified a suspected hazardous area along the Hungarian side of the border between the municipalities of Matty and Kölked that was 79.6km long and varying in width from a few centimeters to a few meters. Hungary believed thatless than100mines (thought to include PMR-2, PMR-2A, and OMSZ-2 antipersonnel mines) might have been found on its territory due to inaccurate emplacement or due to movement of mines caused by weather and soil erosion. The area was reported as being unpopulated and covered by dense vegetation, and Hungary stated that any impact from contamination was minimal.
In October 2013, Hungary announced to the UN General Assembly (UNGA) First Committee that it had completed clearance of all known mined areas and was mine-free. Hungary subsequently made a formal declaration of completion at the Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties on 4 December 2013.
Mine Action Program
With financial support from the European Union, Hungary established a joint program, “Rehabilitation of land mine contaminated sites in the Drava-Danube area,” in cooperation with the Croatian Mine Action Centre (CROMAC) to survey and, if necessary, clear its border with Croatia in 2011–2013. The plan provided for completion of a survey to define the extent of any contamination and establish a Hungarian Mine Information Database, with all clearance to be completed by the end of August 2013.
Hungary completed a general survey and marking of suspected mined areas between 26 March and 13 August 2012 through the Hungarian company Lanfarm Ltd, completing Phase I of the program. Phase II consisted of clearance of confirmed and suspected mined areas and the environmental rehabilitation of the cleared areas. Clearance was reported as completed by 7 September 2013, while environmental rehabilitation activities were ongoing.
Hungary reported that a total of €3.5 million euro had been allocated to the police of Baranya County (Hungary) and CROMAC to carry out the survey and clearance activities necessary.
The clearance, removal, and destruction of explosive remnants of war (ERW) within the territory of Hungary is the responsibility of the explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) unit of the Hungarian Defence Forces (HDF), according to Government Regulation 142/1999.
Hungary conducted a general survey of 1,007,747m2 of suspected mine-affected land between 26 March–13 August 2012, during the first phase of the program.
Begun in May 2013, Croatian demining operator Dok-Ing Demining Ltd completed clearance operations the following September, releasing 997,881m2 through clearance and cancelling 9,866m2, destroying five antipersonnel mines (2 PMR-2A mines, 3 PMA-2 remnants), one antitank mine remnant, and an additional 25 items of UXO.
While clearance activities reportedly proceeded according to the timetable without any delays, CROMAC requested a two-month extension due to “extensive floods” which meant that, on the whole, project implementation was slightly longer than planned.
A closing event for the joint Hungarian-Croatian project was held in Harkány, Southern Hungary on 25 October.
Article 5 Compliance
Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Hungary was required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 March 2009. In accordance with Article 5, each State Party is required to make “every effort to identify all areas under its jurisdiction or control in which antipersonnel mines are known or suspected to be emplaced.”
Hungary only reported the possible presence of antipersonnel mines on its territory in 2011, although it had earlier sought funding from the European Commission for survey and clearance. Hungary did not request an extension to its Article 5 deadline prior to its expiration in 2009, but reported on its plans at the Twelfth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty and 2013 intersessional meetings. Hungary reported completion of clearance of all known mined areas in October 2013 and subsequently made a formal declaration of completion at the Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in December 2013.
 Statement of Hungary, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 23 May 2012; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2011), Form C.
 Statement of Hungary, Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty, 4 December 2013.
 Statement of Hungary, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 23 May 2012.
 Email from Zita Huszay, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Budapest, 16 October 2013.
 Ibid; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2013), Form C.
 Email from Zita Huszay, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Budapest, 16 October 2013.