Last updated: 02 December 2020

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Treaty Status | Management & Coordination | Impact (contamination & casualties) | Addressing the Impact (land release, risk education, victim assistance)

Country summary

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar[1] is heavily mine-affected as a result of conflicts between the Tatmadaw (government forces) and numerous non-state armed groups (NSAGs) affiliated with ethnic minorities. Armed conflict in border regions has persisted since Myanmar’s independence in 1948. Mined areas are located adjacent to borders with Bangladesh, China, India and Thailand. New mines continue to be laid by both the Tatmadaw and NSAGs. The full extent of contamination in Myanmar is unknown, but includes improvised landmines, and mines produced in state-owned factories. Contamination impedes the return of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs). A trend of increasing mine casualties in recent years has been reported by national stakeholders.

In February 2020, a national level meeting was held in Naypyidaw to discuss the formation of a national mine action authority and a national mine action center, which would be established under the oversight of the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement (MoSWRR). The military has undertaken some mine clearance, but operations are not systematic or recorded. Humanitarian mine action operators began arriving in Myanmar from 2012, but are not permitted to clear mines.

Risk education is coordinated by the Mine Risk Working Group (MRWG), led by the Department of Rehabilitation and co-chaired with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). It comprises four state level coordination agencies in Kachin, Kayah, Kayin and Shan states, while in 2019 an agreement was reached to establish a coordination agency in Rakhine state. Risk education focuses on conflict-affected communities in ethnic territories, and particularly targets IDPs and refugees.

For a decade, from 1999–2009, assistance to mine/explosive remnants of war (ERW) survivors and persons with disabilities in Myanmar was marginal due to many years of neglect of healthcare services by the governing authorities. Myanmar’s authorities did have a national victim assistance program or strategy. Awareness of the need for victim assistance has increased significantly since around 2012, initially as a result of activities by non-governmental organizations (NGOs). In 2013, under an agreement with the government, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) started to support government-run rehabilitation centers, which had been operating without external support since 2007.

Since 2014, the number of victim assistance service providers has increased significantly. More than a dozen organizations, including government departments, the United Nations (UN), international and local NGOs, and community-based organizations are involved in efforts. Specific victim assistance centers were developed and prosthetic services built and improved, including through enhanced mobile services. Localized availability of community-based rehabilitation and vocational training also increased. Coordination improved with the introduction of the National Victim Assistance Technical Group (NVATG) as a sub-working group under the MRWG. Yet overall, essential services remain scarce, particularly for many people in remote rural areas.

Treaty status

Myanmar is not party to the Mine Ban Treaty, the Convention on Cluster Munitions, nor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Management and coordination

Mine action management and coordination

Mine action coordination overview

National mine action management actors

The Myanmar military (Tatmadaw) state that they are responsible for mine clearance within the country

UN Agencies


United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

Mine action legislation


Mine action strategic and operational plans

No current strategy on mine action

Mine action standards

In process of finalizing the Myanmar National Mine Action Standard for clearance in October 2019

International operators currently follow International Mine Action Standards (IMAS)


Coordination and management

Myanmar’s former military government created a Mine Action Center under the former Myanmar Peace Center in 2013, but it was never fully staffed. Concluding a national ceasefire agreement with NSAGs was a government precondition for proceeding to survey and clearance.[2] With the change of government after the 2016 election, the Mine Action Center was dissolved. The new government made peace negotiations a priority, at which several participants emphasized the threat of mines and the need for clearance.[3] A national youth conference in May 2016 had also called on the Tatmadaw and NSAGs to remove landmines.[4] Several civil society groups have also called for mine clearance in recent years (see Myanmar Mine Ban Policy profile).

In October 2019, Myanmar hosted an international workshop attended by the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) and the Norwegian Presidency to the Mine Ban Treaty to discuss the establishment of a national mine action authority to lead and manage a mine action program in Myanmar.[5]

In February 2020, a national level meeting was held in Naypyidaw to discuss the formation of a national mine action authority, and a mine action center which would be established under the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement. The meeting also discussed the Ministry of Defence establishing state and regional level mine clearing groups.[6]

Strategic planning

As of September 2019, the government had not announced a clear strategy on mine action. In January 2018, the Union Joint Monitoring Committee (JMU-C) Secretary, Colonel Wunna Aung, had stated that mine clearance could not begin prior to the building of mutual trust between the government and NSAGs.[7] In May 2017, Colonel Aung stated that the Tatmadaw would take the lead on landmine clearance but that international technological and material support would be accepted.[8]

In August 2017, Myanmar’s Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services, Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, held talks with New Zealand’s ambassador regarding assistance between the two states’ militaries and mine clearance operations.[9] The embassy of New Zealand has since funded a mine action coordinator whose primary role is to improve the effectiveness of the sector until a national mine action authority is established. The initiative is reported to be successful in providing a focus for developing procedures.[10]

Legislation and standards

In October 2019, Myanmar stated that it is in the process of finalizing its National Mine Action Standard for the conduct of systematic mine clearance. Myanmar is working with countries in the region through the ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM)-Plus Expert Working Group on Humanitarian Mine Action under the ASEAN Regional Mine Action Centre (ARMAC).[11]

Since Myanmar does not currently have national mine action legislation or standards, demining organizations have followed IMAS and their own standard operating procedures.


International demining organizations started to arrive in Myanmar in 2012, but operations were not started until later. In 2018 and early 2019, six international demining organizations had offices in Yangon and some in provincial locations: DanChurchAid (DCA), the Danish Demining Group (DDG), The HALO Trust, Humanity & Inclusion (HI), Mines Advisory Group (MAG), and Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA). These international NGOs conducted risk education and community liaison activities, and community mapping of hazardous areas in some locations.

In 2020, Myanmar has seen a decrease in the number of organizations undertaking mine action. In August 2019, 16 organizations reported 21 mine action projects taking place in 85 townships. Six months later, in February 2020, this had decreased to 13 organizations reporting 13 mine action projects in 77 townships.[12]

Information management

Currently all mine action actors retain their own survey results in the absence of a neutral national entity to store hazardous area data, which remains sensitive in view of continuing conflict.

Risk education management and coordination

Risk education coordination overview

Government focal points

Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement; Department of Rehabilitation

UN focal point


Coordination mechanisms

MRWG comprised of ministries, international, and national organizations and four state-level coordination agencies. The MRWG takes the lead on risk education and victim assistance

Risk education standards

In development



The Department of Rehabilitation in the MoSWRR, leads the MRWG, co-chaired with UNICEF, which is comprised of 10 ministries, 41 international and national organizations, and four state-level coordination agencies (in Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, and Shan states).[13] The group met quarterly in 2019 in Naypyidaw and at state-level. It focuses on risk education with a sub-working group on victim assistance. Topics include humanitarian needs, victim data, recent trends and development, coordination among mine action organizations, and other updates within the humanitarian mine action sector. Data on risk education session delivery is also shared.

In 2019, the MoSWRR endorsed a decision to open a new state-level MRWG in Rakhine state, including a Victim Assistance Technical Group.[14]


An MRWG Strategic Workplan for 2020–2021 is being developed, including objectives for victim assistance.[15]

Information management

There is no comprehensive information management system in Myanmar. The MRWG provides mine/ERW incident data every quarter. The data is collected through UNICEF and the MoSWRR networks, mine action operators’ databases and from the general administration department and the police.[16] However, the data is far from complete and it is recognized that many mine accidents remain unreported because there is no national accident surveillance system in place and limited healthcare facilities in some remote areas.[17] UNHCR, as the lead for mine action, also keeps a database which all mine action organizations in Myanmar contribute to.[18]

A workshop held in Naypyidaw in 2019 initiated a discussion on victim data and management to continue advocacy efforts towards a national standardized system.[19]

National standards and guidelines

There are currently no risk education standards, but the mine action sector has been invited to help the government draft standards.[20]

Victim assistance management and coordination

Victim assistance coordination overview[21]

Government focal points

MoSWRR, Department of Social Welfare and Persons with Disabilities

Coordination mechanisms

The Department of Rehabilitation in the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement, and UNICEF, continued to co-chair the MRWG, which is responsible for victim assistance and other mine action pillars.

The NVATG, coordinated by HI, gathers national and international victim assistance actors under the umbrella of the MRWG.

Coordination regularity and outcomes

In 2019, NVATG meetings were held in Yangon, and one victim assistance fund workshop was held in Naypyidaw. Quarterly victim assistance meetings were held in the framework of the MRWG in Kachin, Kayah and Kayin states. Organizations of persons with disabilities are taking part in the NVATG and work with the partners on achieving objectives. The Myanmar Federation of Persons with Disabilities (MFPD) is also part of the group but is not actively joining the meetings on a regular basis.


Victim assistance objectives are being included in the MRWG workplan 2020–2021.

The development of the national strategic plan for the rights of persons with disabilities is being developed under the leadership of a working committee with the support of eight subcommittees, headed by the key social departments and with the participation of representatives from government, organizations of persons with disabilities, and other NGOs.

In April 2019, the MoSWRR held a planning meeting and drafted a national strategy in accordance with Myanmar’s obligations under the CRPD.

Disability sector integration


A representative of the MoSWRR reported that Myanmar was taking an integrated approach towards victim assistance, based on the CRPD, in its national disability law and national social protection strategy.

Survivor inclusion and participation

No direct representation of mine/ERW victims, but survivors belong to broader disabled persons organizations that participate in various coordination roles.

Although landmines and armed violence increase the numbers of people with disabilities, they tend not to be among those people consulted by policymakers and decision-makers.

Note: CRPD= Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Laws and policies

In June 2015, Myanmar enacted the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Law.[22] In July 2018, the MoSWRR released the publication of the rules and regulations for the 2015 law.[23]

In 2014, Myanmar launched a National Social Protection Strategic Plan through the MoSWRR to provide an allowance to all persons certified with a disability.[24] In 2017, and again in 2019, the government announced to the media that it would be disbursing a monthly allowance to persons with disabilities in nine townships across four states as a pilot program with a view to eventual nationwide coverage.[25] In February 2020, a national level meeting was held in Naypyidaw to discuss the formation of a national mine action authority. The report of the meeting stated that the MoSWRR would provide K200,000 (US$137) and prosthetic limbs for each victim of landmine explosions.[26] Between September 2019 and August 2020, the fund was budgeted for 600 victims.[27]

Military veterans with disabilities received benefits on a priority basis, usually a civil service job at equivalent pay. Official assistance to non-military persons with disabilities in principle included two-thirds of pay for up to one year for a temporary disability and a tax free stipend for permanent disability. The amount of additional medical pension for veterans with permanent disabilities is determined by an injury severity scale used by the Ministry of Defense. There are believed to be dozens of army-built community settlements where disabled veterans and their families receive free housing. However, ordinary soldiers with disabilities are often located in remote areas and lack job opportunities or ways of finding extra income.[28]

A disability certification and registration process is now being rolled out by the MoSWRR, and is being piloted in two states under the Department of Rehabilitation. People with disabilities will be registered through a nationwide system and will receive a disability card, including classification based on the severity of the disability. It is anticipated that this will create an opportunity for better identification of people with disabilities, greater advocacy for their rights, and the possibility of the provision of social protection funds in the future.[29]

In 2019, the ICRC, together with the World Health Organization (WHO), worked with the Ministry of Health to develop a draft strategic plan aimed at strengthening the national rehabilitation sector and making preparations for setting up a steering committee to guide this work.[30]


A decision was made to develop national victim assistance standards, translated to Burmese from the IMAS victim assistance standards.[31]



Contamination overview

Landmines (includes improvised mines)


Cluster munition remnants


Other ERW contamination


Note: ERW=Explosive Remnants of War.

Mine Contamination

Some 90 townships (out of a total of 325), in 10 states and regions, are believed to suffer from some degree of mine contamination; primarily antipersonnel landmines. During the past year, contamination has increased in Rakhine state, and in the north. Shan and Kachin states are considered heavily contaminated. Previously, Kayin state and the Bago region were among those with the heaviest mine contamination and highest number of recorded victims.[32]

A UN Fact-Finding Mission reported in September 2018 that “despite the signing of the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) in October 2015, which committed all signatories to end the use of landmines and cooperate on mine-clearance operations, new landmines continue to be laid.”[33] It cited credible reports that the Tatmadaw and ethnic armed groups had laid landmines and observed that “Tatmadaw soldiers lay landmines in villages they have attacked or after civilians have fled, or on roads frequently used by civilians.”[34]

New contamination was recorded in 2018 and 2019 in central Rakhine state in several townships previously unknown to suffer contamination by landmines. Other accounts of new contamination due to continuing use by the Tatmadaw and NSAGs in Myanmar were reported throughout 2018 and the first half of 2019. (See Myanmar Mine Ban Policy profile).

No formal estimate exists of the extent of landmine contamination in Myanmar but credible reports of mine contamination, casualties or suspected hazardous areas (SHAs) have been reported in the following states and townships.

Mine contamination per township


Mine-contaminated townships

Kayah state

All seven townships

Kayin state

All seven townships

Kachin state

Bhamo, Chipwi, Hpakant, Injangyang, Mansi, Mogaung, Mohnyin, Momauk, Myitkyina, Shwegu, Sumprabum, Tanai, Tsawlaw, and Waingmaw

Mon state

Bilin, Kyaikto, Mawlamyine, Thanbyuzayat, Thaton, and Ye

Bago region

Kyaukkyi, Shwekyin, Tantabin, and Taungoo

Rakhine state

Ann, Buthidaung, Kyaukphyu, Kyauktaw, Maungdaw, Minbya, Mrauk-U, Myebon, Ponnagyun, Rathedaung and Toungup

Shan state

Hopong, Hsenwi, Hsihseng, Hsipaw, Kengtung, Konkyan, Kutkai, Kyethi, Kyaukme, Langkho, Lashio, Laukkaing, Lawksawk, Loilen, Manton, Mawkmai, Mongmit, Mongshu, Mongpan, Mongton, Monghpyak, Mongyai, Muse, Namhsan, Tachileik, Namtu, Nanhkan, Nawnghkio, Pangsang, Tangyan, and Ywangan

Tanintharyi region

Bokpyin, Dawei, Myiek, Tanintharyi, Thayetchaung, and Yebyu

Chin state


Sagaing region

Indaw, Kalewa, Lay Shi


Some contamination is from mines produced by state owned factories. Ka Pa Sa (Defense Products Industries of Myanmar) produce at least five types of antipersonnel landmines, including domestic versions of PMN, POMZ and M-14 type mines. (See Myanmar Mine Ban Policy profile).

Landmine contamination in Myanmar is frequently cited as a barrier to the return of refugees and internally displaced people. In Kachin state in 2018, IDPs identified landmines as one of the three top obstacles to return to their areas of origin.[35] In November 2019, the government launched a “National Strategy on Resettlement of Internally Displaced Persons and Closure of IDP Camps.” While the draft document made no mention of the need to clear landmines,[36] at the fourth Mine Ban Treaty review conference in Oslo in November 2019, Myanmar stated that it aimed to start humanitarian demining operations in non-conflict areas as part of the camp closure strategy, and acknowledged that mine action is a precondition for the safe return and resettlement of IDPs.[37]

In January 2019, the Tatmadaw removed landmines from Nam San Yang village in Kachin state, to allow the return of people displaced by previous armed conflict.[38]

ERW Contamination

Myanmar is also affected by ERW, including mortars, grenades, artillery, and air-dropped bombs. Periodic reports appear of ordnance dating to World War II.[39] New ERW contamination has been reported in relation to armed conflict in late 2018 and early 2019 in Kachin state.[40]


Casualties overview*


All known casualties by end 2019

Total number is unknown, but the Monitor has recorded 4,981mine/ERW casualties (705 killed; 4,158 injured; 118 unknown)

Casualties in 2019

Annual total

358 (decrease from 430 in 2018)

Survival outcome

89 killed; 269 injured

Device type causing casualties

295 antipersonnel mines; 5 improvised antipersonnel mines (victim-activated improvised explosive devices, IEDs); nine unspecified mine types; nine undifferentiated mines/ERW, 40 ERW

Civilian status

335 civilians; 12 military; 11 unknown

Age and gender

At least 256 men (including at least 33 boys)

At least 55 women (including at least 11 girls)

* Unless noted otherwise, the Monitor casualty data is from a combined dataset of published and unpublished sources.

Casualties in 2019

In 2019, there were at least 358 mine/ERW casualties in Myanmar based on information provided by NGOs, UN agencies, the ICRC and other organizations, as well as by state and independent media reports. Although this marked an overall decrease from the annual casualty total for 2018, the number of fatalities was recorded as having increased to 89 in 2019 from 79 the previous year.

The majority of casualties in 2019 (149) were recorded in Shan state, followed by Rakhine state (119), and Kachin state (51).

Despite the presence of a number of mine action actors and although coverage of victim assistance programs increased, no national systematic collection of casualty data occurred. Due to the lack of an official data collection mechanism, the absence of any basic reporting format or means of sharing data, and the varying sources of annual data available to the Monitor, reporting is believed not to reflect the full extent of mine/ERW incidents and casualties in the country.

Media reporting indicates a trend of increasing casualty numbers in recent years. In August 2019, the Department of Rehabilitation in the MoSWRR stated that the number of landmine casualties in Myanmar is increasing yearly: “According to the records of [ARMAC] member countries, social media, and concerned organizations in rural areas, the number of mine casualties has increased yearly. Also, we’ve seen that the rate of disability is increasing.”[41] On 4 April 2019, Myanmar media stated that although many incidents still go unreported, the MRWG reported mine/ERW casualties had increased from 176 in 2017 to 276 in 2018.[42] Differences in the total annual casualty figures given by the MRWG and the Monitor are attributable to the fact that the MRWG seeks to have a general figure available in a shorter timeframe to inform its activities. The Monitor compiles its data over a longer period and its estimates can be considered an amended figure when released at the end of the following calendar year. Neither tally can be considered comprehensive, but each provides the best-known estimates from public sources in light of the lack of any official data.

A study in 2018 found that many IDPs with disabilities in NSAG-controlled areas appeared to have impairments due to mines and conflict-related violence. However, in government-controlled areas, “most” of the persons with disabilities reported that their disabilities were congenital or due to accidents. The study proposed that this may be due to “perceptions that stepping on a landmine can incur charges for ‘destruction of government property’, adding further problems for [persons with disabilities]. This acts as an incentive for landmine victims to blame traffic or other accidents for their disabilities, potentially distorting numbers.”[43]

The number of Tatmadaw and other combatant casualties remains unknown, but is believed to be substantial. A Ministry of Defense official told the Monitor that landmines were the chief cause of death and injury for Tatmadaw troops over any other cause, yet added that if he revealed the figure “it would give a psychological weapon to our enemies.”[44] Past Monitor reporting indicates that there are a significant number of military casualties, but military records remain unavailable to the public.[45]

The total number of casualties in Myanmar is unknown. The Monitor has recorded annual casualty figures of 4,981 mine/ERW casualties (705 killed; 4,158 injured; 118 unknown) between 2000 and the end of 2019.

Addressing the impact

Mine Action

Operators and service providers

Clearance operators


Tatmadaw engineers

International (non technical survey)



The HALO Trust



The Tatmadaw conducted some mine clearance but operations currently use unknown standards. The amount of land cleared in 2019, and the number of antipersonnel mines destroyed, is not reported.

Myanmar is part of the ADMM-Plus Expert Working Group on Humanitarian Mine Action under the ARMAC. No mine clearance is permitted by NGOs, while limited non-technical survey has been permitted since 2016.

Land release


In July 2020, the Landmine Monitor and the Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU) produced a country map of townships with SHAs and an infographic on the impact of mine use in Myanmar.[46]

Some international mine action actors were authorized to conduct non-technical survey in some locations beginning in 2016. Non-technical survey by MAG, DDG, DCA and The HALO Trust continued in 2018 and 2019. They have so far been unable to carry out surveys across an entire state, which would enable them to determine a baseline level of contamination.

In January 2020, the mine action sector gained permission to deploy technical teams to commence marking and fencing operations in accordance with IMAS.[47] The Department of Rehabilitation has asked the mine action sector to prioritize technical survey, marking and fencing of areas identified for returns and resettlement of IDPs in Kachin state.[48]

The HALO Trust reported undertaking non-technical survey in Tahndaunggyi and Hlaingbwe townships in Kayin state, and in Lashio, Muse, Kutkai and Kyaukme townships in Shan state. Forty-nine SHAs were identified in 2019, and a further nine up to March 2020. The HALO Trust also marked 16 SHAs with danger signs, while a further seven SHAs were marked in the period up to March 2020.[49]

In 2019, MAG undertook non-technical survey in 36 townships and village tracts.[50] MAG had not commenced marking operations in Myanmar but planned in 2020 to commence such activities when COVID-19 restrictions had been lifted and additional funding sourced.

In June 2020, MAG, working under the auspices of the Durable Peace Program, conducted a baseline survey of 59 village resettlement sites in Kachin state. Of the villages surveyed, 70% reported direct evidence of contamination and a further 20% reported indirect evidence. The target villages were selected because they were identified by the Myanmar government and/or by local humanitarian actors as potential sites for IDP return and resettlement.[51]

HI did not conduct non-technical survey in 2019 or in early 2020, although planned to start survey from September 2020.[52]


In July 2019, a representative of the Ministry of Defense stated to the Landmine Monitor that the Tatmadaw is clearing mines because it is their duty. He stated that military personnel are sent to the frontlines for five to six months, and are sent to military schools, where among other things, they learn to clear mines. He added, “We clear mines around the villages, and the villagers thank us for saving them from the mines planted by the Ethnic Armed Organizations.” In 2018 there was little conflict and the Tatmadaw could move freely due to the ceasefire and carry out more demining activities.[53]

In October 2018, Myanmar stated that the military together with several NSAG signatories of the NCA, had engaged in humanitarian demining in Kayin state, and that since 2011 more than 36,000 landmines and ERW were cleared.[54] State media report military clearance during armed conflict periodically.[55]

In January 2019, the military announced localized mine clearance in advance of resettlement of some families in Nam San Yang village, Wiangmaw township, Kachin State.[56] Landmine Monitor previously reported that mines had been laid in this area by the Tatmadaw in September 2018. A November 2019 assessment in Nam San Yang by a Kachin-based NGO found that the “Tatmadaw has provided some demining services by clearing household compounds with a bulldozer, this service has been provided only to those who have household registration certificates… landmines is a major risk for people returning to Nam San Yang and has resulted on large areas of the surrounding farmland being designated as restricted areas.”[57] However, since resettlement of the initial families, some mine casualties have occurred in Nam San Yang.[58]

In March 2020, villagers in Nam San Yang complained that landmines remain a prominent threat in the area where they now live.[59] In July 2020, the Tatmadaw returned to the area and removed mines from 100 acres of farmland.[60] In August 2020, Tatmadaw spokesperson Brigadier-General Zaw Min Tun told a journalist in Myanmar that the Nam San Yang return had been a success and that the military planned to expand its IDP return activities and would assist with transportation and landmine clearance operations.[61] In May 2018, in Kachin state, people in IDP camps identified landmines as one of the three top obstacles to return to their areas of origin, according to the Durable Peace Programme Consortium report.[62]

In a high-level meeting to discuss border security issues in January 2020, Bangladesh again raised its concerns regarding mines laid and the resulting casualties on the Myanmar side of their shared border. Bangladeshi officials requested Myanmar’s authorities to remove all mines to prevent any further casualties. At the conclusion of the meeting, Brigadier General Myoe Than of the Myanmar Police Force, who led the eight-member delegation from Myanmar, alleged, “There are a number of insurgent groups along the shared border. The IEDs might be planted by those groups, not by the Myanmar troops.’’ Director General Major General Md Shafeenul Islam, who headed the 14-member Bangladeshi delegation, stated that IEDs or landmines are dangerous for the border troops of both countries. He added that border roads will be constructed along the Bangladesh-Myanmar border and said that the ‘‘Myanmar representative team has assured that the IEDs will be removed before the construction of the roads.’’[63]

In January 2020, the Tatmadaw closed an IDP camp in Myebon township, Rakhine state, to clear landmines in the area. A statement reportedly issued by the Office of the Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services, stated that the military had asked camp residents to leave to prevent them from being injured by landmines, and that they had already deactivated a mine 20 meters from the camp. Camp officials stated that Tatmadaw soldiers then torched temporary shelters at the camp, causing about 400 of the 500 people living there to flee in fear. The camp administrator said the soldiers “told us they didn’t want to see us there the next morning, and not to blame them if something happened to us.”[64] It is not known if any further mine clearance occurred near the site.

Humanitarian mine action organizations have not been permitted to conduct clearance by either the government or ethnic minority authorities, and this remains the case as of April 2020.

In December 2019, the Free Burma Rangers (FBR), who provide medical assistance to people in war-affected communities, graduated 99 new recruits with Relief Team Training, which includes, among other skills, emergency mine removal at their training camp in Kayin state.[65] The FBR provide medical and food assistance to people fleeing or injured by armed conflict, including mine victims, and provided such assistance in Rakhine state in December 2019 after fighting between the Tatmadaw and the Arakan Army.[66] Eight of their relief teams reported encountering landmines while undertaking their activities in Kayin, Shan, Kachin, Chin and Rakhine states.

Deminer safety

An incident that occurred during military training in landmine safety, in May 2019, resulted in 11 casualties. It was reported that the incident took place during a training session organized to teach police officers in the Mandalay region about landmine safety, detection and the different types of mines. A media report stated that as a part of the training, a police sergeant was supposed to step on a sample M14 plastic landmine while other trainees disarmed the landmine and save him. Brigadier-General Zaw Min Tun, spokesperson of the Tatmadaw’s True News Information Team, stated that the training was conducted by a technician from the military, explaining “We heard that the trainer mistakenly brought a real landmine with the training sample landmines and that a trainee stepped on it and it exploded.’’ He said, ‘‘normally, real landmines and samples are differentiated by color, however there can be mistakes. We are doing further investigations on this incident.”[67]

In January 2020, the battalion commander of Tatmadaw Light Infantry Battalion 708 was killed while attempting to remove an antivehicle mine laid by the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) in Hpapun township, Kayin state.[68]

Risk Education

Operators and service providers

Risk education operators[69]

Type of organization

Name of organization

Type of activity


Department of Education


Listed as providing risk education in Kayin state.


The Committee of Internally Displaced Karen People and the Karen Teachers Working Group


Cross-border organization established in 1998 to raise awareness of the plight of internally displaced Karen/Kayin people and which provides risk education in addition to other humanitarian assistance and advocacy

Karen Development Network

Community-based risk education

The Karenni Social Welfare and Development Center

Founded in 1996 in response to the impact of conflict on the lives of Karenni people. Founded the Karenni Mine Risk Education Group in 2006 which provides risk education and assistance, and also collects victim data

Local Development Network


Community-based risk education

Ta'ang Students and Youth Union


Trains Ta’ang youth in issues including human rights awareness, democracy, women’s rights, democratic leadership, data collection, land confiscation, health and education

Nyein (Shalom) Foundation

Active in the peace-building process and peace education

Wunpawng Ninghtoi

Founded by Kachin-based churches, community-based committees and local NGOs in June 2011, Wunpawng Ninghtoi implements activities and projects to protect and assist IDPs who escaped conflict. Activities in addition to mine risk education include: child protection, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) related matters, emergency education and women’s income generation

Myanmar Heart Development Organization (MHDO)

Founded in June 2006 by eight volunteers

Red Cross:

Myanmar Red Cross Society

Community-based risk education


DanChurchAid (DCA)/Norwegian Church Aid (NCA)

Builds safer communities through risk education as part of a program to address natural disasters and the impacts of conflict. Works in the Bago region, as well as in Chin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, and Shan states

Danish Refugee Council (DRC)/Danish Demining Group (DDG)

Operates mine risk education teams and has plans to complement its non-technical survey work in Kayah and Shan states with risk education. Works in Kachin, Kayah and northern Shan states

The HALO Trust


Has trained 750 community implementers in mine risk education and first aid. Works in Kachin, Kayin and northern Shan states with partners Never end Tomorrow (NET), an ethnic Kachin organization, and South Shan Youth Capacity Building Centre (SSYCBC)

Humanity & Inclusion (HI)


Training of protection and education implementing partners in Kachin state, also works in eastern parts of the Bago region, and Kayin state

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)


Provides emergency risk education to prevent immediate casualties through short-term interventions; community-based risk education through Myanmar Red Cross Society volunteers; and risk education in schools; as well as risk education training to community volunteers, and risk awareness sessions for other humanitarian organizations

Johanniter International Assistance (JOIN)

Provides risk education through partners as part of broader assistance focusing on WASH related matters, nutrition, health, and disaster preparedness

Mines Advisory Group (MAG)


Mine risk education is an integrated part of MAG’s community liaison activities in villages and IDP camps, delivered by teams of two community liaison officers. Three implementing partners in 2019–2020. Contracted by the Durable Peace Programme to deliver mine risk education capacity support to 14 local organizations. Works in Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, and northern and southern Shan states, and in the Tanintharyi region


Beneficiary numbers

In 2019, it was reported that 280,000 people in affected areas received mine risk education.[70] UNICEF trained 889 teachers, 67 social workers and 107 NGO staff in providing risk education.


As of August 2019, at least nine organizations implemented 13 risk education projects in Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, and Shan states, and also in the eastern Bago and Tanintharyi regions. In addition, UNICEF supported risk education in Shan, Mon, Kayin and Kachin states, and in the Bago region. UNHCR supported risk education in Kayin state and in the Tanintharyi region.

A UNICEF factsheet shows the states which received the most risk education coverage from 2016–March 2020 (quarter 1) were Kachin, Kayin, Shan, Kayah and Rakhine.[71]

In 2019, the majority of operators delivered risk education in rural areas and particularly to IDPs in camps and host communities. MAG, The HALO Trust, and the ICRC reported delivering safety briefings to NGOs, government officials and teachers. UNICEF provided risk education training to teachers, social workers and NGO staff. MAG and the ICRC reported delivering risk education in schools in 2019. While schoolteachers have received risk education training in some areas, risk education is not integrated into the national curriculum.

In 2016, a common mine risk education toolkit was field tested and approved by the government. DCA and UNICEF also developed an app in 2017 as part of the toolkit jointly developed by DCA, UNICEF and the MRWG with support of the MoSWRR.[72]

The types of ordnance covered in risk education included antipersonnel mines and antivehicle mines, improvised mines and other ERW. There are emerging reports of the use of antivehicle mines in Rakhine and southern Chin states, where the Tatmadaw is fighting the Arakan Army.[73]

Face-to-face sessions remain the primary means for delivering risk education, although teams from The Halo Trust carry a PA system, and in northern Myanmar MAG teams deliver safety messages through radio as a complimentary measure.[74] Risk education is delivered as a standalone activity in Myanmar due to the lack of permission to conduct landmine clearance, although it is sometimes integrated with non-technical survey. MAG plans to integrate risk education with technical survey once it begins operations.

MAG is contracted by the Durable Peace Programme (DPP), funded by the European Union (EU), in Kachin and northern Shan states to deliver ‘training of trainers’ programs and capacity support to help 14 NGOs integrate mine risk education into their ongoing humanitarian interventions. The partner agencies co-design risk education activities based on their capacity, with MAG providing training, support with planning and materials, and quality assurance.[75]

Target groups

IDPs and returnees are a key target group for risk education in Myanmar. While displaced in camps or host communities, they also return to their villages of origin to check on livestock, property and farmland, and even to farm. HI reported that both women and men, with and without disabilities, sought income and livelihood activities outside of IDP camps in areas controlled by NSAGs in Kachin state.[76]

There is a lack of information on safe and unsafe areas due to a lack of warning signs and limited local knowledge of newly contaminated areas.[77]

Adult males often hunt and forage for food in forests far from their homes and where they may be unaware of the risks. This results in a disproportionately high number of adult male casualties who take risks largely out of desperation or economic necessity.

While adult males are considered the most at-risk group due to their roles in livelihood activities, UNICEF data shows they have received less risk education. Data for 2016–March 2020 shows that of the 1,050,725 people reached, 81% were women and children.[78]

MAG reports that it targets men for risk education due to their higher exposure to mine risk as a result of livelihood activities. Given that men are often working outside of the village during the day when risk education sessions are delivered, MAG is providing risk education at night and at weekends to better reach them.[79]

Displaced children are at heightened risk because they live close to conflict-affected areas and play in unsafe environments. HI reported that in IDP camps, there are not enough school teachers to support the provision of risk education, particularly in remote areas. Most risk education for children takes place out of school.[80] In December 2018, MAG collaborated with Clowns without Borders and its national chapter ‘Clown Me In’ to deliver fun, interactive risk education sessions for children.

Reaching remote areas and some ethnic minority groups is difficult due to restrictions in access. International NGOs work with local partners to better reach remote communities, although access to politically sensitive areas is not always granted.

Varied languages and dialects also pose challenges for the provision of risk education and the development of appropriate risk education materials.[81]

Major developments in 2019

In 2019, a mine risk education app for Myanmar was developed by MAG with the MRWG. It can be used on smartphones and computers and provides key risk education messages for different age groups, with games, lessons, and questions and answers to increase knowledge.[82] As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, DDG adapted its risk education by developing online risk education sessions that can be implemented in IDP camps and in communities. The sessions can be run on online platforms commonly used in Myanmar, such as Viber, Facebook, Messenger and Skype.[83]

Risk education material is being developed by HI to be inclusive of persons and children with disabilities, including the use of plain and simple language, radio broadcasting, and the use of accessible fonts and colors.[84]

ICRC provided emergency risk education through community volunteers and village leaders in Pha Kant township in Kachin state in 2019.[85] The HALO Trust delivered emergency risk education to IDPs in August 2019 following an outbreak of conflict in northern Shan state.[86]

In 2020, HI plans to conduct community risk education through a local partner in IDP camps in both government-controlled and NSAG-controlled areas of Kachin state. HI also plans to initiate a ‘training of trainers’ program for school teachers in five IDP camps, and also support ‘education in emergency’ partners working with teachers to provide risk education in the school curriculum.

In January 2020, The HALO Trust provided training to staff of the Rakhine Ethnic Congress in risk education and first aid, so that they could pass on their knowledge to communities in Rakhine that have been affected by conflict between the Tatmadaw and Arakan Army.


The Tatmadaw has created its own warning signs and fenced some known mined areas, however it is not known how systematic such activities are.[87]

Victim Assistance

Victim assistance providers and activities

Type of organization

Name of organization

Type of activity


Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement

Socio-economic and rehabilitation services; vocational training school for adults with disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors

Ministry of Health and Sports

Prosthetic centers and two orthopedic hospitals

Ministry of Defense

Prosthetics provided through three centers



Nu Daw Mya Yi Foundation

Periodic prosthetic work camp in Yangon in conjunction with Jaipur Foot of India

Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People

Prosthetic production at the Kho Kay Prosthetic Clinic, in Hpapun, Kayin state

Karen Health and Welfare Department

Medical first-aid assistance and amputation surgeries

Karenni Health Workers Organization

Prosthetics in Loikaw, Kayah state

Karuna Mission Social Solidarity

First-aid and immediate assistance

Myanmar Physically Handicapped Association

Disability rights advocacy; production of assistive devices; encouraging economic inclusion through employment


Association for Aid and Relief Japan

Vocational training; community-based rehabilitation; referral system; survivor rights/advocacy

Exceed Worldwide

Operates the prosthetic workshop at the National Rehabilitation Hospital in Yangon; financially supports Myanmar School of Prosthetics and Orthotics, and a prosthetic workshop in Mandalay

Leprosy Mission–Myanmar

Rehabilitation and prosthetics


Direct assistance in the form of medical and rehabilitative care and referrals for mine/ERW survivors in Kachin state


Community-level data collection; mapping of services and barriers; assessment and referral; psychosocial support; socio-economic inclusion; repairs of mobility devices; coordination of assistance and advocacy on survivors/victims’ needs; capacity-building of the Myanmar Physically Handicapped Association; supporting victim assistance centers

World Education

Physical rehabilitation; economic inclusion; access to medical and vocational funds; coordination of assistance and advocacy on survivors/victims’ needs

ICRC/Myanmar Red Cross Society

Support to four rehabilitation centers: one center under the Myanmar Red Cross Society in Hpa-An, and three centers under the Ministry of Health and Sports in Mandalay, Myitkyina and Kyaing Tong; prosthetic outreach for remote areas


Discretionary funds for financial assistance to cover medical costs of war victims/landmine survivors and rehabilitation, including transport; economic inclusion through livelihood program


Major Developments in 2019

Medical care and rehabilitation

Traumatic injuries are the main cause of illness and the third-highest cause of death in Myanmar. There are few physicians trained in emergency medicine, and they are generally not located in rural areas, which also lack a nationwide ambulance service able to care for patients on the way to a medical facility. Medical facilities in Myanmar’s three major cities lack emergency response capacity: Yangon, Mandalay, and Naypyidaw have only one emergency room each.[88]

Access to rehabilitation services is often not available to persons with disabilities in Myanmar, especially those living in rural areas. Existing physical rehabilitation centers cover only 10% of the country’s needs. Most centers are in the larger cities and travel expenses are prohibitive.[89]

Since 2017, HI has led a partnership with the Karen Department of Health and Welfare (KDHW) and provides support in both government-controlled and NSAG-controlled areas of Kachin state.[90] The KDHW, which is the health department of the Karen National Union (KNU), reported that a training course was provided to health workers, but more trained medics were needed to provide healthcare services in KNU-controlled areas.[91] In 2019, HI increased support to medical care using a social fund.[92]

In Kachin, Rakhine and Shan states, the ICRC supported health centers and satellite posts, including facilities in areas controlled by NSAGs.[93] Hospitals and other health facilities in Rakhine state, including mobile health units, provided healthcare for IDPs and other violence-affected people with ICRC support.[94] The ICRC continued supporting five physical rehabilitation centers and included physical rehabilitation in its Rakhine humanitarian response.[95] In 2019, the ICRC was unable to support a sixth center in Mandalay.[96] The ICRC trained national Red Cross volunteers to use the Service Users Referral System program for rehabilitation, and provided training for rehabilitation professionals and managers.[97]

As of March 2020, the Prosthetic Department of the Mao Tao Clinic (MTC), in Mae Sot—a Thai town on the border with Myanmar—which had previously provided prosthetics solely to people from Myanmar, ceased operation. It shifted its remaining equipment to a KDHW-run clinic in Klo Yaw Lay village, in Hpapun township, Kayin state. In 2019, the MTC delivered 76 prosthetics to patients from Myanmar.[98]

Socio-economic and psychosocial inclusion

Most mine/ERW survivors have had to abandon their traditional professions, making vocational training and other alternative livelihood solutions necessary.[99] DRC-DDG provided livelihood interventions to assist communities affected by conflict and mines/ERW, and provided mine/ERW victims with skills-development training in business, as well as agriculture-oriented support.[100]

The Association for Aid and Relief-Japan (AAR-Japan), continued to provide vocational training for persons with disabilities at its center in Yangon.[101] The Myanmar Center for Responsible Business and AAR-Japan held a multi-stakeholder meeting with the support of the Department of Rehabilitation in the MoSWRR to obtain feedback on a draft handbook on employment of persons with disabilities.[102]

HI ran the United States-funded Humanitarian Mine Action in Burma: Inclusive Socio-economic Development and Human Security for All project in three townships in Kayin state and the east Bago region, in partnership with the Myanmar Physically Handicapped Association (MPHA).[103] HI continued to build the project management skills of the MPHA in order to sustain survivor assistance throughout the region.[104]

The ICRC and/or the National Society provided material assistance for people affected by conflict and other violence in Kachin, Rakhine, and Shan states. The ICRC faced restrictions in providing cash income support to violence-affected households in northern Rakhine state and adjusted by distributing household essentials and agricultural input.[105] In 2019, the ICRC organized the second Wheelchair Basketball Workshop in Myanmar, and referred people with mobility impairment to sports activities, microeconomic initiatives, and vocational training.[106]

World Education supported self-help groups across Bago region and Kayah state. It compiled, translated, printed, and distributed service provider directories in Kayah and Mon states.[107]

According to UNICEF reporting, 87% of children with disabilities did not visit a doctor and 20% said they were bullied at school.[108]

Needs assessment

No new needs assessment activities were reported.

[1] Myanmar is divided into states and regions. States are the designated home areas to some of Myanmar’s larger ethnic minority groups. Other areas, which are not identified with a specific group, are referred to as administrative regions. The former military junta changed the country’s name from Burma to Myanmar in 1989 and also changed the names of some states. Kayin state was previously known as Karen state, while the Bago region was previously known as the Pegu region. Many ethnic groups within the country still prefer to use the name Burma and the former state names. In this country profile, internal state and administrative region names are given in their current form.

[2] Roger Fasth and Pascal Simon, “Mine Action in Myanmar,” The Journal of ERW and Mine Action, Vol. 19, Issue 2, July 2015.

[3] See, for example, “Union Peace Conference—21st Century Panglong continues,” Global New Light of Myanmar, 2 September 2016. At the Union Peace Conference (UPC) in September 2016, Daw Wint Wah Tun of the National League for Democracy (NLD) said of her Shardaw township, in Kayah state, that “local people do not feel secure as landmine fields pose a threat to their way of life.”

[5] Statement of Myanmar, Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Review Conference, Oslo, 25–29 November 2019.

[6] Khin Myat Myat Wai, “Myanmar begins talk on landmine clearing program,” Myanmar Times, 3 February 2020.

[7]Standard operating procedures for commanders drafted at JMC-U,” Global New Light of Myanmar, 20 January 2018. Col. Wunna Aung said: “Both sides are still discussing conducting workshops on mines. The NCA includes mine clearance work. But mutual trust needs to be created first so it is still under discussion and mine clearance cannot be implemented yet.”

[8] Ye Khaung Nyunt, “Second day of 10th Union Joint Monitoring Committee meeting in Yangon,” Global New Light of Myanmar, 5 May 2017.

[9]Senior General meets New Zealand Ambassador,” Global New Light of Myanmar, 27 August 2017.

[10] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Geoff Moynan, Programme Manager, HALO Trust, 27 April 2020.

[11] Statement of Myanmar, UN General Assembly (UNGA) First Committee, Thematic Discussion on Conventional Weapons, New York, 25 October 2019.

[12] Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU), ‘‘The MIMU 3W: Who does What, Where,’’ August 2019 and February 2020.

[14] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Bishu Mahat, ICRC Myanmar, 15 May 2020.

[17] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Bekim Shala, Country Programme Manager, MAG, 25 May 2020.

[18] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Geoff Moynan, Programme Manager, HALO Trust, 27 April 2020.

[19] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[20] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Bekim Shala, Country Programme Manager, MAG, 25 May 2020.

[21] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020; “Myanmar drafts national strategy for disabled,” Xinhua, 4 April 2019; GICHD, ‘‘Myanmar: Victim Assistance & Mine Risk Education,’’ 17 February 2015; presentation by Dr. San San Aye, Deputy Director General of the Department of Social Welfare, MoSWRR, at Meeting of National Mine Action Programme Directors, in Geneva, 17 February 2015; and International Alert Myanmar and Kachinland Research Centre, “Conflict impacts on gender and masculinities expectations on people with disabilities in Kachin state: A rapid assessment,” December 2018.

[24] The allowance will not be available until the 2015 disability rights law is enacted and a certification process is established by the government. Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, “Myanmar National Social Protection Strategic Plan,” December 2014, p. 53.

[25] Monthly assistance payments of K16,000 to K30,000, depending on circumstances. A disabled child will get K16,000 per month and a disabled adult up to 64 years old will get K30,000. The project pilot areas are the East Dagon township of Yangon region, Pathein and Kangyi Taung townships of the Ayeyarwaddy region, Monywa, Ayardaw and Chaung Oo townships of Sagaing region, and Thaton and Paung townships of Mon state. See, “Pilot project to register disabled people for welfare,” The Myanmar Times, 1 February 2019; and Htoo Thant, “Government to start disability payments,” The Myanmar Times, 16 November 2017.

[26] Khin Myat Myat Wai, “Myanmar begins talk on landmine-clearing program,” The Myanmar Times, 3 February 2020.

[27] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[28] Gerard McCarthy, “Veterans’ Affairs in Myanmar’s Reform Process,” Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS) Perspective Series, No. 78, 5 December 2018; and Htet Khaung Linn, “On society’s fringes, disabled Tatmadaw veterans languish in poverty,” Myanmar Now, 11 October 2016.

[29] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[30] ICRC, ‘‘ICRC Annual Report 2019,’’ Geneva, 29 June 2020, p. 350.

[31] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[32] Research by Landmine Monitor. Data sources included casualty information, sightings of mine warnings, and reports by NGOs and other organizations of use, as well as interviews with field staff and armed forces personnel. The survey included casualty data from January 2007 through December 2018 and data from other informants from January 2008 through October 2019.

[34] Ibid.

[35] MIMU, ‘‘Durable Peace Programme: Endline Report,’’ May 2018. The Durable Peace Programme is a consortium of seven local and international organizations serving the war-affected population of Kachin State.

[36] The Republic of the Union of Myanmar, MoSWRR, Department of Disaster Management, ‘‘National Strategy on Closure of IDP Camps’’ (draft), undated.

[37] Statement of Myanmar, Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Review Conference, Oslo, 25–29 November 2019.

[38] Ye Mon,“An unhappy return for IDPs in Kachin State,” Frontier Myanmar, 22 August 2019.

[39] See, for example, “Unexploded WWII bombs discovered at central Myanmar sports ground,” Coconuts Yangon, 30 September 2015; and Nay Thwin, “World War II ordnance kills three,” Democratic Voice of Burma, 20 March 2012.

[40] See, for example, this report on an unexploded aerial bomb allegedly from armed conflict in Kachin state in May 2018. Free Burma Rangers, “Rangers Help Vulnerable Civilians in Kachin State,” 8 December 2018.

[41] Myat Thura, “Official warns of rising landmine casualties,” Myanmar Times, 14 August 2019.

[44] Landmine Monitor meeting with Col. Min Htike Hein, Deputy Permanent Secretary for the Minister of Defense, Ministry of Defense, Naypyidaw, 29 June 2018.

[45] See, ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2009: Toward a Mine-Free World, (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, October 2009). Unprecedented levels of information on Tatmadaw casualties were received in 2008 from the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military-led government, when 508 Tatmadaw casualties were identified. Information from this source has not been made available for any other year.

[46] MIMU, “Townships with Suspected Landmine Contamination (2019) and Casualties in Myanmar (Jan-Dec2019)”, 2020. The infographic provides an 11-year overview of data from the Landmine Monitor (2007–2017). The infographic was also made available in Burmese language. MIMU reported to the Landmine Monitor that the landmine infographic has been one of their most requested products.

[47] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Bekim Shala, Country Programme Manager, MAG, 25 May 2020.

[49] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Geoff Moynan, Programme Manager, HALO Trust, 27 April 2020.

[50] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Bekim Shala, Country Programme Manager, MAG, 25 May 2020.

[52] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[53] Landmine Monitor meeting with U Min Htike Hein, Assistant Secretary, Union Minister Office for Defence, Ministry of Defence, Naypyidaw, 5 July 2019.

[54] Statement of Myanmar, UNGA First Committee, Thematic Discussion on Conventional Weapons, New York, 25 October 2019.

[55] See, for example, “Tatmadaw column captures AA member dead after landmine attack,” Global New Light of Myanmar, 11 May 2019, p. 11.

[56]Seventeen Kachin IDP Families Return Home,” Kachin News Group/Burma News International, 4 February 2019.

[59]Returned IDPs Demand Landmines Be Removed From Nam San Yang,” Kachin News Group/Burma News International, 25 March 2020.

[61] Ye Mon, “An unhappy return for IDPs in Kachin State,” Frontier Myanmar, 22 August 2020.

[62] MIMU, ‘‘Durable Peace Programme: Endline Report,’’ May 2018. The Durable Peace Programme is a consortium of seven local and international organizations serving the war-affected population of Kachin State.

[63] Muktadir Rashid, ‘‘Landmine, Yaba issues on agenda,’’ New Age, 3 January 2020; ‘‘Border Crimes in Focus,’’ New Age, 6 January 2020; and “Remove all IEDs, landmines along the border,” Daily Star, 9 January 2020.

[64] Khin Myat Myat Wai, “Myebon camp in Rakhine closed for landmine clearance, Tatmadaw says,” The Myanmar Times, 29 January 2020.

[67] ‘‘Mandalay Police Officer Seriously Injured in Landmine Training,’’ The Irrawaddy, 21 May 2019.

[68] “Karen Human Rights Group Submission to Landmine Monitor,” August 2020, unpublished.

[69] MIMU, “Myanmar, Who/What/Where, Mine Action,” 23 August 2020; Land Portal, ‘‘Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People,’’ undated; Durable Peace Programme, ‘‘Ta-ang Student Youth Union (TSYU),’’ undated; Durable Peace Programme, ‘‘Nyein (Shalom Foundation),’’ undated; Durable Peace Programme, ‘‘Wunpawng Ninghtoi (WPN),’’ undated; DCA, ‘‘DCA and NCA in Myanmar,’’ undated; DDG, ‘‘Where We Work: Myanmar,’’ undated; JOIN, ‘‘International Assistance in Myanmar,’’ undated responses to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020; and Bishu Mahat, ICRC Myanmar, 15 May 2020.

[70] Statement by Myanmar at the Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Review Conference, Oslo, 25–29 November 2019. Meanwhile, HALO Trust reported providing risk education that benefited 8,188 men, 10,715 boys, 11,461 women and 11,702 girls. ICRC reported providing risk education that benefited 17,217 men, 12,112 boys, 23,378 women and 13,385 girls. MAG reported providing risk education that benefited 8,917 men, 6,954 boys, 9,021 women and 7,461 girls.

[73] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Geoff Moynan, Programme Manager, HALO Trust, 27 April 2020.

[74] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Geoff Moynan, Programme Manager, HALO Trust, 27 April 2020; and by Bekim Shala, Country Programme Manager, MAG, 25 May 2020.

[75] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Bekim Shala, Country Programme Manager, MAG, 25 May 2020.

[76] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[77] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Bishu Mahat, ICRC Myanmar, 15 May 2020.

[79] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Bekim Shala, Country Programme Manager, MAG, 25 May 2020.

[80] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[81] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Geoff Moynan, Programme Manager, HALO Trust, 27 April 2020.

[82] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[83] DDG, ‘‘Virtual Mine Risk Education in Myanmar,’’ 10 June 2020.

[84] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[85] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Bishu Mahat, ICRC Myanmar, 15 May 2020

[86] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Geoff Moynan, Programme Manager, HALO Trust, 27 April 2020.

[87] Landmine Monitor interview with photojournalist accompanying Tatmadaw clearance engineers in Kayin State in August 2015. Signs were placed near a site of armed conflict between a Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) splinter group and the Tatmadaw in Hlaing-Bwe township during reported clearance. Photographer provided a photograph of the signs to the Monitor on 3 August 2018. He said the truck in which he traveled with the Tatmadaw had many of the mine warning signs. Also, in November 2018, in eastern Bago region, after a mine incident near a school in Tha Pyay Nyunt village, Tatmadaw soldiers from Light Infantry Battalion 8/53 fenced the area to make it inaccessible. Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG), “KHRG Submission to Landmine Monitor,” September 2019, unpublished.

[88] Susan Becker, “Progress towards health systems strengthening in Myanmar,” Journal of Global Health Reports, Vol. 2, 30 March 2018.

[91]Health workers are still needed in KNU areas, KDHW says,” Karen Information Center/Burma News International, 5 September 2018.

[92] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Fabrice Vandeputte, Regional Programme Director, HI, 14 May 2020.

[93] ICRC, “Annual Report 2017,” Geneva, 13 June 2018, p. 327.

[94] ICRC, “Annual Report 2018,” Geneva, 19 June 2019, p. 366.

[96] ICRC, “Annual Report 2019,” Geneva, 29 June 2020, p. 349.

[97] ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme: 2019 Annual Report,” Geneva, 3 July 2020, p. 47.

[98] Landmine Monitor interview with Naw Annie Po Moo, Director of Operations, MTC, 28 January 2020. The Prosthetics Department, and the new operations in Klo Yaw Lay clinic, receive financial support from Together Against Landmines (Gemeinsam gegen Landminen, GGL), an NGO based in Austria.

[100] DRC/DDG, “Factsheet Kayah State, 2018,” 2018.

[101] AAR-Japan, “Annual Report 2018: April 2018-March 2019,” 2019, p. 17.

[105] ICRC, “Annual Report 2018,” Geneva, 19 June 2019, p. 368.

[106] ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme: 2019 Annual Report,” Geneva, 3 July 2020, p. 47.

[107] Email from Khin Mar Aung, Director, World Education Myanmar, 25 October 2018.