Pakistan

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 13 September 2021

Summary

Non-signatory Pakistan has acknowledged the humanitarian concerns raised by cluster munitions, but has not taken steps to accede to the convention as it regards cluster munitions as legitimate weapons. Pakistan last participated in a meeting of the convention in 2016. It abstained from the vote on a key United Nations (UN) resolution promoting the convention in December 2020.

Pakistan produces and stockpiles cluster munitions and has likely exported them. Pakistan has stated that it has never used cluster munitions. In 2019, Pakistan alleged that India used cluster munitions in the contested region of Kashmir.

Policy

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has not acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Pakistan has expressed concern at the “irresponsible and indiscriminate use of cluster munitions” but it has not taken any steps to accede to the convention due to its long-standing objections to key provisions and over the way it was adopted.[1] In November 2020, Pakistan said it “does not support disarmament treaties, such as the Convention on Cluster Munitions, concluded outside the UN framework.”[2] In 2015, Pakistan told States Parties that it considers cluster munitions to be “legitimate weapons with recognized military value in our regional context.”[3]

Pakistan did not participate in the Oslo Process that created the Convention on Cluster Munitions.[4]

Pakistan has participated as an observer in meetings of the convention, but not since 2016.[5] It was invited, but did not attend, the first part of the convention’s Second Review Conference held virtually in November 2020.

In December 2020, Pakistan abstained from the vote on a key UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution which urged states outside the Convention on Cluster Munitions to “join as soon as possible.”[6] Pakistan has abstained from voting on the annual UNGA resolution promoting the convention since the resolution was first introduced in 2015. Each year since then, Pakistan has said that it abstained from voting on the UNGA resolution because it considers cluster munitions to be “legitimate weapons with recognized military utility.”[7]

Pakistan is not party to the Mine Ban Treaty.

Pakistan is a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and expressed regret that States Parties to the CCW failed to conclude a protocol on cluster munitions in 2011. This effectively ended CCW deliberations on the topic and left the Convention on Cluster Munitions as the sole international instrument to specifically address the human suffering caused by these weapons. Pakistan has not proposed any new CCW work on cluster munitions since then, despite reiterating in December 2020 that the CCW is “the most appropriate forum” for discussing cluster munitions.[8]

Production, transfer, and stockpiling

Pakistan has produced ground-delivered and air-dropped cluster munitions.

State-owned Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF) has produced and offered for export M483A1 155mm artillery projectiles containing 88 M42/M46 dual-purpose improved conventional munition (DPICM) submunitions.[9] POF entered into a licensed production agreement with South Korean company Poongsan in 2004 to co-produce K-310 155mm extended-range DPICM projectiles in Pakistan at Wah Cantonment.[10] The Pakistani army took delivery of the first production lots in 2008.[11]

The POF stand at the 2011 Defence and Security Equipment International (DSEI) arms fair in London, United Kingdom (UK), was closed after it displayed promotional materials listing 155mm extended range (base bleed) DPICM cluster munitions for sale.[12] POF advertised the same 155mm DPICM cluster munition at the 2009 DSEI arms fair, eliciting similar concerns as the UK is a State Party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.[13]

According to Jane’s Information Group, the Pakistan Air Weapons Center has produced the Programmable Submunitions Dispenser (PSD-1), which is similar to the United States (US) Rockeye cluster bomb, and dispenses 225 anti-armor submunitions. Jane’s Information Group also lists the Pakistan National Development Complex as producing the Hijara Top-Attack Submunitions Dispenser (TSD-1) cluster bomb and reports that the Pakistan Air Force possesses UK-made BL-755 cluster bombs.[14] The US transferred 200 Rockeye cluster bombs to Pakistan between 1970 and 1995.[15]

Pakistan has not responded to calls to institute a prohibition on the transfer of cluster munitions, but has a long-standing export moratorium in place for antipersonnel landmines.[16]

Pakistan possesses cluster munitions, but has not shared information on the quantities or types stockpiled.

Use

Pakistan has stated several times that it has never used cluster munitions.[17]

In August 2019, Pakistan alleged that India used cluster munitions in the contested region of Kashmir on 30–31 July 2019, in an attack that reportedly killed two civilians including a four-year-old boy, and wounded 11 others.[18] The Pakistan army released photographs showing DPICM-type submunitions from artillery-delivered cluster munitions. Pakistan’s president, foreign minister and other high-ranking officials condemned the alleged cluster munition use for violating international law.[19]

India denied using cluster munitions in the attack and the Indian army issued a statement asserting the “allegations of firing of cluster bombs by India is yet another Pakistan's lie and deception.”[20]

Pakistan repeated the allegation at the UNGA in October 2019, stating that “India, which is a State Party to the CCW, recently used cluster munitions in populated areas resulting in deaths and injuries to civilians.”[21] India responded that “Pakistan has once again made a number of baseless and unsubstantiated allegations against India which are not borne out of facts.”[22]

On the basis of the available information, the Monitor was not able to conclusively determine if cluster munitions were used and whether India was responsible for any use.



[1] Statement of Pakistan, Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) Fourth Review Conference, Geneva, 15 November 2011. In 2009, a government official informed the Monitor that “in view of Pakistan’s security environment and legitimate defence needs, we do not support a ban on use, production, and transfer of cluster munitions due to their military utility.” Letter from Dr. Irfan Yusuf Shami, Director-General for Disarmament, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 16 February 2009.

[2] Explanation of Vote by Pakistan, UN General Assembly (UNGA) First Committee, video record, 6 November 2020, 2:07:25.

[3] Statement of Pakistan, Convention on Cluster Munitions First Review Conference, Dubrovnik, 8 September 2015. Pakistan’s representative, Amb. Muhammad Yousaf, informed the Monitor that Pakistan attended the meeting to ensure that a diversity of opinions on cluster munitions were heard, stating that the process does not work for states that are not at peace or surrounded by hostile neighbors.

[4] For more details on Pakistan’s policy and practice regarding cluster munitions through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 225–226.

[5] Pakistan participated in the convention’s Sixth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in September 2016, but has not participated in any other meetings of States Parties. It attended the First Review Conference in Dubrovnik, Croatia in September 2015, as well as one of the convention’s intersessional meetings in Geneva in 2015.

[6] “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions”, UNGA Resolution 75/62, 7 December 2020.

[7] Explanation of Vote by Pakistan on Resolution L.41,UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, New York, 31 October 2017, pp. 17–18/29; and “Explanation of vote on the resolution entitled 'Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,'” A/C.11711L.22, 31 October 2016.

[8] Explanation of Vote by Pakistan, UN General Assembly (UNGA) First Committee, video record, 6 November 2020, 2:07:25. See also Explanation of Vote by Pakistan on Resolution L.41,UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, New York, 31 October 2017, pp. 17–18/29.

[9] POF, “Products, Ordnance, Artillery Ammunition, 155mm HOW HE M483A1-ICM,” undated. As of July 2015, this product is no longer listed on the website.

[10] At the time, the projectiles were produced for Pakistan’s armed forces, but both firms also said they would co-market the projectiles for export. “Pakistan Ordnance Factory and Korean Firm Sign Ammunition Pact,” Asia Pulse (Karachi), 24 November 2006. A video taken in POF has images of Poongsan machinery for the manufacturing of DPICM shells. YouTube, “Production of new Base Bleed 155mm ammunition starts at Pakistan Ordnance Factories - 12 April 2008,” 28 April 2011.

[11]Pak Army Gets First Lot of DPICM Ammunition,” PakTribune, 13 April 2008.

[12] This included the 155mm extended-range (base bleed) DPICM projectiles containing 45 submunitions and the 155mm M483A1 cluster munition containing 88 submunitions, both manufactured by POF. The United Kingdom (UK) is a State Party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions so the references to equipment were found to breach UK Government Export Controls and DSEI’s contractual requirements. Pakistani authorities reportedly said the cluster munitions were not offered for sale by Pakistan at DSEI. Saba Imtiaz, “London exhibition controversy: Pakistan says no brochures listed cluster munitions,” The Express Tribune, 21 September 2011.

[13] Strategic Export Controls (UK Parliament), “Evidence submitted by the UK Working Group on Arms (UKWG),” November 2010.

[14] Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air-Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey: Jane’s Information Group, 2004), pp. 389 and 843. BL-755s were manufactured by the UK.

[15] US Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense, “Cluster Bomb Exports under FMS, FY1970–FY1995,” 15 November 1995, obtained by HRW in a Freedom of Information Act request, 28 November 1995.

[16] Letter to Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani from Steve Goose, Arms Division, and Brad Adams, Asia Division, HRW, 13 October 2011. Pakistan announced a comprehensive moratorium of unlimited duration on the export of antipersonnel landmines in March 1997 that was strengthened after the adoption of the Mine Ban Treaty with a February 1999 regulation making the export of antipersonnel mines illegal.

[17] Explanation of Vote by Pakistan on Resolution L.41,UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, New York, 31 October 2017, pp. 17–18/29. See also, statement of Pakistan, CCW Fourth Review Conference, 15 November 2011; statement by Amb. Masood Khan, CCW Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 7 November 2007; and statement of Pakistan, CCW Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 12 November 2009. Notes by Landmine Action.

[18] Pakistan Armed Forces press release, “Indian Army uses cluster ammunition along LOC deliberately targeting Civilian population,” 3 August 2019.

[19] Pakistan’s President Imran Khan condemned India’s “use of cluster munitions in violation of int humanitarian law” via Twitter: see Khan, Imran (ImranKhanPTI), ‘‘I condemn India's attack across LOC on innocent civilians & it's use of cluster munitions in violation of int humanitarian law and it's own commitments under the 1983 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. UNSC must take note of this international threat to peace & security,’’ 4 August 2019, 11:34 UTC, Tweet. Pakistan's Minister of Foreign Affairs Shah Mehmood Qureshi tweeted photographs of alleged cluster munition victims: see Qureshi, Shah Mehmood (SMQureshiPTI), ‘‘Strongly condemn the blatant use of cluster ammunition by Indian Security Forces targeting innocent civilians along the Line Of Control. This is clear violation of the Geneva Convention & International Laws,’’ 3 August 2019, 12:30 UTC, Tweet. The chief spokesman for Pakistan's armed forces, General Asif Ghafoor, also tweeted: see Ghafoor, Asif (OfficialDGISPR), ‘‘Use of cluster bombs by Indian Army violating international conventions is condemnable. No weapon can suppress determination of Kashmiris to get their right of self determination. Kashmir runs in blood of every Pakistani. Indigenous freedom struggle of Kashmiris shall succeed,IA,’’ 3 August 2019, 12:36 UTC, Tweet.

[21] Statement of Pakistan, UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, New York, 23 October 2019.

[22] Statement of India, UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, New York, 24 October 2019.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 12 November 2020

Policy

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty.

In November 2019, Pakistan stated, “Landmines continue to play a significant role in meeting the defence needs of many States. Given our security considerations and the need to guard long borders, which are not protected by any natural obstacle, reliance on landmines is an integral part of Pakistan’s defence.”[1]

Pakistan stated in December 2018 that it “supports the humanitarian objectives of this Convention and is guided by humanitarianism and respect for international humanitarian law and protection of civilian life. Pakistan also stated that it “is supportive of an international legal instrument banning the transfer of antipersonnel landmines,” and believes “that the objective of the total elimination of antipersonnel mines can be promoted, inter alia, by making available non-lethal, militarily and cost-effective alternate technologies.”[2]

In March 2016, a representative of Pakistan stated that it will not be joining the Mine Ban Treaty because of India, and that Pakistan had previously laid mines along its border with India and would do so again, should it be necessary.[3]

Communities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, now including areas previously known as the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) have previously demanded that the government clear their villages of landmines. In April 2018, an estimated 60,000 people joined a rally organized by the Pashtun Tahafuz Movement (PTM) in Peshawar calling for the removal of landmines from war-torn provinces along the Afghan frontier as one of their main grievances.[4] This followed a 10 day sit-in in front of the National Press Club Islamabad and came after a long march to Islamabad, also organized by the PTM, which demanded landmine clearance and compensation for mine victims. The sit-in ended after the government agreed to both demands.[5] In September 2019, the Pakistan Army said it had 100 teams in the field removing landmines which it claimed were planted by Tehrik-i-Taliban, and that much of the area was now clear of mines.[6]

Pakistan participated as an observer during the Ottawa Process and the Mine Ban Treaty negotiations, but has rarely engaged on the treaty since 1997 and has never attended a Review Conference. Pakistan has participated as an observer in six of the convention’s meetings of States Parties, including the Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in November 2018. Pakistan has participated in few of the treaty’s intersessional meetings held in Geneva.

On 12 December 2019, Pakistan abstained from voting on the annual United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 74/61, which called for universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty. Pakistan has abstained on all previous annual UNGA resolutions in support of the treaty.

In December 2019, the Sustainable Peace and Development Organization (SPADO), ICBL partner in Pakistan, held a press conference for the release of printed copies of the Landmine Monitor 2019 Country Report on Pakistan.[7]

Pakistan is not a party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. It is a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II.

Use

Landmine Monitor has received no reports of the Pakistan army emplacing landmines in 2019 or 2020. In November 2018, Pakistan reiterated that its use of landmines is exclusively by the military for defense purposes.[8]

However, in April 2019, the Pakistan Red Crescent Society stated that landmines emplaced by security personnel and by militants over the years pose a threat to the lives of residents of Gandaw, Dawra, and Landi Kallay in Sipah, and in the Sheen Kamar area near Mastak, all in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.[9] In April 2016, a representative of Pakistan stated to the Monitor that the army has a policy not to use antipersonnel mines around its outposts in operations in FATA.[10]

Previously, following an increase in Pakistan Army operations in the country’s border areas with Afghanistan in 2012, there were reports in domestic media of new mine casualties in those areas. Media reports in 2012 and 2013 attributed the new casualties to the use of mines by Pakistani forces for “security purposes,” but it is unclear if the mines had been laid recently or in the past.[11] Subsequently, no new reports occurred since 2013 that were attributable to use by Pakistani forces. In February 2018, responding to public calls for mine clearance, an army official was quoted as saying, “No mines have been laid by Pakistan Army in South Waziristan Agency or [any other part of] FATA and none were sprinkled on [an] emergency basis. We continue to make efforts to demine all mines, IEDs and booby traps laid by terrorists.”[12] However, residents in some villages state that if they complain about the presence of mines, they are jailed.[13]

Pakistan reports annually that it has not laid mines since the Pakistan-India border mine-laying more than a decade ago.[14] That last confirmed large-scale use of antipersonnel mines by Pakistan took place between December 2001 and mid-2002, during the escalation of tensions with India.[15] Pakistan maintains permanent minefields along certain portions of the Line of Control (LoC) that divides Indian- and Pakistani-administered Kashmir. These previously laid mines continue to move during floods from the LoC into Pakistan.[16]

In November 2018, Pakistan stated it “has itself been a victim of the use of landmines, including as IEDs [improvised explosive devices], by terrorists and non-state actors. Notwithstanding their use by terrorists, Pakistan’s security forces do not use mines for the maintenance of internal order and law enforcement or in counter-terrorism operations.”[17] In March 2020, Pakistan reported that 187 incidents of use of explosive devices, resulting in casualties, occurred in locations throughout the country, attributing these incidents to “terrorists.”[18] It is unknown how many of those incidents were due to improvised landmines.

In its CCW Amended Protocol II annual report for 2019, Pakistan documented 349 instances of IED use in the year.[19] The report further stated that roughly half of these instances resulted in casualties. In April 2016, a representative of Pakistan told the Monitor that 14% of recovered IEDs used by militants in Pakistan were victim-activated. Militant groups’ victim-activated IEDs use pressure and infra-red initiation, and some also have low metal content detonators. In some cases, antipersonnel mines are used as detonators for larger explosive devices, or one initiator sets off multiple explosive devices. Pakistani security forces have recovered 194 tons of explosives from militants and 2,500 antipersonnel and antivehicle mines in recent years.[20]

Non-state armed groups (NSAGs) in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa used improvised antipersonnel landmines during the reporting period, as attributed to a variety of unidentified militant groups and Baloch insurgent groups.[21] In April 2020, a spokesman for the Baloch Liberation Army (BLA) claimed responsibility for mines laid near a Pakistan Army post in the Kalgari mountains in Kohistan Marri, causing two casualties among the soldiers. The spokesman was quoted as saying the BLA had planted mines near the security teams of oil and gas companies and against the Pakistani security forces.[22] In January 2020, an unknown group laid at least 26 improvised antipersonnel landmines on the grounds of a rural college in Khar Tehsil of Bajaur District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, near the border with Afghanistan.[23]

As in previous years, many military personnel and some civilians were killed or injured in incidents of new mine use, however, it is difficult to identify the perpetrators from the available information. The Monitor has recorded numerous antipersonnel mine incidents in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, although in some cases the precise date of mine use cannot be ascertained, nor can the perpetrator be identified (see Pakistan’s Casualties profile for more details). NSAGs also use antivehicle mines. Civilian and military casualties resulting from NSAG use of IEDs and landmines continued to be documented into 2019.[24]

Production, transfer, and stockpiling

Pakistan is one of a small number of countries still producing antipersonnel mines.[25] Since 1997, Pakistan Ordnance Factories has produced detectable versions of hand-emplaced blast mines in order to be compliant with CCW Amended Protocol II.[26] In 2007, Pakistan reported that it “has also planned incorporation of self-destruct and self-deactivation mechanism in its future production” in order to meet CCW Amended Protocol II requirements.[27] The protocol requires that all remotely-delivered mines have self-destruct and self-deactivation mechanisms. Pakistan reported in 2002 that it was developing a remotely-delivered antipersonnel mine system but has provided no further details.[28] In 2007, Pakistan also stated that it had “met the deadlines to improve the specifications on detectability of mines” to be compliant with CCW Amended Protocol II.[29]

Pakistan’s Statutory Regulatory Order No. 123 (1) of 25 February 1999 makes the export of antipersonnel mines illegal.[30] The law penalizes the importation of mines, but no data is available regarding whether anyone has been arrested or charged under this law. Pakistan states that it has not exported mines “since early 1992.”[31]

In December 2017, Pakistan stated that the private sector is not allowed to manufacture or to trade in landmines.[32] In November 2018, Pakistan stated that it “continues to scrupulously adhere to a policy of ban on all exports of mines, and ensures that the private sector is not allowed to manufacture or to trade in landmines.”[33] Previous Article 13 reports state simply that “no manufacturing or trade of landmines is allowed in the Private sectors.”[34] In the past, the country was a major exporter of mines. Pakistani-made mines have been found in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sri Lanka.

There is no official information available on the size of Pakistan’s antipersonnel mine stockpile. In the past, the Monitor has estimated that Pakistan stockpiles at least six million antipersonnel mines, the fifth-largest stockpile in the world.[35] Pakistan has neither confirmed nor denied this estimate.

As in previous years, seizures of mines, among other weapons, have been reported.[36] Previously, in February and July 2017, and in November 2016, Pakistani officials seized landmines, among other weapons, in raids in Balochistan.[37]

Stockpile Destruction

During 2019, Pakistan reported destroying 15,925 unserviceable antipersonnel mines, all of Pakistani manufacture.[38] Previously, in April 2016, a representative of Pakistan told the Monitor that all mines reported destroyed in the Article 13 reports are expiring stocks of antipersonnel mines. He further stated that all mines seized during operations in Pakistan by the security forces are destroyed and that “thousands” had been destroyed during previous years.[39]

Pakistan reported destroying 13,803 antipersonnel mines during 2018; 955 antipersonnel mines during 2017; 7,370 antipersonnel mines during 2016; 1,429 antipersonnel mines during 2015; 2,944 antipersonnel mines of Pakistani origin during 2014; 8,123 antipersonnel mines of Pakistani origin during 2013; and 2,107 antipersonnel mines of United States, Pakistani, and unknown origin during 2012.[40] During 2011, Pakistan destroyed 153 antipersonnel mines; while in 2010, Pakistan reported that a total of 43,248 antipersonnel mines were destroyed between 2000 and 2009.[41]



[1] Pakistan, Explanation of Vote on Resolution L.45, 74th Session, UN General Assembly (UNGA) First Committee, New York, 6 November 2019, UNGA, Official Records, A/C.1/74/PV25, p.5. Pakistan has regularly repeated this statement. See, Pakistan, Explanation of vote on L.7/Rev.1, 71stSession, UNGA First Committee, New York, 31 October 2016, UNGA, Official Records, A/C.1/71/PV.24, pp. 29/35. For similar statements at the UNGA, see also, A/C.1/70/L.50 on 4 November 2015, A/C.1/69/L.5 on 3 November 2014, and A /C.1/68/L.3, 1 November 2013.

[2] Statement of Pakistan, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 26 November 2018.

[3] Landmine Monitor interview with Pakistani delegation to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) Amended Protocol II Meeting of Experts, Geneva, 8 April 2016.

[4]Some 60,000 Pakistanis Rally In Peshawar For Rights Of Ethnic Pashtuns,” RFE/RL’s Radio Mashaal, 8 April 2018. Rally held by the PTM. The PTM began in May 2014 as an initiative for removing landmines from Waziristan and other parts of the former FATA, but has since incorporated other demands such as investigations into enforced disappearances.

[5] “Naqibullah case: sit-in ends after agreement with government,” BBC Urdu, 10 February 2018.

[7] Email from Raza Shah Khan, Chief Executive, SPADO, 22 September 2020.

[8] Statement of Pakistan, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 26 November 2018.

[10] Landmine Monitor interview with Pakistani delegation to the CCW Amended Protocol II Meeting of Experts, Geneva, 8 April 2016.

[11] See, ICBL-CMC, “Country Profile: Pakistan: Mine Ban Policy,” 28 November 2013.

[13] Mureeb Mohmand, “Landmine kills one teenager, injures three others in Mohmand,” Express Tribune, 25 August 2019; and “Landmines Killing People In Pakistan's South Waziristan,” Al Jazeera, 5 February 2018.

[14] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form B, 31 March 2020. Pakistan has republished this statement each year. Presentation given by Pakistani delegation to the CCW Amended Protocol II Meeting of Experts, Geneva, 6 April 2016. Digital recording available on the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG) website.

[15] See, Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 1,087–1,088; and Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 661. There were also reports of use of mines by Pakistani troops in Kashmir during the Kargil crisis in mid-1999. See, Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1,088. In December 2006, Pakistan stated its intention “to fence and mine some selective sections” of its border with Afghanistan to prevent cross-border militant activity but did not do so after widespread international criticism. See, Landmine Monitor Report 2007, pp. 949–951.

[16] See for example: “18 pounds Indian-made landmine defused, The Nation, 23 December 2019; and “India-made anti-tank mine found in Nullah Dek near Kartarpur corridor, claims Pakistan,” Times Now Digital, 10 July 2019.

[17] Statement of Pakistan, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 26 November 2018. Pakistan made an identical statement at the Sixteenth Meeting of States Parties in December 2017.

[18] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form B, 31 March 2020. See also, previous Article 13 reports.

[20] Time frame not specified. Presentation given by Pakistani delegation to the CCW Amended Protocol II Meeting of Experts, Geneva, 6 April 2016. Digital recording available on UNOG website. Landmine Monitor interview with Pakistani delegation to the CCW Amended Protocol II Meeting of Experts, Geneva, 8 April 2016.

[21] Emails from Raza Shah Khan, SPADO, 30 September 2019, and 21 September 2017. See also, “Landmine blasts kill five in Pakistan’s tribal areas,” Arab News, 21 August 2019; “Soldier martyred, 5 injured in North Waziristan landmine blast,” Tribal New Network, 25 August 2019; “At least 2 FC personnel killed, 5 injured in Kurram Agency blast,” The Nation, 10 July 2017; and Ajmal Wesai, “4 children wounded in Tirinkot bomb explosion,” Pajhwok Afghan News, 5 August 2017.

[23]Landmines recovered from Bajaur college,” Dawn, 23 January 2020.

[24] See, “Woman loses her leg to a landmine in South Waziristan,” Samaa News, 5 April 2019; “Pak Army sepoy martyred in North Waziristan terrorist attack,” Dunya News, 1 June 2019; and “FC trooper martyred in South Waziristan landmine explosion,” The Express Tribune, 14 June 2019.

[25] Pakistan Ordnance Factories, located in Wah Cantonment, is a state-owned company established in 1951 that in the past produced at least six types of antipersonnel mines, two low-metal blast mines (P2Mk1 and P4Mk2), two bounding fragmentation mines (P3Mk2 and P7Mk1), and two directional fragmentation Claymore-type mines (P5Mk1 and P5Mk2).

[26] Interview with Khalil Ur Rehman, Pakistan Foreign Office, Islamabad, 9 April 2011. See also, Article 13 Report, Form C, 2 November 2005; and Sixth Annual Conference of States Parties to CCW Amended Protocol II, “Summary Record of the 1st Meeting, Geneva, 17 November 2004,” Geneva, CCW/AP II/CONF.6/SR.1, 13 May 2005, p. 14.

[29] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form C. The nine-year deadline for Pakistan to destroy or modify all stockpiled low-metal-content (non-detectable) antipersonnel mines was 3 December 2007. Pakistan provided no details about how or when it met the requirement.

[30] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form D, 10 November 2006. The report states: “Pakistan has declared a complete ban on export of landmines, even to States Parties, with effect from March 1997.”

[31] Interviews with Khalil Ur Rehman, Pakistan Foreign Office, Islamabad, 9 April 2011; and with Muhammad Kamran Akhtar, Director, Disarmament Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamabad, 23 April 2009. See also, Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 725.

[32] Statement of Pakistan, Mine Ban Treaty Sixteenth Meeting of States Parties, Vienna, 19 December 2017.

[33] Statement of Pakistan, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 26 November 2018.

[35] See, Landmine Monitor Report 2009, p. 1,058, fn. 17.

[36] See, for example “Security forces recover large cache of arms from South Waziristan, Kohlu: ISPR,” Geo News, 24 May 2018; Parvez Jabri, “Security forces recover arms, ammunition from SWA, Balochistan,” Business Recorder, 5 May 2018; “Bombs, landmines recovered, defused in Kurram Agency,” The Nation, 1 November 2017; “Raddul Fasaad: FC seizes huge cache of arms, explosives in Balochistan,” Dunya TV News, 28 February 2018; and “Forces seize huge cache of weapons in S. Waziristan and Dera Bugti,” Financial Daily, 5 March 2018.

[37]Security forces kill BLA terrorist in Balochistan; seize arms and landmines: ISPR”, Ary News TV, 26 July 2020. Sajjad Ali, “Large quantity of explosives seized from Chagai,” Khyber News TV, 27 November 2016; “Levies naib risaldar shot dead in Mastung,” The Nation, 5 July 2017; and Salim Shaheed, “23 landmines seized in Loralai operation,” Dawn, 24 February 2017.

[38] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form F, 31 March 2020. This included 1,920 AP 2, 13,722 AP P4, 12 AP P4 prac, 202 AP P5, 49 AP Jumping, 5 (NM) M14, and 15 AP mines of unknown type.

[39] Landmine Monitor interview with Pakistani delegation to the CCW Amended Protocol II Meeting of Experts, Geneva, 8 April 2016.

[40] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form F, 11 April 2019. This included 5,247 P2, 7,753 P4, 18 P4PRAC, 748 P5, 26 Jumping, 9 NM M14, and 2 Non SvcPattern; Article 13 Report, Form F, 25 May 2018. This included 118 P, 335 P4, 4 P4PRAC, 498 P5 Frag; Article 13 Report, Form F, 31 March 2017. This included 3,938 P2, 2,886 P4, 3 P4PRAC, 3 P3 Jumping, 227 P5, 3 M2 A1 jumping and 310 M14 antipersonnel mines; Article 13 Report, Form F, 31 March 2016. This included 1,027 P2, 358 P4, 21 P5, and 23 P7 antipersonnel mines; Article 13 Report, Form F, 31 March 2015. This included 992 P2, 1 P3, 1922 P4, 8 P5, and 21 P7 antipersonnel mines; Article 13 Report, Form F, 31 March 2014. This included 4,534 P2, 221 P3, 3,363 P4, and 5 P5 antipersonnel mines; and Article 13 Report, Form F, 5 April 2013. This included 645 ND P2, 165 NM M14, 1020 P4Mk-1, 18 M2A4 Jumping P-7, and 259 Shrapnel P50 antipersonnel mines.

[41] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form F, 25 October 2010. This included 30,615 Mine AP ND P2 Series, 7,014 Mine AP ND P4 Series, 2,884 Mine AP M14, and 2,735 miscellaneous antipersonnel mines.


Mine Action

Last updated: 12 November 2018

Treaty status

Mine Ban Treaty

Non-signatory

Mine action management

National mine action management actors

No formal civilian program

Operators in 2017

Military engineering units
Frontier Constabulary

Extent of contamination as of end 2017

Landmines

Not known, includes improvised mines

Cluster munition remnants

None

Land release in 2017

Landmines

Not reported

Contamination

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan remains heavily affected by mines and other ordnance from the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (1979–1989) and three wars with India, as well as from more recent and continuing conflicts in areas bordering Afghanistan, including, in particular, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).

In 2017, Pakistan reiterated past statements that it “faces no problem of uncleared mines.” It again acknowledged that the army laid mines on its eastern border with India during an escalation of tensions in 2001–2002, but stated those mines were all cleared and that no mines have since been laid.[1] However, it has reported that attacks by non-state armed groups again employed improvised antipersonnel and antivehicle mines during 2017.[2]

Programme Management

Pakistan has no formal civilian mine action programme. Pakistani military engineering units are believed to be responsible for mine clearance in conflict zones, while the Frontier Constabulary has said it conducts mine clearance in contaminated areas of Baluchistan, FATA, and other conflict zones in the North-West Frontier Province.[3]

Land Release

There are no reports of formal land release in 2017. Pakistan said that in 2017 the army destroyed 955 “unserviceable” antipersonnel mines.[4]



[1] Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report (for 2017), Form B; and statement of Pakistan, Mine Ban Treaty 16th Meeting of States Parties, 18–21 December 2017.

[2] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report (for 2017), Form B.

[3] Interviews with Khalil Ur Rehman, Director, Disarmament Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamabad, 9 April 2011; with Muhammad Kamran Akhtar, then-Director, Disarmament Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamabad, 23 April 2009, and 10 April 2007; with Brig. Azmat Ali, Spokesman, Inter Services Public Relations, Peshawar, 22 March 2010; and with Sifat Ghayur, Inspector General, Frontier Constabulary, Peshawar, 19 March 2010. 


[4] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report (for 2017), Forms B and F.


Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 10 September 2012

Support for Mine Action

Pakistan is affected by mines and other ordnance from the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (1979–1989) and three wars with India. Areas bordering Afghanistan, however, are affected by a variety of contamination from more recent and continuing conflict, including not only mines, but also unexploded ordnance (UXO) and improvised explosive devices (IEDs).[1]

In 2011, the European Commission (EC) provided Handicap International with €247,955 (US$345,426) for risk education (RE).[2] Since 2009, the EC has contributed €3,214,230 (US$4,364,350) to RE projects in Pakistan. All international contributions toward mine action in Pakistan since 2009 went towards RE.

Summary of international contributions in 2009–2011[3]

Year

Donors

Amount (US$)

2011

EC

345,426

2010

EC, Japan, US

3,357,471

2009

EC, Sweden, UNICEF

1,848,483

Total

 

5,551,380

 

 



[1] See ICBL-CMC, “Country Profile: Pakistan: Mine Action,” 2012.

[2] Email from Carolin J. Thielking, Directorate for Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, European External Action Service, European Commission, 15 April 2012. Euro average exchange rate for 2011: €1 = US$1.3931. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2012.

[3] See ICBL-CMC, “Country Profile: Pakistan: Support for Mine Action,” 27 July 2010; and “Country Profile: Pakistan: Support for Mine Action,” 24 August 2011. Email from Farman Ali, Child Protection Officer, UNICEF, 16 August 2011.


Casualties

Last updated: 27 October 2017

Casualties Overview

All known casualties by end 2016

4,342 (1,644 killed; 2,605 injured; 93 unknown)

Casualties in 2016

161 (2015: 132)

2016 casualties by survival outcome

54 killed; 107 injured (2015: 59 killed; 73 injured)

2016 casualties by device type

15 antipersonnel mine; 49antivehicle mine; 95improvised mines (victim-activated improvised explosive devices, IEDs); 2 explosive remnants of war (ERW)

 

In 2016, the Monitor identified 161 casualties from mines/ERW, including victim-activated IEDs, in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Half of all casualties (80) in 2016 were civilians. At least 27 were children. Military and security forces (including militia and militants) represented the remaining 81 recorded casualties. The 2016 figures were calculated from the database of Sustainable Peace and Development Organization (SPADO), which included at least 309 media-reported casualties of mines/ERW, IEDs, and hand grenades in Pakistan for 2016; the difference in the total mine/ERW casualties reported is due to the variation in media descriptions of the types of explosive devices used and the Monitor’s methodology for reporting casualties of mines/ERW, including improvised landmines (victim-activated IEDs and toy-like booby traps) as well as ERW including abandoned ordnance (AXO).[1]

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, formerly North-West Frontier Province), the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and Balochistan continued to have the highest numbers of mine/ERW casualties in Pakistan; the combined annual totals for these areas accounted for more than 98% of all mine/ERW casualties in Pakistan in 2015.[2]

The 2016 casualty total represented a slight increase from the 132 mine/ERW casualties recorded in 2015, however it remained on a similar overall downward trajectory since a very significant drop in the total number of annual casualties from the 569 mine/ERW casualties identified in 2011. Given the considerable variation in the availability of annual casualty data over time, however, it is not possible to be certain of the extent to which changes in recorded casualties are indicative of actual trends versus shifts in media coverage and use of terminology.[3]

Due to the lack of official data or a comprehensive data-collection mechanism, the total number of casualties in Pakistan is not known. However, between 1999 and 2016, the Monitor identified at least 4,342 (1,644 killed; 2,605 injured; 93 unknown) from landmines, improvised mines (victim-activated IEDs), and ERW.[4] It is likely that the total number of casualties is much higher.



[1] Monitor casualty analysis based on data provided by SPADO media monitoring, 1 January 2016–31 December 2016.

[2] Ibid. In 2015, Balochistan had 68 mine/ERW casualties, FATA had 45, and KPK 45.

[3] While efforts have been made to increase sources of casualty data, the media remains the main source; the sporadic reporting of the incidents, along with remoteness and security situation of the areas where such incidents took place, make it likely that casualties continue to be under-reported.

[4] Data was collected through media monitoring, field visits, and information provided by service providers. For details, see previous country profiles for Pakistan available on the Monitor website.


Casualties and Victim Assistance

Last updated: 18 November 2016

Casualties

Casualties Overview

All known casualties by end 2015

4,181 (1,590 killed; 2,498 injured; 93 unknown)

Casualties in 2015

132 (2014: 233)

2015 casualties by outcome

59 killed; 73 injured (2014: 98 killed; 135 injured)

2015 casualties by device type

32 antipersonnel mine; 73 antivehicle mine; 16 victim-activated improvised explosive device (IED); 11 other explosive remnants of war (ERW)

 

In 2015, the Monitor identified 132 casualties from mines/ERW, including victim-activated IEDs, in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. More than half of all casualties (57%) in 2015 were civilians. Among 75 recorded civilian casualties, there were at least 45 children. Military and security forces represented the remaining 43% of the total annual recorded casualties (57). The 2015 figures were calculated from the database of Sustainable Peace and Development Organization (SPADO), which included at least 377 media-reported casualties of mines/ERW, IEDs, and hand grenades in Pakistan for 2015; the difference in the total mine/ERW casualties reported is due to the variation in media descriptions of the types of explosive devices used and the Monitor’s methodology for reporting casualties of mines/ERW, including victim-activated IEDs (improvised landmines).

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, formerly North-West Frontier Province), the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and Balochistan continued to have the highest numbers of mine/ERW casualties in Pakistan; the combined annual totals for these areas accounted for more than 91% of all mine/ERW casualties in Pakistan in 2015.[1]

The 2015 casualty total represented a decrease from the 233 mine/ERW casualties recorded in 2014 and the 219 recorded in 2013, and a very significant drop in the total number of annual casualties from the 569 mine/ERW casualties identified in 2011. However, given the considerable variation in the availability of annual casualty data over time, it is not possible to be certain of the extent to which changes in recorded casualties are indicative of actual trends versus shifts in media coverage and use of terminology.[2]

Antivehicle mine incidents caused more than half of of recorded casualties (55%) in 2015. The number of annual casualties caused by antivehicle mines reported in 2015 (73) represents an increase compared to 2014 in both number of casualties (73 versus 67) and in ratio of total casualties (55% versus 29%). The ratio of antivehicle mine casualties in 2015 was the highest since Monitor reporting of the differentiation between mine types began in 2006.[3]

The proportion of total mine/ERW casualties reported to have been caused by victim-activated IEDs (16, or 12%) continued to be significantly lower than recorded in 2010, when victim-activated IEDs caused more than half of all casualties. Prior to 2010, the ratio had been increasing since at least 2007.[4] In 2015, as in previous years, a number of child casualties were caused by victim-activated IEDs or booby-traps that resembled toys.

Due to the lack of official data or a comprehensive data-collection mechanism, the total number of casualties in Pakistan is not known. In its transparency reporting for 2015, Pakistan reiterated, as it had in previous years, that there had been no ERW casualties.[5] However, between 1999 and 2014, the Monitor identified at least 4,181 (1,590 killed; 2,498 injured; 93 unknown) from landmines, victim-activated IEDs, and ERW.[6] It is likely that the total number of casualties is much higher. Pakistan reported 838 “IED attacks” in 2015, “including” antipersonnel mines and antivehicle mines; of these attacks, 537 (or 64%) were said to have caused casualties. Pakistan officially reported that “No ERW exist in Pakistan” and “Pakistan at present faces no problem of uncleared mines.”[7]

Victim Assistance

The Monitor has identified 2,499 mine/ERW survivors in Pakistan since 1999.

Victim assistance in 2015

Access to services remained a challenge for most persons with disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors, particularly those from rural areas. In particular, in FATA, KPK, and Balochistan, access to services, particularly medical care, continued to be restricted due to violence and security concerns.[8]

Assessing victim assistance needs

In 2015, SPADO carried out media monitoring for new mine/ERW casualties.[9] In 2014, the ICRC reported that plans for a data gathering network for victims of weapons contamination were canceled due to government reservations.[10]

Victim assistance coordination

Pakistan has reported that the Military Operations Directorate of the Pakistan army was the focal point for victim assistance, but has also asserted that there were no mine or ERW casualties. Public reports did not indicate if the Military Operations Directorate was responsible for both military and civilian survivors.[11] Pakistan has also reported that it has a procedure and comprehensive program for victims of IEDs. However, it was not reported if civilians could access these services.[12] Monitor researchers were told that civilians with war injuries could also access services and that the Military Operations Directorate has responsibility for them as well.[13]

Several ministries were involved in disability issues, including the Ministry of Health and the Capital Administration and Development Division.[14] Responsibility for inclusive education, social welfare, and the protection of the rights of persons with disabilities was passed to the provincial level after the dissolution of the Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education in April 2011.[15] Pakistan has a National Policy for Persons with Disabilities (2002–2025).

Pakistan did not provide updates on victim assistance services, including rehabilitation programs, or on coordination in its most recent Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) Protocol V Article 10 report or its CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 report.[16]

Survivor participation and inclusion

No information was available about the inclusion of mine/ERW survivors in coordination, implementation, or monitoring of strategies that are relevant to them.

Service accessibility and effectiveness

Victim assistance activities[17]

Type of organization

Name of organization

Type of activity

National military rehabilitation center

Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM)

Physical rehabilitation for members of the military

National university in physical rehabilitation

Institute of Prosthetic and Orthotic Sciences (PIPOS)

Physical rehabilitation throughout the country

Regional hospital

 

Bolan Medical Complex Quetta, Balochistan

Physiotherapy services for persons with disabilities

Christian Hospital Rehabilitation Centre

Medical care and physical rehabilitation in Balochistan

Hayat Shaheed Teaching Hospital

Medical care and physical rehabilitation in Peshawar

Lady Reading Hospital

Physical rehabilitation in Peshawar

Muzaffarabad Physical Rehabilitation Centre

Physical rehabilitation in Kashmir

National NGO

Chotanagpur Human Activity Life (CHAL) Foundation

Rehabilitation centers, including prosthetics in Bagh, Azad Jammu, and Kashmir; and in KPK: Balakot, Battagram, and Besham

Human Development and Promotional Group

Providing prostheses to child mine/ERW survivors in Bajour, FATA

SPADO

Advocacy for victim assistance; referrals to services in FATA and KPK; maintained comprehensive casualty database

International NGO

 

Handicap International (HI)

Focused on the vulnerabilities of persons with disabilities

Helping Hand for Relief and Development (HHRD)

Physical rehabilitation in Pakistan-controlled Kashmir and in Swat and Buner, KPK

Leonard Cheshire Disability (LCD)

Counseling, rehabilitation, and economic inclusion programs; disability advocacy; gender equality programming

Doctors Without Borders (Médecins Sans Frontières, MSF)

Emergency and ongoing medical care in KPK, FATA, and Balochistan

 

International organization

ICRC

Emergency relief, strengthening of emergency and ongoing medical care; support for physical rehabilitation; support for the formation of sports clubs for persons with disabilities; and small grants and business training

 

Emergency and continuing medical care

Despite existing needs, ICRC activities to improve the availability and quality of services throughout the casualty care chain continued to face some restrictions. After no headway was made in talks to reopen the ICRC field surgical hospital in Peshawar, the facility was officially closed and dismantled in 2014, with equipment distributed to other facilities in Pakistan and Afghanistan.[18] In 2015, the ICRC began supporting Lady Reading Hospital in Peshawar to treat victims of violence.[19] The ICRC and the Pakistan Red Crescent Society trained over 650 persons on emergency first aid of weapons wounds and war surgery and emergency room trauma courses for doctors and nurses in FATA and KPK. The ICRC provided material support to treat victims of explosions in health facilities in KPK on an ad hoc basis.[20]

MSF noted that health services in Pakistan were often not affordable. In many regions, insecurity further restricted access to services. Populations affected by conflict, including Afghan refugees, often sought medical assistance in the district hospital of Chaman, Balochistan province, operated by MSF.[21]

Physical rehabilitation including prosthetics

Access to rehabilitation services remains a challenge for most persons with disabilities, particularly those in rural areas. Barriers to access services included transport, poverty, lack of awareness about services, cultural and physical barriers, illiteracy, and the security situation. The ICRC, CHAL Foundation, Indus Hospital, and the Punjab provincial government worked together to open a new rehabilitation center in Lahore in 2015. In 2015, fewer mine/ERW survivors (392 compared to 508 in 2014) received prosthetics and 140 mine/ERW survivors received orthotic devices at ICRC-supported rehabilitation centers.[22] Overall, in 2015 almost 20,000 people received physical rehabilitation services at ICRC-assisted centers, including 4,800 who had their transportation, accommodation, and treatment costs covered.[23]

Social and economic inclusion

In 2015, the ICRC supported sporting events, as well as provided sports equipment to children with disabilities to promote inclusion of persons with physical disabilities receiving services within the network of assisted centers. The ICRC also provided sponsorship for children with disabilities to attend camps and other social activities.[24]

In 2015, livelihood and disability rights projects for affected communities by SPADO and its partner organizations were yet to be implemented pending official approval to access and work in the communities. That approval had not yet been granted as of May 2016.[25]

Few psychological support programs were available in Pakistan.

The National Council for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled provided job placement and financial loans or assistance, however, employment quotas for persons with disabilities lacked adequate enforcement. Organizations that did not wish to hire persons with disabilities to meet the quota could instead pay a fine to a disability assistance fund, however, this obligation was also not enforced. Most persons with disabilities were supported by their families. The law provides for equality of the rights of persons with disabilities, but this was not fully implemented in practice.[26] In 2014, the provincial government of Balochistan passed a compensation law for civilian victims of terrorism and armed conflict.[27]

Pakistan ratified the CRPD on 5 July 2011.



[1] Monitor casualty analysis based on data provided by the Sustainable Peace and Development Organization (SPADO) media monitoring, 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2015. In 2015, FATA had 60 mine/ERW casualties; Balochistan 41; and KPK 19.

[2] While efforts have been made to increase sources of casualty data, the media remains the main source of data; the sporadic reporting of the incidents, along with remoteness and security situation of the areas where such incidents took place, make it likely that casualties continue to be under-reported.

[3] Previously, 2011 had the highest ratio of antivehicle mine casualties with 52% of that year’s casualties (293 out of 569 total casualties).

[4] Prior to 2007, casualties from victim-activated IEDs were not systematically disaggregated in the data from those caused by command-detonated IEDs, making it difficult to draw accurate comparisons. For details, see previous country profiles for Pakistan available on the Monitor website.

[5] Convention on Conventional Weapon s (CCW) Protocol V Article 10 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form E, 21 March 2015; CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form B, 26 March 2016; Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) Protocol V Article 10 Report (for calendar year 2014), Form E, 24 March 2015; Article 13 Report (for calendar year 2014), Forms B and F, 31 March 2015; Article 10 Report (for calendar year 2013), Form E, 3 April 2014; Article 13 Report (for calendar year 2013), Forms B and F, 3 April 2014; Article 10 Report (for calendar year 2012), Forms B and E, 27 March 2013; Article 13 Report (for calendar year 2012), Form B, 27 March 2013; Article 13 Report (for calendar year 2011), Form B, 31 March 2012; Article 10 Report, Form C, 15 March 2011; Article 10 Report, Form C, April 2010; Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007); Article 13 Report, Form B, 10 November 2006; Article 13 Report, 2 November 2005; and Article 13 Report, 8 October 2004.

[6] Data was collected through media monitoring, field visits, and information provided by service providers. For details, see previous country profiles for Pakistan available on the Monitor website.

[8] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programme (PRP), “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015; Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), “International Activity Report 2014 – Pakistan,” undated; and interview with Raza Khan, Director, SPADO, in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 12 May 2016.

[9] Email from Raza Khan, SPADO, 14 July 2016.

[10] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 301.

[11] Article 10 Report, Form C, 31 March 2012; and Article 10 Report, Form C, 31 March 2013.

[12] Article 13 Report, Form B, 1 April 2011.

[13] Interview with representative of Pakistan, Geneva, 26 June 2015.

[14] United States (US) Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Pakistan,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2016.

[15] Ibid.

[17] There are hundreds of service providers (most of which are public or private health or rehabilitation centers) delivering assistance to persons with disabilities in Pakistan. The organizations listed here have reported providing some assistance to mine/ERW/IED survivors or working in affected areas. ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, 2016; ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015; Pakistan Institute of Prosthetic and Orthotic Sciences (PIPOS); Bolan Medical Complex (College); Helping Hand for Relief and Development (HHRD); CAMP; Leonard Cheshire Disability; SPADO; Handicap International (HI); and MSF; and SPADO, “Addressing the Impact of Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War in Pakistan,” Geneva, November 2012, pp. 18–20.

[18] ICRC “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, May 2015, p. 301.

[19] ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, 2016, p. 356.

[20] Ibid.

[22] ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, 2016, 357.

[23] ICRC “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, May 2015, p. 303.

[24] ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, 2016, p. 357; and ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015.

[25] Interview with Raza Kahn, SPADO, in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 12 May 2016.

[26] US Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Pakistan,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2015.

[27] Open Societies Foundation, “Pakistani Law Helps Victims of Conflict, Sets Precedent,” 9 May 2014.