Peru

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 15 September 2021

Summary

State Party Peru ratified the convention on 26 September 2012. It voted in favor of a key United Nations (UN) resolution promoting the convention in December 2020. Peru has participated in every meeting of the convention, most recently in November 2020.

Peru has never used, produced, or exported cluster munitions, but it imported them. Peru has reported a stockpile of 2,012 cluster munitions and 162,417submunitions. Peru destroyed 160 cluster munitions and 8,595 submunitions during 2020. In March 2021, its stockpile destruction deadline was extended to April 2024.

Policy

The Republic of Peru signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008, ratified it on 26 September 2012 and the convention entered into force for the country on 1 March 2013.

Peru regards its existing laws as sufficient to guide and enforce its implementation of the convention.[1]

Peru submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report for the convention on 1 August 2013 and has provided annual updated reports since then, most recently in April 2021.[2]

As one of the core group of nations that took responsibility for the Oslo Process that created the convention, Peru hosted an international conference on cluster munitions in Lima in May 2007.[3]

Peru has participated in every meeting of the convention, most recently the first part of the convention’s Second Review Conference held virtually in November 2020.[4]

In December 2020, Peru voted in favor of a key UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution urging full implementation of the convention.[5] Peru has voted in favor of the annual UNGA resolution promoting the convention since it was first introduced in 2015.

Peru has condemned the “alarming” and “horrendous” use of cluster munitions in Syria and other countries.[6] It has voted in favor of Human Rights Council resolutions condemning the use of cluster munitions in Syria, most recently in June 2020.[7] Peru has also voted in favor of UNGA resolutions expressing outrage at the use of cluster munitions in Syria, most recently in December 2020.[8]

In September 2017, Peru elaborated its views on the convention’s prohibition on assisting with activities prohibited by the convention, stating that it interprets Article 1 as prohibiting investments in the production of cluster munitions, that is to say, it bans the provision of financial assistance to producers of cluster munitions.[9]

Peru has not commented on other important issues related to the interpretation and implementation of the convention, including the prohibition on transit and foreign stockpiling of cluster munitions as well as the interoperability provisions on participating in joint military operations with states not party that may use cluster munitions.

Peru is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is also party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW).

Use, production, and transfer

Peru’s initial Article 7 transparency report, provided in 2013, formally confirms that it has never produced cluster munitions.[10] It is not known to have ever used or exported them. Peru however has imported cluster munitions and possesses a stockpile.

Stockpiling

Peru has reported a stockpile of 2,012 cluster munitions and 162,417 submunitions, as listed in the following table. Peru possesses two types of air-delivered cluster munitions manufactured in two countries from the 1970s until 1996: BME-330 cluster bombs from Spain, and RBK-series cluster bombs from Russia/Soviet Union.[11] Peru also possesses Alpha bomblets made in South Africa.[12]

Cluster munitions once stockpiled by Peru[13]

Type

Quantity of cluster munitions

Quantity of submunitions

RBK-250-275 AO-1SCh, each containing 150 submunitions (manufactured in 1975)

393

58,950

RBK-500 AO-2.5RT, each containing 60 submunitions (manufactured in 1987)

198

11,880

RBK-250 PTAB 2.5, each containing 42 submunitions (manufactured in 1975)

657

27,594

BME-330 NA, each containing 180 SNA submunitions (manufactured in 1986)

90

16,200

BME-330 AR, each containing 180 SNA submunitions (manufactured in 1996)

53

9,540

Alpha bomblets

-

8,445

RBK 250-ZAB 2.5 bombs, each containing 48 submunitions

621

29,808

Total

2,012

162,417

 

Peru has adjusted its stockpile numbers since 2013, when it declared a stockpile of 676 cluster munitions of three types and 86,280 submunitions in 2013.[14] In 2016, it reported an additional 1,331 cluster munitions and 66,894 submunitions.[15] In 2020, Peru reported five additional RBK-250-275 AO-1SCh cluster bombs.[16]

Stockpile destruction

Under Article 3 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Peru was initially required to declare and destroy all stockpiled cluster munitions under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible but not later than 1 March 2021.

Until 2019, Peru had pledged to destroy the stocks by this deadline.[17] However, in March 2020, it provided States Parties with a 30-page request to extend by three years its formal deadline for completing destruction stockpile destruction.[18] The request gave several reasons for the deadline extension, including a lack of adequate implementing legislation, lack of trained personnel, and lack of technology necessary to carry out destruction. In March 2021, Peru’s stockpile destruction deadline was extended until 1 April 2024.

The Peruvian Air Force is responsible for destroying the stockpiled cluster munitions, which are held at six air bases that it says are “restricted areas to unauthorized military personnel and civilians.”[19]

Peru has reported the destruction of a total of 323 cluster munitions and 17,567 submunitions from its stocks since beginning the process in 2017.[20] It destroyed 160 cluster munitions and 8,595 submunitions during 2020 (159 RBK-250 PTAB-2.5M and 6,930 submunitions, one BME-330 NA and 180 submunitions, and 1,485 submunitions). Previously, Peru destroyed 22 cluster munitions and 2,640 submunitions in 2019.[21]

Humanitarian mine clearance operator Norwegian People’s Aid has provided technical support to Peru’s stockpile destruction since 2015.[22]

Retention

Since 2013, Peru has reported that it does not intend to retain any cluster munitions for research or training in detection, clearance, and destruction techniques.[23]



[1] Peru has reported the 2012 ratification decree and various laws and regulations for its implementation of the convention. Legislative Resolution approving the Convention on Cluster Munitions (Resolución Legislativa que aprueba la Convención sobre Municiones en Racimo), No. 29843, 15 March 2012. On 25 April 2012, Decree 021-2012 approving ratification was signed and published in the official journal El Peruano the next day. Decree No. 021-2012-RE, 26 April 2012; “Ref. 464960,” El Peruano, 26 April 2012; and Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form A, 1 August 2013.

[2] The initial report covered the period from March–August 2013, while subsequent annual updates have covered the previous calendar year.

[3] For details on Peru’s policy and practice regarding cluster munitions through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 142–144.

[4] Peru has participated in all of the convention’s Meetings of States Parties, the First Review Conference in 2015 and intersessional meetings in 2011–2015, as well as regional workshops on cluster munitions.

[5]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 75/62, 7 December 2020.

[6] Statement of Peru, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fifth Meeting of States Parties, San José, Costa Rica, 3 September 2014. Notes by the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC).

[7]Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” Human Rights Council Resolution 43/28, 22 June 2020. Peru voted in favor of similar HRC resolutions in 2018–2019.

[8]Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution 75/193, 16 December 2020. Peru voted in favor of similar resolutions in 2013–2019.

[9] Intervention of Peru, Convention on Cluster Munition Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 5 September 2017.

[11] During the Oslo Process, in May 2007, Peru’s Minister of Defense first publicly disclosed that the Peruvian Air Force stocked BME-330 cluster bombs, RBK-500 cluster bombs, and CB-470 cluster bombs. Ángel Páez, “Peru se suma a iniciativa mundial para prohibir y destruir las ‘bombas de racimo’” (“Peru joins global initiative to ban and destroy the ‘cluster bombs’”), La República.pe, 29 May 2007. In May 2007, a member of the national media showed HRW photographs of these cluster munitions. See also, Ángel Páez, “Se eliminarán las bombas de racimo” (“Cluster bombs will be eliminated”), La República.pe, 29 May 2007.

[12] According to the 2020 report, Peru found 8,445 Alpha bomblets in its stocks during 2018. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form B, 4 May 2020.

[14] Peru reported that the stockpile is “Vencida por tiempo límite de vida,” which translates as “expired”, and stated that there is “no information on the batch numbers for the submunitions.” See, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form B, August 2013.

[15] 657 RBK-250 PTAB 2.5 cluster bombs and 27,594 submunitions and 53 BME-330 AR and 9,540 submunitions. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form B, 2016. Peru reported an additional five RBK-250-275 AO1SCh cluster munitions in 2020. It did not report an increase in the corresponding number of submunitions. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form B, 4 May 2020.

[16] The May 2020 transparency report lists additional RBK-250 275 bombs, but there was not a corresponding increase in the number of submunitions. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form B, 4 May 2020.

[17] Statement of Peru, Convention on Cluster Munitions First Review Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 11 September 2015. Previously, in April 2014, Peru expressed its commitment to destroy the stockpile by the convention’s deadline and said it had requested international cooperation and assistance to do so. Statement of Peru, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 7 April 2014.

[19] Ibid.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Statement of Peru, Convention on Cluster Munitions Sixth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 6 September 2016; and Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form B, 2017.

[23] See, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Reports, Form C, August 2013; 7 May 2014; and 3 June 2015. Prior to 2013, Peru indicated it would retain cluster munitions for training. See, statement of Peru, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 18 April 2012.


Impact

Last updated: 05 February 2021

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Treaty Status Management & Coordination | Impact (contamination & casualties) Addressing the Impact (land release, risk education, victim assistance)

Country Summary

Mine contamination in the Republic of Peru is the result of conflict with Ecuador in 1995 that culminated in the Cenepa War, and from internal conflict with non-state armed groups that ended in 1992. The mined section of the border is situated in the Condor mountain range, that was at the center of the dispute.

Since the peace accord was signed in 1998, both Peru and Ecuador have emphasized bilateral cooperation, mutual trust and transparency between their respective mine action agencies, the Ecuadorian National Center for Humanitarian Demining (CENDESMI) and the Peruvian Mine Action Coordination Center (Centro Peruano de Acción contra las Minas Antipersonales, CONTRAMINAS), in order to solve their landmine problem.[1]

However, mine clearance in the border areas has been slow, and since becoming a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty, Peru has requested two extensions to its Article 5 deadline. Its current deadline is 31 December 2024. The contamination in Peru is small, and Peru should be on target to meet its clearance deadline commitments. However, in a statement at the Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties, Peru said that clearance operations had been affected in 2020 due to the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.[2]

Risk education is conducted in the contaminated border areas in collaboration with Ecuador.

Peru has responsibility for 348 victims of antipersonnel mines, however there are currently no mechanisms for victim assistance for landmine victims and their families.

Treaty status

Treaty status overview

Mine Ban Treaty

State Party

Article 5 clearance deadline: 31 December 2024

Convention on Cluster Munitions

State Party

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

State Party

 

Peru’s Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline is 31 December 2024, and given the small amount of remaining contamination, Peru should be able to meet this deadline. Peru’s land release output increased significantly in 2019 compared to 2018 (0.12km² in 2019 compared to 0.03km² in 2018). However, Peru reported setbacks to its demining progress with a helicopter crash in May 2019, killing two demining personnel and wounding one police officer, and the impact of COVID-19 on demining operations in 2020.[3]

Management and coordination

Mine Action management and coordination

Mine action management and coordination overview

National mine action management actors

CONTRAMINAS, established in 2002

Mine action legislation

  • Directive No.006 Chair of the Joint Command, February 2001: regulates compliance of armed institutions to the Mine Ban Treaty
  • Supreme Decree No.344-2015 DE/SG, December 2002: creation of CONTRAMINAS
  • Supreme Decree No.51-2005-RE, July 2005: approval of the CONTRAMINAS regulations
  • Law No.28824, July 2006: provides penal sanctions for conduct prohibited under the Mine Ban Treaty
  • Directive No.001/2009/DIGEHUME-SINGE: standard for the operation of the humanitarian demining system

Mine action strategic and operational plans

Updated National Plan for Humanitarian Demining 2018–2024

Mine action standards

Binational Manual for Humanitarian Demining, adopted with Ecuador in accordance with the International Mine Action Standards (IMAS), April 2013

 

The national mine action program is managed by CONTRAMINAS which is chaired by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. CONTRAMINAS is responsible for setting strategy and priorities and for overall coordination of mine action activities. The mine action program is funded by the Peruvian government.

Strategies and policies

Peru’s mine action strategy, “Updated National Plan for Humanitarian Demining 2018-2024,” was submitted to the Committee on Article 5 Implementation in May 2018. The strategy reported that the remaining suspected mine contamination, covering some 0.49km2 spread across 127 suspected hazardous areas (SHAs), would be released by 31 December 2024. Peru expected to clear 8,089 mines from the areas.[4]

Legislation and standards

On 22 July 2006, Peru enacted domestic legislation to support the implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. The law imposes penal sanctions of five to eight years’ imprisonment for actions that contravene the prohibitions of the treaty.[5]

Information management

CONTRAMINAS uses the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA).

Cross-border cooperation

In 2000, Ecuador and Peru established the Binational Cooperation Program (Programa Binacional de Cooperación). A Binational Manual for Humanitarian Demining was adopted in 2013 to unify the demining procedures of both states in accordance with the IMAS.

Risk Education management and coordination

Risk education management and coordination overview

Government focal points

CONTRAMINAS

Coordination mechanisms

Peru coordinates binational risk education campaigns with Ecuador, organized by: the Office of National Defense and Disaster Risk Managemetn (ODENAGED) of the Ministry of Education, the CONTRAMINAS division of the national police (PNP), the Peruvian Army’s Directorate General for Humanitarian Demining (DIGEDEHUME), the General Directorate of Disaster Risk Management and National Defense in Health (DIGERD) of the Ministry of Health

Coordination

CONTRAMINAS in Peru and CENDESMI in Ecuador have collaborated in the implementation of binational risk education campaigns to ensure that the border communities between both countries are aware of the danger posed by antipersonnel mines. The campaigns are bilingual and multisectoral, involving ministries of defense, education, health, and interior. Five campaigns have been conducted, with the sixth carried out in 2019.[6]

Victim assistance management and coordination

Victim assistance management and coordination

Government focal points

CONTRAMINAS

Coordination actors

Ministry of Health

Ministry of Education

National Council for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities (Consejo Nacional para la Integración de la Persona con Discapacidad, CONADIS)

National Rehabilitation Institute (Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, INR)

Plans/strategies

Equal Opportunities Plan for Persons with Disabilities 2016–2021

Legislation

  • Law No.28592, July 2005: creates the Integral Plan of Compensations (PIR)
  • Law No.29643, December 2010: provides Protection to Disabled Personnel in the Armed Forces and National Police of Peru
  • Law No.29973, December 2012: General Law of Persons with Disabilities
  • Supreme Decree No. 004, August 2015: creates the Non-Contributory Pension Program
  • Law No.30669, October 2017: promotes access and coverage of people with disabilities to assistive technologies, devices, and compensatory aids

Disability sector integration

 

The National Council for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities (CONADIS) works in coordination with CONTRAMINAS to incorporate the victims into the National Registry of Persons with Disabilities

 

Laws and policies

Peru has based its assistance to mine victims on existing laws. Antipersonnel mine victims who are not part of the armed forces or police and who are registered in the database of CONTRAMINAS can access Integral Health Insurance (SIS) or Social Security (EsSalud), allowing them to receive free care through the Ministry of Health and Social Security facilities. This is in line with Article 27 of the General Law of Persons with Disabilities (Law No.29973) that guarantees the access of disabled people to health services.[7]

Impact

Contamination

Contamination (as of December 2019)[8]

Landmines

0.36km² across 108 SHAs

Extent of contamination: Small

Cluster munition remnants

None

Other ERW contamination

None

Note: ERW=Explosive Remnants of War; SHA=Suspected Hazardous Area.

Landmine Contamination

In its Updated National Plan for Demining for 2018–2024, Peru estimated remaining contamination of 0.49km2 spread across 127 SHAs.[9] Peru expected to clear 8,089 mines from the areas.

As of December 2019, Peru’s remaining mine contamination comprises 0.36km² across 108 SHAs across the sectors of Achiume, Cenepa, Santiago, and Tiwinza.[10] Peru expects to clear 5,762 mines from these areas.[11]

The contaminated areas in the Condor range are in mountainous jungle areas 2,900m above sea level, with difficult access and an adverse climate.[12]

Casualties

Casualties overview[13]

All known casualties (between 1964 and 2019)

345 casualties (64 killed and 281 injured)

 

 

Casualties in 2019—details

No mine/explosive remnants of war (ERW) casualties were reported in 2019.

Addressing the impact

Mine Action

Operators and service providers

Clearance Operators

National

Peruvian Army’s Directorate General for Humanitarian Demining (DIGEDEHUME)

CONTRAMINAS Security Division (DIVSECOM)

Joint Ecuador-Peru Binational Humanitarian Demining Unit

Land release

Land release overview

Landmine land release in 2019

0.12km² released and 1,113 landmines destroyed

Cleared: 0.08km²

Reduced: 0.02km²

Cancelled: 0.02km²

Landmine clearance 2015–2019

2015: 76,335m²

2016: 18,317m²

2017: 9,246m²

2018: 15,576m²

2019: 81,948m²

Total land cleared: 201,422m² 

Progress

Landmines

Peru has provided conflicting estimates of the extent of remaining contamination. The helicopter incident in May 2020 and the COVID-19 pandemic reportedly affected clearance operations

 

In the last five years, Peru has reported clearing a total of 0.20km² of mined area with the destruction of about 4,432 mines.

In 2019 there was a significant increase in the amount of land cleared, with 0.08km² cleared in 2019 compared to 0.01km² in 2018. In addition, the overall land release in 2019 was higher, with a total of 0.12km² released compared to 0.03km² in 2018.[14]

In a statement at the Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties in November 2020, Peru reported that it had not achieved its clearance plan due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic impact. A “Sanitary Protocol” had been drawn up to enable demining to continue in 2021.[15]

In November 2019, Peru and Ecuador agreed to continue cooperation clearing antipersonnel mines and ERW in Tiwinza, in accordance with the 1998 Brasilia Peace Accords and the roadmap approved at the twentieth Meeting of National Authorities for Action against Antipersonnel Mines of Peru and the Ecuador in August 2019.[16] As of Novenber 2020, a series of studies with Ecuador were pending completion to clarify the location of some hazardous areas, including one of 10,182m² and approximately 2,000 mines.[17]

Deminer safety

In May 2019, a helicopter crashed in the area of Coangos in the province of Condorcanqui, killing two deminers and injuring a police officer.[18] Demining operations were suspended following the accident.

Risk Education

Operators and service providers

Risk education operators

Type of organization

Name of organization

Type of activity

Governmental

CONTRAMINAS

Coordination with Ecuador for risk education in the border areas

National

Association of Victims and Survivors of Mine Fields (Asociación de Víctimas y Sobrevivientes de

Campos Minados, AVISCAM)

No available information about activities carried out in 2019

 

Implementation: target groups

The main target groups for risk education are people living in the border communities between Ecuador and Peru. CONTRAMINAS, in Peru, and CENDESMI, in Ecuador, collaborated in running the Sixth Binational Risk education campaign in 2019 in Zamora Chinchipe on the border between Peru and Ecuador. It was reported that between 300 to 400 people attended.[19] A seventh event is planned for 2021.[20]

The COVID-19 pandemic increased mine risk for some communities. In May 2020, the mayor of the commune of Arica in Chile, Gerardo Espíndola Rojas, reported that 600 Peruvian citizens were stranded on the Chilean side of the border following the border closure by the Peruvian government to prevent the spread of the pandemic. It was reported that some of the citizens attempted to cross the border illegally through an area where landmines had been identified.[21]

Victim Assistance

Victim assistance providers and activities

Victim assistance providers[22]

Type of organization

Name of organization

Type of activity

Governmental

CONADIS

Oversight of the Equal Opportunities Plan for Persons with Disabilities 2016-2021, which aims to improve the living conditions of people with disabilities

CONTRAMINAS

Maintains and updates the database to register people with disabilities and facilitates access to services for victims, including the delivery of prosthetic devices and legal support

Independent Mechanism on the CRPD (Mecanismo Independiente para promover, proteger y supervisar la aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad, MICDPD)

Promotes and raises awareness regarding the rights of people with disabilities, including increasing participation of people with disabilities and their organizations

National

Association of Victims and Survivors of Mine Fields (Asociación de Víctimas y Sobrevivientes de Campos Minados, AVISCAM)

Support to survivors

 

Major Developments in 2019

Medical care and rehabilitation

Peru reported that 348 victims are registered in the CONTRAMINAS database, of which 150 are civilians, 120 from the armed forces, and 78 from the national police.[23] There are no specific mechanisms for victim assistance.

Socio-economic and psychosocial inclusion

In 2019, Peru included in its victim assistance reporting the implementation of the pension program for severe disabilities, which aims at improving the quality of life of people with severe disabilities living in poverty in the regions of Amazonas, Apurimac, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Huancavelica, Loreto, Pasco, and Tumbes.[24] AVISCAM reported that on occasions, civilian survivors could not access pension funds or a minimum wage, and often only have access to initial medical care and rehabilitation.[25] The main challenge identified was to improve socio-economic inclusion.[26]

Cross-cutting

AVISCAM reported that CONTRAMINAS has a strong demining focus, and that more mechanisms and activities should be developed to reinforce victim assistance.[27]



[1] Organization of American States (OAS), “Regional Profile: Ecuador-Peru Border,” OAS Mine Action Project Portfolio 2009–2010.

[2] Statement or Peru, Mine Ban Treaty Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties (virtual), 16­–20 November 2020.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Peru, Updated National Plan for Humanitarian Demining 2018–2024, May 2018.

[5] Peru Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, April 2007; and statement of Peru, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Mine Ban Treaty, Geneva, 21 September 2006. The text can be found in the Official Bulletin of Legal Norms (Boletín Oficial de normas legales) of the legal newspaper El Peruano.

[6] Ecuador Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019), Form D, p.14.

[7] Peru Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2018), Form J, p. 20.

[8] For cluster munition remnants contamination: see, Peru Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019).

[9] Updated National Plan for Humanitarian Demining 2018–2024, May 2018.

[10] Peru Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019), p.10.

[11] Statement of Peru, Mine Ban Treaty Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties (virtual), 16–20 November 2020.

[12] Ibid.

[13] CONTRAMINAS reported it had 348 landmine victims registered in its victim database, of which 150 are civilians, 120 are from the armed forces, and 78 from the national police. However, this also includes the three casualties following a helicopter crash in 2019 (two were killed and one was injured). See, Peru Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019), p.21.

[14] Peru Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019), p.11; and Peru Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2018), p.10.

[15] Statement of Peru, Mine Ban Treaty Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties (virtual), 16–20 November 2020.

[16] Government of Peru, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Declaración Presidencial de Tumbes” (“Presidential Declaration of Tumbes”), 7 November 2019.

[17] Statement of Peru, Mine Ban Treaty Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties (virtual), 16–20 November 2020.

[18] Peru Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019), Form G, p. 13.

[19] “Peru's intervention before the Article 5 Implementation Committee, 4th Review Conference”, Oslo, 25–29 November 2019; and “Additional Information Peru Activities to Distribute in the Framework of the Intersessional Meeting of the Ottawa Convention”, Lima, 30 June–3 July 2020.

[20] Statement of Peru, Mine Ban Treaty Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties (virtual), 16–20 November 2020.

[21] Ernesto Suárez, “Alcalde de Arica se queja ante instancia de la ONU por situación de peruanos varados en distrito fronterizo” (“Mayor of Arica complains to the UN instance about the situation of Peruvians stranded in the border district”), El Commercio, 15 May 2020.

[22] Peru Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019), Form J, p. 20.

[23] Ibid., Form J, p.21.

[24] Ibid., Form J, p. 20.

[25] Humanity & Inclusion (HI), “Buenas prácticas de asistencia a víctimas implementadas por Asociaciones de Sobrevivientes de Minas/REG y otras Personas con Discapacidad en América Latina” (“Good practices in victim assistance implemented by Organizations of mine/ERW survivors and other people with disabilities in Latin America”), Bogota, Colombia, September 2019.

[26] Ibid.

[27] Ibid.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 18 December 2019

Policy

The Republic of Peru signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified on 17 June 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 March 1999. Peru enacted domestic legislation to penalize violations of the Mine Ban Treaty on 22 July 2006.[1]

Peru consistently attends meetings of the treaty, including the Third Review Conference in Maputo in June 2014, and more recently the Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in November 2018, where it provided statements on victim assistance and Article 5 mine clearance efforts.[2] Peru also attended the intersessional meetings of the treaty in Geneva in May 2019, where it provided an update on Article 5 clearance.[3] Peru previously served on the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration (2010), the Committee on the General Status and Operations of the Convention (2011–2012), and the Committee on Cooperative Compliance (2015–2016).

Peru is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and its Amended Protocol II on landmines. It is also party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Production, transfer, stockpiling, and retention

Peru is a former producer of antipersonnel mines.[4] The Ministry of Defense has stated that Peru has never exported antipersonnel mines.[5] Peru used antipersonnel mines around its electricity towers and public infrastructure during and after the internal conflict of 1980–1992.[6]

Peru destroyed its stockpile of 338,356 antipersonnel mines between 1999 and December 2001.[7]

As of December 2018, Peru retained 2,015 mines for training purposes.[8] In May 2011, Peru reported that it retained 2,040 antipersonnel mines, which is 2,050 fewer mines than previously reported.[9] In April 2010, Peru reported a total of 4,090 mines: 2,060 antipersonnel mines for training purposes and 2,030 mines retained for training that had been transferred for use “in the education and training of military personnel in basic and new techniques for demining.”[10] In 2009, Peru reported a total of 4,047 mines retained for training purposes.[11] Peru has never reported in any detail on the intended purpose and actual use of its retained mines.

Use

Remnants of the non-state armed group Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) have reportedly used victim-activated explosive devices, referred to as “explosive traps.”[12] Victim-activated improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are prohibited by the Mine Ban Treaty.

In November 2010, local media reported that police had found 25 mines or explosive booby traps that it attributed to the Shining Path.[13] In June 2010, media reported that a Peruvian soldier lost his leg after stepping on a mine while on patrol near the perimeter of the Cerro San Judas army base.[14]

In October 2009, El Comercio reported that Staff Sergeant Sanchez EP Ipushima Euler was killed by a mine laid by the Shining Path.[15] Minister of Defense Rafael Rey reportedly stated that the mine was laid by the Peruvian army.[16] Minister of Defense Rey later clarified that an investigation into the incident had found the soldier was killed by an IED planted by the “narcoterrorists” (Shining Path).[17] In December 2009, Peru’s Vice Minister of Foreign Relations Néstor Popolizio confirmed that there had been no mine use by Peru.[18]



[1] Law No. 28824 imposes penal sanctions of five to eight years imprisonment. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, April 2007; and statement of Peru, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Mine Ban Treaty, Geneva, 21 September 2006. The text can be found in the Boletín oficial de normas legales (Official Bulletin of Legal Norms) of the legal newspaper El Peruano.

[2] Statement of Peru, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 27 November 2018; and statement of Peru, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 29 November 2018.

[3] Statement of Peru, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 22 May 2019.

[4] The police produced the DEXA mine until production facilities were closed in 1994, while the navy produced the CICITEC MG-MAP-304 and the CICITEC MGP-30 mines until production facilities were closed in 1997. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form H, 2 May 2005; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Forms E and H, April 2003.

[5] Telephone interview with Gen. Raúl O’Connor, Director, Information Office, Ministry of Defense, 19 April 2000.

[6] Peru has denied mine-laying during the 1995 border conflict with Ecuador. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form C, 6 May 2004.

[7] Two destructions of a total of 11,784 antipersonnel mines between March 2000 and March 2001 are sometimes not included in Peru’s destruction totals. Peru destroyed the bulk of its stockpile, 321,730 mines, between 30 May and 13 September 2001. Peru declared stockpile destruction complete in September 2001, but then destroyed a further 926 mines in December 2001 that it had intended to retain for training.

[8] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 30 April 2019.

[9] Ibid., 16 May 2011.

[10] Ibid., 29 April 2010.

[11] Ibid., 29 April 2009.

[12] One article cited use of “explosive traps” in 24 attacks. “Las minas artesanales y trampas explosivas. Asesinos silenciosos en el Alto Huallaga” (“Artisanal mines and explosive traps. Silence murders in the Alto Huallaga”), InfoRegion (Lima), 28 October 2008, www.inforegion.pe. In the past decade, the only other reports of use of antipersonnel mines or antipersonnel mine-like devices by Shining Path came in June and July 2003. See, Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 657. There were isolated reports of incidents involving explosive devices in subsequent years. See, Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 476; and Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 588.

[13] “Ataque senderista contra campamento del Corah al norte de Tocache mata a un policía y hiere a otro” (“Shining Path attack against Corah camp north of Tocache kills a policeman and wounds another”), IDL-Reporteros, 6 November 2010.

[14] Miguel Gutiérrez R., “Mina que mató a sargento fue colocada por las FFAA” (“Mine that killed sergeant was placed by the armed forces”), La República (Lima), 15 October 2009.

[15] “Muere sargento EP en Vizcatán al pisar mina senderista” (“EP sergeant dies after stepping on Shining Path mine”), El Comercio (Lima), 13 October 2009.

[16] Original text: “Desgraciadamente fue una mina nuestra. Toda esa zona está minada para evitar ataques externos, y (Euler Sánchez) no tuvo la precaución de ir por los lugares que estaban indicados. Pisó una mina nuestra; eso le ocasionó la muerte.” Miguel Gutiérrez R., “Mina que mató a sargento fue colocada por las FFAA” (“Mine that killed sergeant was placed by the armed forces”), La República (Lima), 15 October 2009.

[17] Letter from Rafael Rey, Minister of Defense, to the ICBL, 27 November 2009.

[18] He also said the Ministry of Defense had sent instructions to ensure the armed forces have the right information on legal obligations and international commitments, and that the Ministry of Defense had checked the stockpile of retained mines and none were missing. Notes from ICBL meeting with Néstor Popolizio Bardales, Vice Minister of Foreign Relations, and Wilyam Lúcar Aliaga, Contraminas, in Cartagena, 3 December 2009.


Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 11 December 2017

In 2016, international funding toward mine action in the Republic of Peru remained very low, with just one contribution reported from Norway totaling some US$100,000.[1]

The government of Peru provided $1.4 million in 2015 to its mine action program.[2] In 2012–2015, Peru contributed three-quarters of its total mine action budget ($6.6 million). No information on any national contribution was available for 2016.

Since 2012, international support toward mine action activities in Tajikistan has totaled some $2.3 million, and dropped by more than 95%.

In its second extension request, Peru estimated that a budget of $39 million would be needed to support its mine action program from 2017 to 2024.[3]

Summary of contributions: 2012–2016[4]

Year

National contributions (US$)

International contributions (US$)

Total contributions (US$)

2016

N/R

101,268

101,268

2015

1,433,532

123,945

1,557,477

2014

1,609,211

79,782

1,688,993

2013

1,600,000

153,192

1,600,000

2012

2,000,000

2,025,490

4,025,490

Total

6,642,743

2,330,485

8,973,228

Note: N/R = not reported.



[1] Email from Ingrid Schoyen, Senior Adviser, Section for Humanitarian Affairs, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 31 May 2017.

[2] Peru’s Second Article 5 Revised deadline Extension Request, August 2016, p. 11. Average exchange rate for 2015: PEN3.1391=US$1, Oanda.com, Historical Exchange Rates.

[3] Peru’s Second Article 5 Revised deadline Extension Request, August 2016, p. 11.

[4] See previous Monitor reports.