Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 18 December 2019


The Kingdom of Thailand signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 27 November 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 May 1999.

Thailand has not enacted domestic legislation to implement the Mine Ban Treaty.[1]

Thailand submitted its annual Article 7 transparency report in April 2020, covering calendar year 2019.[2]

Thailand has attended all of the Mine Ban Treaty’s Review Conferences, held in 2004, 2009, 2014 and 2019. It has also attended most of the treaty’s meetings of States Parties and many of the intersessional meetings. Thailand was present at the Fourth Review Conference in Oslo, Norway in November 2019, and at the intersessional meetings held online in June–July 2020 as part of the Committee on Victim Assistance. Thailand has regularly co-chaired committees of the treaty.

In 2019, Thailand undertook two universalization activities alongside Myanmar, and undertook international cooperation and assistance activities with South Korea, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the United States (US), Norway, and Japan.[3]

Production, transfer, stockpile destruction, and retention

Thailand states that it has never produced or exported antipersonnel mines. Thailand previously imported antipersonnel mines from China, Italy, the US, and the former Yugoslavia. It completed destruction of 337,725 stockpiled antipersonnel mines on 24 April 2003.

In its Article 7 report submitted in 2020, Thailand stated that on the 6 August 2019 it destroyed all 3,133 antipersonnel mines that it had previously retained for training purposes in a public event, with witnesses from the diplomatic community and civil society.[4] Previously, in its Article 7 report submitted in 2019, Thailand stated that as of the end of 2018 it retained 3,133 antipersonnel mines for training purposes.[5]

Thailand is not known to have undertaken physical modifications of its Claymore mine stockpile to ensure use only in command-detonated mode. Officials have previously stated that all units have received orders that Claymore mines are to be used only in command-detonated mode.[6]


The use of command-detonated improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has been a feature of the insurgency in southern Thailand.[7] On 2 July 2018, Suthin Haewkhuntod, an ethnic Thai Buddhist latex tapper in Yala province’s Krong Penang district, lost his foot after he stepped on a landmine emplaced by insurgents on the rubber plantation where he worked. Two other ethnic Thai Buddhist latex tappers, Wipawan Plodkaenthong and Chutipon Namwong, were seriously wounded by landmines, in Yala’s Yaha district on 28 June and in Muang district on 2 July.[8]

There have been no allegations of new use of antipersonnel mines on the Cambodian border with Thailand since March 2013.[9]

[1] In April 2018, Thailand reported under national implementation that it had “re-established the National Committee for Mine Action under the Order of the Office of the Prime Minister with the Prime Minister as its Chairperson.” For further national implementation measures, the report directs readers to Thailand’s 2015 Article 7 report, which states, “Thailand continues to consider regulations that will streamline and improve national implementation of the AP Mine Ban Convention.” Thailand provided the same update in its Article 7 report covering calendar year 2018.

[2] Thailand has provided updated Article 7 reports every year since its initial transparency report was submitted in November 1999, except for its annual report in 2003.

[3] During the Fourth Review Conference in November 2019, representatives of the Thailand Mine Action Center (TMAC) briefed the Myanmar delegation on the overall mine action situation in Thailand as well as the positive impacts of becoming a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. This is considered part of Thailand’s universalization effort, which is in line with the Oslo Action Plan #11. Earlier in 2019, Thailand hosted a briefing and site visit for senior Myanmar representatives from the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Home Affairs to discuss organization for mine action. Thailand also received requests from South Korea to share its experiences on the establishment of a humanitarian mine action organization, resulting in the Director General of TMAC giving a briefing on mine action to South Korean and US delegates to the International Meeting of Mine Action National Directors in February 2019. For details, see Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 30 April 2020.

[5] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 30 April 2019.

[6] Interview with Lt.-Gen. Deemongkol, TMAC, Bangkok, 19 March 2009. TMAC stated this in 2007 as well as in 2008. In its Article 7 report for 1999, Thailand reported that it had 6,117 M18 and M18A1 Claymore mines in stock.

[7] Improvised landmines are explosive devices made out of locally available materials that are designed to detonate due to the proximity or activity of a human being. Such devices are banned under the Mine Ban Treaty.

[8] Teeranai Charuvastra, “Landmine Wounds Deep South Farmer,” Khaosod, 2 July 2018; and Mariyam Ahmad, “Thailand: Landmine Injures Fifth Rubber Farm Worker in a Week,” Benar News, 5 July 2018. See also, Human Rights Watch, “Insurgents Use Landmines in South,” 4 July 2018.

[9] Previously, in March 2013, three Thai soldiers were injured by what the Thai military described as newly planted mines near the Ta Kwai Temple in Phanom Dong Rak district. Cambodia investigated, and in its report to States Parties stated that it had found the mines to be old, dating from the Cambodian civil war. Other allegations made by Thailand of Cambodian use of antipersonnel mines on the Cambodian-Thai border in 2008 and 2009 were never resolved. In October 2008, two Thai soldiers stepped on antipersonnel mines while on patrol in disputed territory between Thailand and Cambodia, near the World Heritage Site of Preah Vihear. Thai authorities maintained that the area was previously clear of mines and that the mines had been newly placed by Cambodian forces. Cambodia denied the charges and stated that the Thai soldiers had entered Cambodian territory in an area known to contain antipersonnel mines and were injured by mines laid during previous armed conflicts. In April 2009, another Thai soldier was reportedly wounded by an antipersonnel mine at the same location during further armed conflict between the two countries. In September 2009, then-Commander in Chief of the Royal Thai Army, Gen. Anupong Paochinda, stated that Cambodian troops were laying fresh mines along the disputed areas and close to routes where Thai soldiers make regular patrols. See, Landmine Monitor Report 2009, pp. 243–244 and 719–720; and also ICBL, “Country Profile: Cambodia: Mine Ban Policy,” 6 August 2010.