+   *    +     +     
About Us 
The Issues 
Our Research Products 
Order Publications 
Multimedia 
Press Room 
Resources for Monitor Researchers 
Donate now
Stay informed
Cluster Munition Monitor 2010
 
Table of Contents
Country Reports

Translations
CMM Support for Mine Action

Support for Mine Action

S159.jpg
© Kennedy Mabasa, August 2010
South African campaigners ride a ‘ban bus’ around Johannesburg to celebrate the entry
into force of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

In order to meet their obligations under the Convention on Cluster Munitions, States Parties can request assistance from the international community to support stockpile destruction, clearance, risk education, and victim assistance activities. States Parties in a position to do so are obligated to provide such assistance.

In 2009, cluster munition-specific donor contributions were focused on activities promoting the universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions and on clearing cluster munition remnants in Lao PDR, Lebanon, and Vietnam, three of the most affected countries. Two donors contributed to stockpile destruction in Moldova, and numerous states spent funds destroying their own stocks of cluster munitions.

In March 2010, the government of Lao PDR, with UNDP support, established the Cluster Munitions Trust Fund for Lao PDR to support the First Meeting of States Parties and the implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Lao PDR.[1]

Contributions to other affected countries were made through general mine action funding, not through cluster munition-specific contributions. In most countries and areas, unexploded submunition clearance occurred as part of mine clearance, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), and battle area clearance (BAC).[2]

Several donors have stated that clearance of unexploded submunitions is included in their support for mine clearance in states with mine, explosive remnants of war (ERW), and cluster munition contamination.

Switzerland and Germany noted they follow a holistic approach in their mine action strategies and do not differentiate between action on mines, ERW and cluster munitions; unexploded submunitions found during clearance operations are destroyed.[3] Germany said the same holistic approach applies to victim assistance.[4]

At the Special Session on Assistance and Cooperation at the Mine Ban Treaty intersessional Standing Committee meetings in June 2010, Canada called on states to ensure that funding is “consistent, synergistic and mutually reinforcing,” to minimize overlap and maximize the impact of contributions in support of the implementation of both the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions.[5]

Norway planned to support the Convention on Cluster Munitions under its humanitarian disarmament budget, the same channel it uses to support the Mine Ban Treaty.[6]

Japan stated it intended to support the clearance of cluster munitions and victim assistance through partnerships and post-conflict peacebuilding.[7]

Contributions

In 2009, no national contributions from affected states specifically for projects to reduce the threat of unexploded submunitions were reported.

Many states funded efforts aimed at the promotion of universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, but most did not report specific amounts.

Likewise, numerous states spent funds to begin, continue, or complete destruction of their stockpiles of cluster munitions, but few reported specific amounts. Those that reported completion of destruction in 2009 and 2010 included Belgium, Colombia, Moldova, Norway, Portugal, and Spain. Those with destruction actively underway included Austria, Germany, Montenegro, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.

There were several instances where cluster munition stockpiles were destroyed as part of broader conventional weapons destruction and post-conflict stabilization programs supported by donors and implemented by NGO and commercial companies. These include Afghanistan, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Iraq, and Montenegro.[8]

Australia announced in June 2010 a contribution of US$578,671 to the Cluster Munitions Trust Fund for Lao PDR. UNDP later reported a larger contribution to the Fund from Australia (see below). Australia also stated that its A$100 million ($79,270,000) commitment to mine action from 2010–2014, announced at the Second Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in December 2009, includes funds to address the problem of cluster munitions.[9]

Canada contributed C$200,000 ($175,254) for advocacy in support of the universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.[10] Canada has contributed $90,000 to the Cluster Munitions Trust Fund for Lao PDR, according to UNDP.[11]

France announced in June 2010 a contribution of €50,000 ($61,115) to the Cluster Munitions Trust Fund for Lao PDR.[12]

Germany contributed €2,059,937 ($2,870,522) in 2009 to co-finance the Regional Conference on the Promotion and Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Bali, Indonesia and the Berlin Conference on the Destruction of Cluster Munitions, as well as clearance in Lao PDR, and clearance and victim assistance in Vietnam.[13]

Ireland announced in June 2010 a contribution of $500,000 to the Cluster Munitions Trust Fund for Lao PDR.[14] UNDP later reported a larger contribution to the Fund from Ireland (see below). Ireland assumed its funding for mine clearance would also be used to clear unexploded submunitions in Lao PDR.[15]

Norway contributed NOK56,144,544 ($8,924,737) in 2009 in support of the universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, clearance in Lao PDR and Lebanon, clearance and victim assistance in Vietnam, and support to UNDP and the CMC for activities related to the convention.[16] Norway provided €50,000 ($61,115) for the destruction of Moldova’s stockpile of cluster munitions, which was completed in July 2010.[17]

Spain contributed €61,000 ($74,560) to help Moldova complete its stockpile destruction program in July 2010.[18] Spain spent €4.9 million ($6,828,150) to destroy its own stockpile of cluster munitions, which it started in 2008 and finished in March 2009.[19]

Switzerland assumed its funding for mine clearance would also be used to clear unexploded submunitions in Lao PDR.[20]

UNDP reported that as of early September, four countries had contributed about $4.15 million to the Cluster Munitions Trust Fund for Lao PDR: Australia ($2.2 million), Ireland ($1.8 million), Canada ($90,000), and France ($60,000).[21]


[1] UN, “Working for Lao PDR,” Issue 1/2010, Vientiane, July 2010, www.unlao.org, p. 2. In addition to helping Lao PDR host the First Meeting of States Parties, the fund can also be used for clearance, risk education, and victim assistance activities, thereby helping the Lao government meet its obligations under the convention. The formal name is the UNDP Trust Fund for Support to the Full Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in the Lao PDR within the Framework of the Vientiane Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. UNDP, “First States Parties Meeting launched together with the Cluster Munitions Trust Fund,” Press release, 7 July 2010, www.undplao.org.

[2] Responses to Monitor questionnaire from 21 governments and the European Commission on contributions in 2009 in support of the Mine Ban Treaty and clearing unexploded submunitions.

[3] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ira Amin, Intern, Multilateral Peace Policy Section, Directorate of Political Affairs, Political Affairs Division IV, Human Security, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, 20 April 2010; and email from Klaus Koppetsch, Desk Officer, Mine Action Task Force for Humanitarian Aid, Federal Foreign Office, 8 April 2010.

[4] Email from Klaus Koppetsch, Federal Foreign Office, 8 April 2010.

[5] Statement of Canada, Special Session on Cooperation and Assistance, intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Geneva, 25 June 2010.

[6] Statement of Norway, “Towards the Entry into Force, and the First Meeting of States Parties,” Session VI, Regional Conference on the Promotion of Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Bali, 17 November 2009.

[7] See statement of Japan in: Indonesia Department of Foreign Affairs and Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, “Regional Conference on the Promotion of Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Bali, Indonesia, 16–17 November 2009,” pp. 31–33, 16–17 November 2009, www.bali-ccm-conference.org.

[8] For example, the United States Department of State provided $1,083,000 in 2009 to HALO Trust to help Angola destroy surplus weapons and ammunition, including cluster munitions, found in caches in 18 provinces. Email from Rory Forbes, Programme Manager, HALO, 19 June 2010; and US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety 2010,” Washington, DC, July 2010.

[9] Katie Harrison and Kerri West, “CMC Update from Santiago Conference,” 7 June 2010, www.stopclustermunitions.org. Average exchange rate for 2009: A$1=US$0.7927. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 4 January 2010.

[10] Canada Article 7 Report (for the period 19 April 2009 to 20 April 2010), Form J. Average exchange rate for 2009: C$1=US$0.87627. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 4 January 2010.

[11] Presentation by UNDP, Preparatory Meeting for the First Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 6 September 2010.

[12] Katie Harrison and Kerri West, “CMC Update from Santiago Conference,” 7 June 2010, www.stopclustermunitions.org. Average exchange rate for June 2010: €1=US$1.2223. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Monthly),” 1 July 2010

[13] Email from Klaus Koppetsch, Federal Foreign Office, 8 April 2010. Average exchange rate for 2009: €1=US$1.3935. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 4 January 2010.

[14] Katie Harrison and Kerri West, “CMC Update from Santiago Conference,” 7 June 2010, www.stopclustermunitions.org.

[15] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ruaidhri Dowling, Deputy Director, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Section, Department of Foreign Affairs, 23 February 2010.

[16] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Vilde Rosén, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 April 2010. Average exchange rate for 2009: NOK1=US$0.15896. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 4 January 2010.

[17]Email from Col. Andrei Sarban, Moldova Ministry of Defense, to the CMC, 23 June 2010. Average exchange rate for 2009: €1=US$1.3935. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 4 January 2010.

[18] Ibid. Average exchange rate for June 2010: €1=US$1.2223. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Monthly),” 1 July 2010.

[19] Ibid; and “Chacón dice que no quedarán bombas de racimo en España a partir de junio” (“Chacón says there will be no more cluster munitions in Spain starting June”), El Día, 3 December 2008, www.eldia.es. Average exchange rate for 2009: €1=US$1.3935. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 4 January 2010.

[20] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ira Amin, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, 20 April 2010.

[21] Presentation by UNDP, Preparatory Meeting for the First Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 6 September 2010. UNDP also indicated Switzerland had pledged about $3 million to the Fund.