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Table of Contents
Country Reports
MOZAMBIQUE, Landmine Monitor Report 2002

MOZAMBIQUE

Key developments since May 2001: The final conclusions of the Mozambique Landmine Impact Survey were published in September 2001. Some 791 communities affected by 1,374 suspected mined areas were identified. At the end of 2001, the National Demining Institute produced its first Five Year National Mine Action Plan (2002-2006). In September 2001, Mozambique destroyed its first 500 stockpiled antipersonnel mines. The remaining 37,318 mines must be destroyed before 1 March 2003. In 2001, 60 mine incidents were reported, resulting in 80 casualties.

MINE BAN POLICY

Mozambique signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified on 25 August 1998 and the treaty entered into force on 1 March 1999.[1] A government task force has begun the process of drafting legislation to enforce the Mine Ban Treaty; it is to be completed by the end of 2002.[2] One of the stated objectives of Mozambique’s National Mine Action Policy is to “avoid any future use of landmines in the country through the creation of the necessary supervision mechanisms.”[3]

Mozambique submitted its first annual updated Article 7 transparency report to the UN on 30 March 2001. The report covers the period from 1 March 1999 to August 2000. It submitted another report on 30 October 2001 covering the period 1 September 1999 to 31 December 2000. Mozambique submitted its annual update on 2 July 2002. It covers the period from January 2001 to December 2001.[4]

Mozambique attended the Third Meeting of States Parties in September 2001 in Managua, Nicaragua, with a delegation led by its Minister of Defense, Tobias Dai.[5] In a statement to the plenary, Minister Dai stated that their presence in Nicaragua “testifies [to] our strong and irreversible determination in putting an end to the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of these deadly weapons worldwide.”[6]

Mozambique participated in the meetings of the intersessional Standing Committees in January and May 2002, with representatives from the capital as well as from its Permanent Representative to the UN in Geneva. Mozambique cosponsored and voted in favor on UN General Assembly Resolution 56/24M, in support of the Mine Ban Treaty, on 29 November 2001.

Mozambique is not party to the 1980 Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW). It attended, as an observer, the Second Review Conference of States Parties to the CCW in December 2001 in Geneva.

PRODUCTION, TRANSFER, USE, STOCKPILING, AND DESTRUCTION

Mozambique has never produced or exported antipersonnel mines.[7] In the past, it imported antipersonnel mines from a number of sources.[8] There is no evidence of use of antipersonnel mines in this reporting period by any entity.

In its first Article 7 Report, submitted in March 2000, Mozambique reported details of its stockpile of 37,818 antipersonnel landmines.[9] In 2001, the Armed Forces of Mozambique drew up a plan for the destruction of all antipersonnel mines over a three-year period (2001-2003) at a rate of approximately one-third of the stock per year.[10] Mozambique’s treaty mandated deadline for completion of stockpile destruction is 1 March 2003. At the Third Meeting of States Parties in September 2001, Mozambique’s Defense Minister said destruction would be concluded “up to the end of the year 2003.”[11] Mozambique’s Ambassador to the UN stated in October 2001, “Our commitment is to conclude by 2003 the destruction of all stockpiled mines.”[12]

On 19 September 2001, Mozambique’s Boquisso Army Engineering College destroyed the first 500 stockpiled mines, which included: PMN-2, PMN, PMD-6, OZM-72, OZM-4, POMZ and POMZ-2 mines.[13] The symbolic destruction took place in Moamba, Maputo province, in a public ceremony.[14] Apparently no other destruction had taken place as of July 2002, indicating that Mozambique is far behind its initial destruction schedule. It still has 37,318 antipersonnel mines to destroy before 1 March 2003.

All three of Mozambique’s Article 7 reports have indicated that it has not retained any antipersonnel mines for training or development purposes.

LANDMINE PROBLEM, SURVEY, AND ASSESSMENT

Mozambique is considered one of the African countries most affected by mines. Most of the mines were planted during a two-decade-long civil war that ended in 1992. In August 2001, the National Demining Institute (IND) published the final results of the country’s first comprehensive Landmine Impact Survey. Carried out by the Canadian International Demining Corps, the survey aimed to “collect, record and analyze information on the location of known or suspected mines areas throughout the country, and to provide an overview of their social and economic impacts.” [15] The Survey Action Center (SAC) and the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) provided a Quality Assurance Monitor.[16]

The survey indicates that virtually every part of Mozambique experiences negative social and economic consequences from landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). It is estimated that approximately 1.5 million people are directly impacted by landmines and UXO. Landmines affect 123 of the 128 districts and all ten provinces. Some 791 communities affected by 1,374 “Suspected Mined Areas” (SMA) were identified. Suspected Mined Areas make up some 562 square kilometers. Landmine incidents continue to occur, with 172 new victims being recorded for the two years preceding the study.[17]

While the survey was not the first to have been conducted in Mozambique, it was an important achievement in humanitarian mine action in the country and represents a significant step in an ongoing process to collect and interpret data to assist in setting national priorities for mine action – priorities that are responsive to the socio-economic impact of mines. The survey’s significance has been described as two-fold: “Firstly, it is the first time that an impact survey has been conducted on a standardized national basis beyond emergency demining and including all ten provinces of Mozambique. Secondly, it strengthens the capacity of the National Demining Institute of Mozambique (IND) to integrate humanitarian mine action within the framework of the government’s national priorities.”[18]

Mined Areas or Areas Suspected to be Mined [19]

Province
Affected Communities
Affected Population
Number of suspected mined areas
Number
%
Number
%
< 1000 m2
> 1000 m2
Total
Cabo Delgado
84
12.1
170,566
11.4
81
85
166
Gaza
46
5.1
90,766
6.1
32
38
70
Inhambane
157
18.9
373,033
25.1
101
160
261
Manica
60
8.0
89,823
6.0
51
59
110
Maputo
100
13.4
126,592
8.5
81
103
184
Nampula
81
9.5
178,152
11.9
30
100
130
Niassa
40
4.5
60,379
4.1
25
37
62
Sofala
52
7.4
134,156
9.0
36
66
102
Tete
58
6.5
93,596
6.5
43
46
89
Zambezia
113
14.6
171,527
11.5
86
114
200
Total
791
100.0
1,488,998
100.0
572
802
1374

MINE ACTION FUNDING

Thirteen donors reported to Landmine Monitor a total of about US$15.1 million in mine action contributions to Mozambique in 2001: Australia, $0.77 million; Canada $1.07 million; Denmark $1.8 million; Finland $1.06 million; France $0.68 million; Germany $1.3 million; Ireland $0.53; Japan $0.93 million; Netherlands $1.2 million; Norway $1.67 million; Sweden $1 million; Switzerland $0.95 million; United States $2.2 million.[20]

However, it is unlikely that is a complete picture of mine action funding for Mozambique. The National Demining Institute indicates that other donors for 2001 included Austria, the European Union and the UN Mine Action Service.[21] One demining organization, HALO Trust, reports funding from the United Kingdom.

By comparison, Landmine Monitor estimated that mine action funding in 2000 totaled about $17.1 million.[22]

The United States has been the largest donor to Mozambique, providing nearly $28 million since 1993. In 2001, the U.S. funded demining operations on the Sena rail line and training for National Demining Institute staff.[23] For its fiscal year 2002, the United States allocated $2.11 million for mine action in Mozambique.[24]

MINE ACTION COORDINATION

The National Demining Institute (IND) is a semi-autonomous governmental institute, reporting directly to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. It is directed to “successfully establish and develop a coordination, supervision and management mechanism, in close cooperation with all other relevant organisations and agencies, to ensure the cost-effective execution of a national mine action plan."[25] At the end of 2001, the IND produced its first Five Year National Mine Action Plan (2002-2006).[26]

This, together with the Landmine Impact Survey, the introduction of the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database, and UN Development Program's Capacity Building Project housed at the IND, has significantly improved the overall management of mine action in the country. An Inter-Ministerial Standing Committee chaired by the Director of IND has also been created.

The National Mine Action Plan outlines the mission for Mozambique: to be Mine Impact Free within ten years. According to the plan, “Impact Free” means “the elimination of impediments to fundamental socio-economic activity and significant reduction in the risk of encountering landmines.” To reach this goal, at the end of the first five years, the accomplishments should include the following:

  • All High and Medium Impact Sites Cleared;
  • All UXO Destroyed;
  • All Existing Stockpiles Destroyed;
  • Remaining Low Impact Areas Surveyed and Marked;
  • Fully operational National Mine Risk Education/Marking Program; and
  • Long-term Survivor and Victim Assistance Programs Established.[27]
  • The IND has based the 2002-2006 Mine Action Plan and its priorities on the information and findings of the Landmine Impact Survey.[28]

On 30 August 2001, the Second National Meeting of Demining Operators deployed in Mozambique was convened in Nampula by the IND. The agenda included a briefing by IND on Mine Action in Mozambique; progress reports by demining operators; a briefing on the CIDC Survey; a reflection on the future of mine action in Mozambique; and, the need for a National Mine Action Fund.[29]

MINE ACTION

There are conflicting official numbers from Mozambique regarding the total amount of land cleared in 2001. According to figures in one table in a National Demining Institute report for the period 1997-2001, a total of 12.41 million square meters was cleared in 2001.[30] According to other, more detailed IND charts, showing clearance activities for 2001 by province, town, and operator, a total of 7.86 million square meters of land was cleared in 2001.[31]

From the information available to Landmine Monitor, as reported below, it appears that approximately 8.88 million square meters of land were cleared in Mozambique in 2001. However, more than half of this total, and the IND total of 7.86 million square meters, is accounted for by one operator, Afrovita, which reported clearance of 4,559,501 square meters in 2001.[32] This number is strikingly high and could not be confirmed.

In compiling the numbers, Landmine Monitor found that at least one operator, HALO Trust, was not included in the IND total of 7.86 million square meters. IND explained that it does not enter data until the clearance task is complete.[33] In another instance, the amount of land cleared by an operator, Norwegian People’s Aid, was listed as nearly 700,000 square meters less than that reported directly to Landmine Monitor by NPA.

There are similar discrepancies with regard to numbers of mine cleared. Mozambique’s Article 7 Report, submitted in July 2002, reports a total of 5,521 antipersonnel mines destroyed in cleared areas.[34] IND, however, has given a figure of 2,282 antipersonnel mines destroyed.[35]

There are a number of major humanitarian mine clearance organizations in Mozambique, including Accelerated Demining Program (ADP), Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), HALO Trust, and Handicap International (HI), as well as a number of other humanitarian and commercial mine clearance agencies. In addition to the government’s National Demining Institute and the Mozambican Armed Forces, there are approximately 15 private firms accredited to work in Mozambique, including 11 local and 4 international businesses.[36]

Afrovita. Afrovita conducts commercial mine clearance using manual clearance methods. It operates in Maputo, Sofala, and Zambezia provinces, with quality assurance provided by Qualitas.

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA). NPA has a staff of approximately 570 in Mozambique, six fully operational mine detection dogs and 25 additional dogs under training. The national authorities in Mozambique are involved in the NPA mine action program as partner organizations in priority setting activities, needs assessment, and the implementation of demining activities. NPA is in the process of introducing its “Task Impact Assessment” tool on both ongoing and planned clearance tasks, which is used to prioritize areas for clearance based on civilian needs and organizational capacities. NPA has made plans to include a mechanical mine clearance component to its programs, to be deployed in suspected mined areas to determine the presence and accurate location of mines. In addition to mine action, the program also conducts small scale, rural community service, focused on primary heath care, in areas where demining teams are working. Furthermore, a crosscutting issue HIV/AIDS awareness campaign is held in areas of operations.[37] In 2001, NPA cleared a total of 1,726,760 square meters of land, with a total budget of US$3.53 million. Donors were the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD), the Swedish Agency for Development Cooperation (SIDA), the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), and the Netherlands.[38]

Accelerated Demining Program (ADP) / Programa Acelerado de Desminagem (PAD). ADP conducts humanitarian mine clearance in the south of the country in Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane provinces. In 2002, the ADP is evolving from a UN-operated program to an independent, national NGO as required by the government of Mozambique. In 2001, ADP cleared of a total of 1,745,542 square meters.[39]

HALO Trust. The HALO Trust conducts manual and mechanical humanitarian mine clearance in the north of the country in Niassa, Cabo Delgado, Nampula, and Zambezia provinces, supported by four governmental donors (UK in Zambezia, Ireland in Niassa, Switzerland in Cabo Delgado and Netherlands in Nampula). The Tokyo Broadcasting System funds operations across the four provinces. HALO currently has 12 manual teams working on minefields prioritized for clearance by a process involving the operator, the local provincial and district authorities and the regional IND presence. The manual teams range in size from 10-20 persons. HALO has also established a mine-detection dog (MDD) training school in Mozambique and currently has 10 dogs undergoing training, three of which were operational in July 2002. Handlers are Mozambicans, as well as staff from other HALO programs who will, in the future, deploy back to these countries. In 2001, HALO cleared a total of 320,459 square meters, destroying 1,166 landmines and 392 items of UXO. In 2002, as of the end of June, HALO Teams had cleared a total of 289,064 square meters of ground, destroying 3,104 mines and 457 items of UXO. HALO Mozambique staffing levels in 2002 stand at 425 persons with two supervisory expatriates.[40]

Empresa Moçambicana de Desminagem, Lda. (EMD) was engaged in clearance operations in the Inhambane province. It cleared a total of 298,460 square meters in 2001.[41]

Menschen gegen Minen (MgM). In 2000, MgM started a mine clearance operation in Mozambique using manual and mechanical methods with the assistance of explosive detecting dogs. They are presently working to clear a railroad from Mabalane to Monte Alto in the Gaza province. While the IND reports that MgM cleared 51,858 square meters of land in 2001,[42] MgM itself reports 169,262 square meters cleared.[43] MgM’s 2001 budget was $804,375. Its current mine action capacity includes 70 staff (43 deminers) and four mine detection dogs.[44]

Handicap International (HI). HI conducts “proximity demining” in Inhambane province using manual clearance methods and explosive detection dogs as part of the Inhambane Mine Clearance Project. HI employs 110 persons and has two dog teams. HI cleared a total of 20,914 square meters in 2001.[45]

In 2001, Mechem cleared 55,436 square meters; Mozambique Mine Action cleared 53,920 square meters; Ronco cleared 44,925 square meters.[46] Other agencies that also are or have been engaged in mine action in Mozambique include ArmorGroup, Minetech, Desminagem de Sofala (Dessof), Special Clearance Service (SCS), Carlos Gassmann Tecnologias de Vanguarda Aplicadas Lda (CGTVA), Lince Lda and Necochaminas.[47]

The Forcas Armadas da Defesa de Mozambique (FADM). Recognizing that Mozambique needs a long term demining capacity, the United States has been providing training and equipment to the 1st Battalion of the Mozambican infantry.

Because of the competence of Mozambican mine clearance operators, a Quick Reaction Demining Force (QRDF) has been established in Mozambique with a global scope. [48] Training started in May 2001 for four mine clearance teams with ten persons in each, including medics and dog handlers, and the QRDF was launched in August 2001. The QRDF is to receive tasks from the IND and deploy within ten days to anywhere in the world that the US Department of State, in coordination with UNMAS, directs them. Since the establishment of QRDF, Mozambican demining teams have been dispatched to Sri Lanka, Sudan, and Nigeria.[49] In November 2001, the U.S. government said, “The QRDF would be deployed to demining situations as directed by the United States Government, which will also oversee the recruitment, provision of equipment, training and supervision of QRDF personnel, both within and outside the Republic of Mozambique. When QDRF units are not deployed by the United States elsewhere, they will perform demining missions within Mozambique, as requested by the GRM [Mozambique government]”[50]

Mozambican deminers from ADP are also involved in a UNDP-funded Mine Action Exchange (MAX) project as trainers. The MAX program seeks to maximize regional competence in humanitarian technical demining standards within the Portuguese-speaking countries. In May 2002, two Mozambican trainers began training deminers for a new Guinea-Bissau mine clearance NGO, LUTCAM.[51]

In June 2002, the US Department of State’s Office of Humanitarian Demining funded the “Mine Action Managers Middle Management Training” program in Mozambique. Some 35 African middle-level mine action mangers have been trained since the program started in June 2001.[52]

Other Weapon Destruction Initiatives

Between 1995 and September 2001, a number of mines, both antipersonnel and antivehicle, have been destroyed under a bilateral cooperation agreement on arms destruction between the South African Police Service and the Police of the Republic of Mozambique, called Operations Rachel. The aim of Operations Rachel is to destroy arms caches left in Mozambique following the country's civil war. Between May and September 2001, 48 antipersonnel mines were destroyed through this process.[53] In a three-week operation in May 2002, an additional 39 antipersonnel mines and four antivehicle mines were recovered and destroyed.[54]

In 1995, the Christian Council of Mozambique established a project to transform “arms into ploughshares” through the collection and exchange of weapons for developmental tools. Between October 1995 and March 2002, among the over 230,000 different pieces of weaponry collected, have been 136 antipersonnel mines and eight antivehicle mines.[55]

MINE RISK EDUCATION

Handicap International has been participating in the creation of a national capacity for mine risk education (MRE) coordination since 1995.[56] In 1999, HI formally ended its field activities and handed over the tasks of coordination to the IND. The introduction of MRE into the national curriculum of education at the national level has been virtually completed, as well as the strengthening of technical competencies of local partners such as the Mozambican Red Cross.[57] HI is finalizing tools to accompany the transfer of capacities.[58]

Because of flood emergencies (February 2000 and March 2001), HI also developed intensive campaigns aimed at the population of the central region districts, which were affected by the floods.[59] More than 80,000 people of the Limpopo and Save valleys have benefited from targeted mine risk education activities and 100 agents were trained to work with communities.[60] At the end of 2001, IND had assumed the overall responsibility for the network and program established by HI.

LANDMINE CASUALTIES

In 2001, 60 mine incidents were reported resulting in 80 new casualties, of which 60 were men and 20 were women.[61] It was not reported how many of these casualties were killed or injured. The reported casualties in 2001 represent a large increase from the 29 new casualties reported in 2000, of which eight were killed and 21 injured.[62] However, it should be noted that the casualty statistics for 2000 are believed to be understated as those working in the field know the number were much higher.[63] On 16 July 2001, a deminer and four mine detecting dogs were killed, and seven others injured, when a vehicle carrying seven NPA deminers and a driver hit an antivehicle mine in Manica province.[64] In the first six months of 2002, another two deminers were killed.[65]

Data collection for the Mozambique Landmine Impact Survey was completed in May 2001. The Survey identified 172 “recent” landmine casualties, of which 53 were killed. In total, 2,145 casualties were recorded. However, the report acknowledged that this figure is probably understated as 31 communities reported “many” casualties, but did not estimate an actual number. The activity at the time of the majority (71 percent) of recent incidents included being involved in economic activities, such as collecting food/water, farming, herding, or household work, while incidents during travel (seven percent) and tampering (one percent) were rare.[66]

SURVIVOR ASSISTANCE

The responsibility for landmine survivor assistance in Mozambique is shared between the Ministry of Health (MINSAU) and the Ministry for Women and the Coordination of Social Action (MMCAS). According to Landmine Survivors Network (LSN), facilities for evacuation, transportation, emergency and hospital treatment, and rehabilitation are inadequate to meet the needs in Mozambique. Because of a lack of transport many facilities are inaccessible to landmine survivors. The health infrastructure was severely damaged during almost thirty years of armed conflict. The floods of 2000 also damaged four hospitals, and 48 other health centers. Mozambique is dependent on international funding to support its health care infrastructure. Programs for the disabled are being developed in the eleven provinces of Mozambique.[67] The Institutional Support Program, established by Handicap International in 1997, assists landmine survivors and includes transport, medical care, rehabilitation, and cooperation between agencies in the provision of socio-economic reintegration.[68]

In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a training program for trainers in pre-hospital care for trauma victims, including landmine casualties. By the end of 2001, twenty trainers, including twelve doctors and eight medical technicians, had participated in the program at a national level and will now initiate pre-hospital trauma care training programs throughout Mozambique.[69]

Mozambique has a national rehabilitation policy for persons with disabilities. There are eleven orthopedic workshops, run in cooperation by the Ministry of Health and international and local NGOs. In addition, there are rehabilitation centers and physiotherapy centers, some of which are managed by the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Section of the Ministry of Health.

In 2001, Handicap International supported six orthopedic center in the cities of Vilanculos, Inhambane, Lichinga, Tete, Pemba, and Nampula, which are now fully integrated into the Ministry of Health. The HI program also provided training to local staff. HI works with the MMCAS and the Forum of Mozambican Associations of Disabled Persons to improve the access of disabled persons to Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation services, and to promote the rights of disabled persons.[70]

POWER, a UK-based NGO, supported the Ministry of Health prosthetic and orthotic services until the end of May 2002. The program focused on the quality of production and logistics. In 2001, 608 patients were assisted, 575 prostheses produced and 248 fitted, and 125 wheelchairs and 1,663 crutches distributed. The program assisted all persons with disabilities, and was funded by USAID and UNICEF.[71] In 2002, POWER changed its emphasis from prosthetics and orthotics to assisting the disabled in Mozambique to participate fully in civil society by empowering disability organizations to build capacity and services for their members, working closely with the Association of Disabled Mozambicans (ADEMO).[72]

The Jaipur Limb Campaign, in partnership with the Mozambique Red Cross Society, opened the Jaipur Orthopedic Center in February 2000 in Gaza province, Manjacaze district. It is the first rehabilitation center to be wholly run by a Mozambican NGO, the Mozambique Red Cross Society (MRCS), and is located in a rural district to facilitate and improve rural people’s access to services. The center provides mobility appliances, vocational training, disability awareness and social support programs. From January 2001 to March 2002, the center assisted 343 people, of which about 80 percent were landmine survivors. Funding for the center in 2001/2002 was provided by the UK-based Comic Relief, the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund, Khalatbari Foundation, and private donors.[73]

The Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) has been active in Mozambique since 1999. The LSN program engages community-based outreach workers, who are also amputees, to work with individual survivors to assess their needs, offering psychological and social support, and educating families about the effects of limb loss. LSN assists survivors in accessing services that provide mobility devices, health services, or vocational training. If no such services exist, LSN intervenes to ensure the needs of survivors are met, which in some cases can include direct assistance including covering the cost of prostheses, house repairs or emergency food aid. The recipient is required to provide a community service in return for the aid. In 2001, LSN assisted 114 landmine survivors. LSN works alongside local associations, including ADEMO and the Association of Military Disabled (ADEMIMO), to increase awareness about disability rights.[74] LSN headquarters are in Quelimane and it is currently working in the areas of Quelimane, Ile, Maganja da Costa, and Nicoadala.

The World Rehabilitation Fund (WRF), in partnership with UNDP, is developing a number of projects including: a rural economic development project for a community with a high percentage of landmine survivors; supporting POWER and ADEMO with two vocational training programs in metal work and baking; providing technical consultation to IND in the development of policies for survivor assistance; and providing technical assistance to Beira Hospital to improve services to landmine survivors.[75]

Mozambique reports that “the mine victim’s support system faces great difficulties due to problems of getting financial resources to implement projects ...also difficulties... for establishing specific professional training for disabled people.... The orthopaedic centres existing in the country are not enough to assist the growing needs of the disabled people.”[76]

DISABILITY POLICY AND PRACTICE

Legislation to support the rights of the disabled remains unchanged.[77] In 1999, the Cabinet approved the first national policy on persons with disabilities that included principles and strategies to encourage the active participation of disabled people in the country's socio-economic development. However, the plan had not been fully implemented due to funding constraints.[78]

Following a Mine Victim Assistance Workshop, sponsored by WRF, on 11 November 2001, the IND has developed a draft policy for Survivor and Victim Assistance that attempts to define the role and responsibilities of IND concerning mine survivor assistance.[79] The policy includes plans to “develop appropriate strategies and methodologies for providing long-term assistance” for landmine survivors.[80]

<MONACO | NAMIBIA>

[1] A resolution approved by the Council of Ministers formally recognized the Mine Ban Treaty on 10 June 1999: Decree 37/99, as published in Boletim da Republica, No. 29, 10 June 1999.
[2] Information provided to Landmine Monitor by the National Demining Institute, 6 July 2002.
[3] Article 7 Report, submitted 30 March 2000, for the period 1 March 1999 to 31 August 1999.
[4] All reports were submitted late. Annual updated reports are due on 30 April each year.
[5] The Mozambican delegation included Mr. Artur Verissimo, Director, National Demining Institute, Mr. Fernando Chomar, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation as well as a Senior Advisor to the National Demining Institute.
[6] Statement by Mr. Tobias Dai, Mozambican Minister of Defense, to the Third Meeting of State Parties, Managua, Nicaragua, September 2001.
[7] Mozambique reports, therefore, that there are no production facilities to be converted or de-commissioned. Article 7 Report, Form E, 30 March 2000.
[8] For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 45.
[9] Article 7 Report, Form B, 30 March 2000; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 109.
[10] Article 7 Report, Form F, 30 October 2001. For a detailed plan for the destruction of stockpiled mines see, National Demining Institute/Ministry of Defense “Grafico de Stocks de minas a ser destruidas no periodo 2001-2003.”
[11] Statement by Mr. Tobias Dai, Mozambican Minister of Defense, to the Third Meeting of State Parties, Managua, Nicaragua, September 2001, p. 4.
[12] Statement by Carlos dos Santos, Ambassador to the United Nations, General Debate of the First Committee, UN General Assembly, New York, 15 October 2001.
[13] Article 7 Report, Form G, 2 July 2002.
[14] Government representatives, foreign dignitaries and other accredited diplomats witnessed the destruction. These included: Maputo governor, Hon. E. Alfredo Namitete; UNDP representative, Emmanuel de Casterle; Ambassador Pedro Comissario, Director at the Mozambican Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Co-operation, and Mr. Felisberto Nuvunga, National Demining Institute's Deputy Director.
[15] Canadian International Demining Corps and Paul F. Wilkinson & Associates Inc, “Landmine Impact Survey,” August 2001; Landmine Monitor 2001, pp. 109-112.
[16] Preliminary results of the Landmine Impact Survey were available in June 2001 and reported on in Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 110-112.
[17] Canadian International Demining Corps and Paul F. Wilkinson & Associates Inc, “Landmine Impact Survey,” August 2001; email from CIDC to Landmine Monitor Coordinator, 22 July 2002.
[18] Neuma Grobbelaar, “Impact Survey in Mozambique: an Essential Development Tool,” Demining Debate, Issue VIII, October 2001.
[19] Article 7 Report, Form C, 2 July 2002.
[20] See individual Landmine Monitor country reports. See also UN Mine Action Investments database at: http://webapps.dfait-maeci.gc.ca.
[21] Email from National Demining Institute, 6 July 2002.
[22] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 112-113.
[23] US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety: The United States Commitment to Humanitarian Demining,” November 2001, p. 9.
[24] US Department of State, Fact Sheet, “The US Humanitarian Demining Program and NADR Funding,” 5 April 2002.
[25] National Demining Institute, “Strategy for the Development of an Integrated Mine Action Coordination Capacity in Mozambique," p. 2.
[26] National Demining Institute, “The Five Year National Mine Action Plan 2002-2006,”19 November 2001.
[27] Ibid., p. 7.
[28] Ibid., p. 6.
[29] Report of the Second National Meeting with Demining Operators, 30-31 August 2001, at www.ind.gov.mz/en/nampula.htm.
[30] National Demining Institute, “Demining Activities in Mozambique from 1997 to 2001,” Maputo, 30 January 2002, Table II, p. 6.
[31] Information provided to Landmine Monitor by the National Demining Institute, from the IMSMA database, received by email on 9 July 2002. Landmine Monitor is not reproducing this detailed information in this report due to space limitations, but it is available upon request. See also the IND website at www.ind.gov.mz.
[32] In response to Landmine Monitor inquiries, IND said it had adjusted Afrovita’s figure to 3,359,401 square meters, but also indicated that it did not have confidence in the numbers provided by Afrovita. Email and telephone communications with IND, 15-16 July 2002.
[33] Telephone communication with IND, 16 July 2002.
[34] Article 7 Report, Form G, 2 July 2002.
[35] Information provided to Landmine Monitor by the National Demining Institute, from the IMSMA database, received by email on 9 July 2002.
[36] Artur Verissimo, Speech delivered to the intersessional Standing Committee meeting, Geneva, 29 May 2002.
[37] Norwegian People's Aid Humanitarian Mine Action Portfolio 2002.
[38] Answers to Mine Action Questionnaire, provided by Steinar Essen, NPA Technical Advisor, Southern Africa, Oslo, 22 May 2002; email from Janecke Wille, NPA, Oslo, 15 July 2002. IND reported the area cleared by NPA as 1,054,654 square meters. Information provided to Landmine Monitor by the National Demining Institute, from the IMSMA database, received by email on 9 July 2002.
[39] Information provided to Landmine Monitor by the National Demining Institute, from the IMSMA database, received by email on 9 July 2002.
[40] E-mail from Andrew Fimister, Country Manager, The HALO Trust - Mozambique, 9 July 2002.
[41] Information provided to Landmine Monitor by the National Demining Institute, from the IMSMA database, received by email on 9 July 2002.
[42] Ibid.
[43] Email from Hans Georg Kruessen, Chairman, MgM, Maputo, 15 July 2002.
[44] Ibid.
[45] Information provided to Landmine Monitor by the National Demining Institute, from the IMSMA database, received by email on 9 July 2002.
[46] Ibid.
[47] For more details on these organizations see, Landmine Monitor 2001, pp. 115-117.
[48] Charles Cobb Jr., “Mozambique Leads the World - in Clearing Land Mines,” allAfrica.com, 27 May 2002, at: http://allafrica.com/stories/200205270904.html.
[49] Ibid.
[50] US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety: The United States Commitment to Humanitarian Demining,” November 2001, p. A-47.
[51] “Support to the Guinea-Bissau National Humanitarian Mine Action Program,” UNDP, November 2001.
[52] US Department of State, Media Note, “Lusophone African Humanitarian Deminers Management Training Course,” 11 June 2002.
[53] E. Hennop, “Operation Rachel, 1995-2001,” Institute for Security Studies (ISS) Paper 54, November 2001.
[54] Statistics of Operation Rachel VIII (1), Special Task Force, South African Police Service, 11 June 2002.
[55] Christian Council of Mozambique (Justice, Peace and Reconciliation Section), “Project Weapons Collection Report, October 1995-March 2002.”
[56] Email from Erik Lamontagne, Handicap International, 23 July 2001; see also, Handicap International, “Tools for MRE in Mozambique and in the East of Ethiopia, Capitalisation,” 2002.
[57] E-mail from Karine Gavand, Handicap International, Paris, 8 July 2002.
[58] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 117-118, for details.
[59] E-mail from Karine Gavand, Handicap International, Paris, 8 July 2002.
[60] Article 7 Report, Form I, 2 July 2002.
[61] Ibid.
[62] IMSMA database, Victim Statistics, National Demining Institute, 31 January 2001.
[63] World Rehabilitation Fund, “Mine Victim Assistance Support Visit: Mozambique Country Visit,” November 2001, p. 4.
[64] Norwegian People’s Aid Press Release, “Serious AT mine accident in Mozambique,” 26 July 2001.
[65] IMSMA database, Victim Statistics, National Demining Institute, 8 July 2002.
[66] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 118-119; see also Mozambique Landmine Impact Survey, accessed at http://www.sac-na.org/surveys_mozambique_executive_summary.html (17 July 2002).
[67] For more details see Landmine Survivors Rehabilitation Database, accessed at www.lsndatabase.org.
[68] Article 7 Report, Form J, 2 July 2002.
[69] Portfolio of Landmine Victim Assistance Programs, accessed at www.landminevap.org.
[70] Handicap International Review of Activities 2001, pp. 18-19.
[71] Sarah Hodge, Chief Executive, POWER, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance
Questionnaire, 17 July 2002.
[72] Ibid., 12 July 2002.
[73] Isabel Silva, Projects Officer, Jaipur Limb Campaign, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor
Assistance Questionnaire, 11 July 2002.
[74] Nando, Executive Assistant, Landmine Survivors Network Mozambique, response to Landmine
Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire, 12 March 2002.
[75] Mozambique, Our World, Volume 3, Issue 1, Fall 2001, p. 5; see also Portfolio of Landmine Victim Assistance Programs, accessed at www.landminevap.org.
[76] Article 7 Report, Form J, 2 July 2002.
[77] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 120; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 80.
[78] US Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2001: Mozambique, March 2002.
[79] World Rehabilitaiton Fund, “Mine Victim Assistance Support Visit: Executive Summary – Mozambique Country Visit,” World Rehabilitation Fund and UNDP, November 2001.
[80] National Demining Institute, “The Five-Year National Mine Action Plan: 2002-2006,” 19 November 2001, p. 21.