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Table of Contents
Country Reports
Afghanistan, Landmine Monitor Report 2003

Afghanistan

Key developments since May 2002: Afghanistan acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 11 September 2002. Since the war and dramatic political and military changes in late 2001 and early 2002, mine action activities have expanded greatly. Mine action funding for Afghanistan for 2002 totaled approximately US$64 million, more than four times the 2001 total. Mine action agencies surveyed approximately 25.4 square kilometers of mined land and 92.6 square kilometers of former battlefield area in 2002. They cleared 22.5 square kilometers of mined land and 88.6 square kilometers of battlefield areas, destroying 36,761 antipersonnel mines, 2,769 antivehicle mines, and 873,234 items of UXO. The UN temporarily halted demining operations in eastern and southern provinces due to a series of attacks on demining staff and other humanitarian aid workers that began in April 2003. In 2002, more than 3.4 million civilians, including returning refugees and displaced persons, received mine risk education. The ICRC recorded 1,286 new landmine/UXO casualties in 2002, although it is believed that many casualties are not reported.

Mine Ban Policy

On behalf of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan, Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdullah signed the instrument of accession to the Mine Ban Treaty on 29 July 2002, the day after the Afghan Cabinet approved accession. Afghanistan formally deposited the instrument of accession at the UN on 11 September 2002, and the treaty entered into force on 1 March 2003. Afghanistan voted in favor of the annual UN General Assembly resolution in support of universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty on 22 November 2002. Delegations from Afghanistan attended the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2002 and intersessional Standing Committee meetings in February and May 2003. The deadline for submission of Afghanistan’s first Article 7 transparency report is 28 August 2003.

The Afghan Campaign to Ban Landmines (ACBL) worked intensively with high-ranking Afghan authorities to pave the way to the Mine Ban Treaty accession. The ACBL, together with the government, UN, and ICBL, organized an international anti-landmines conference in Kabul from 28-31 July 2002. Participants included President Hamid Karzai, Cabinet members, 1997 Nobel Peace Laureate Jody Williams, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General Lakhdar Brahimi, representatives of national and international NGOs, and domestic and foreign journalists. During 2002 and 2003, the ACBL distributed pamphlets, brochures and newsletters regarding the risks posed by landmines and the psychological and socioeconomic consequences of their use. The ACBL organized Afghan Mine Action Awareness Month from 15 April to 15 May 2003, which included a focus on the need for stockpile destruction.

Production, Transfer, and Use

Afghanistan has never been a landmine producer, however, some individuals and groups have been known to assemble improvised mine-like devices. There have been no allegations of transfer of landmines between Afghanistan, or actors within Afghanistan, and other parties in the reporting period.

There have been several incidents in 2002 and 2003 in which resistance elements were suspected of having used or attempted to use landmines. In April 2003, a suspected Taliban fighter was killed when the antivehicle mine he was laying on a road used by US and Afghan forces, near Spinboldak in southeastern Afghanistan, exploded.[1] Also, a “suspected terrorist” died while attempting to plant a mine near a government building in Spinboldak in mid-May 2003.[2] On 10 November 2002, “[t]hree US hummer jeeps were blasted by radio-controlled land mines in the Paktia Province,” according to an Afghan Defense Ministry source quoted by Interfax.[3] In January 2003, a US paratrooper was injured after stepping on a mine in an area that, upon analysis, was determined to have been mined within the previous two weeks.[4] Afghan commanders accused Taliban and al-Qaida elements, or loyalists of a renegade warlord, of being responsible for a number of incidents: three antivehicle mines found in February 2003 on a highway linking Jalalabad with Pakistan;[5] a mine explosion that wounded three Afghan soldiers southwest of Kandahar in March;[6] a mine blast that killed two Afghan soldiers near Jalalabad in late April;[7] and a mine explosion that wounded two militia men near Spinboldak in mid-May 2003.[8] Also, suspects were arrested in connection with a powerful landmine explosion that occurred in mid-March 2003 near the Tora Bora region after a BBC convoy had passed.[9]

Stockpile and Destruction

The size and composition of the Afghan government’s stockpile of antipersonnel mines is not yet known. After the government acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty, some provincial authorities expressed their readiness to hand over stockpiled mines and explosive ordnance for destruction. In response, Afghan Technical Consultants (ATC) assigned an explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) team to collect and destroy the munitions. In this operation some 400 antipersonnel mines, 500 mortars, 1,000 projectiles, and 200 fuses were destroyed.[10]

The ACBL has reported that the Deputy Minister of Defense and other officials have provided assurances that the government will proceed with stockpile destruction in a timely fashion.[11] According to Ministry of Defense authorities, the Ministry plans to conduct a country-wide assessment to prepare an inventory list indicating the number and locations of landmine caches, and the number and types of landmines in each cache, before laying out a comprehensive plan for stockpile destruction.[12]

The Chief of the Defense Ministry’s Engineering Corps has said that in Kabul alone there are 49 ammunition depots and there may be similar numbers in each of the five other regions of the country.[13] All of these sites require assessment of ammunition and mine stocks, many of which are likely to be unstable due to improper storage, degradation, or as a result of damage by coalition bombing.

The Ministry of Defense is seeking technical and financial aid in getting the complex stockpile assessment and destruction activities underway, with the first phase of implementation expected to be undertaken in Kabul.

Ceremonial destructions of antipersonnel landmines were conducted in Kabul, Mazar, Herat, and Kandahar on 12 May 2003, as a way of emphasizing Afghanistan’s commitment to the Mine Ban Treaty and, in particular, to stockpile destruction. At the May 2002 Standing Committee meetings, Afghanistan’s representative announced that the entire stockpile would be destroyed, and no mines retained for training or development purposes under Article 3 of the Mine Ban Treaty.[14]

In June 2003, the Demining Agency for Afghanistan, with technical advisors from RONCO Consulting Corporation and Handicap International Belgium (HIB), destroyed 1,250 antipersonnel mines, 6,111 antivehicle mines, and 73 related mine explosive items at an unsecured ammunition storage location in Kandahar province. Financial and technical support for this project was provided by the US Department of State.[15]

An unknown number of landmines remain in the possession of warlords and militias in various regions of Afghanistan. At the time of announcing his government’s intent to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty, Foreign Minister Abdullah urged all armed factions to join the government in the destruction of stockpiled landmines.[16]

Landmine Problem

Afghanistan remains one of the most heavily mined countries in the world. This is the result of more than two decades of mine use by many armies and factions. Landmines were used during the Soviet occupation (1979-1989); during the period of the pro-Soviet ruling government (1989-1992); during fighting between various factions (1992-1995); during the Taliban era, in fighting with resistance forces (1996-September 2001); and finally, during military operations by and against the international coalition (since October 2001).

Landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) are scattered throughout Afghanistan in urban and commercial areas, towns and villages, as well as in farmlands, grazing lands, and along transport roads. Mine and UXO contamination affects almost all regions—over 1,500 villages in 27 of the 29 provinces were mine-impacted during 2002, according to the UN—with heavier concentration and greater impact in the western, eastern, and southern regions.[17]

According to the monthly report of the Management Information System (MIS) of the UN Mine Action Program for Afghanistan (MAPA), by the end of 2002 the total mined area remaining was over 780 square kilometers, spread throughout the country. Of this, over 404 square kilometers were assessed as vitally important areas and classified as high priority for clearance, such as residential areas, commercial land, transport roads, and irrigation systems of highly fertile agricultural land. It was determined that approximately 521 square kilometers of battlefield areas were contaminated with UXO.

In the military operations of coalition forces since October 2001, thousands of high explosive bombs, cluster munitions and missiles have been used, with a likely failure rate of five to ten percent or more. This new unexploded ordnance has made the environment more dangerous for inhabitants, hindered the return of refugees, and contributed to food insecurity and other difficulties.

In June 2003, the northeastern province of Baghlan experienced flooding that scattered previously buried mines into areas frequented by civilians. Deminers carried on work in spite of the difficulties.[18]

The following table summarizes mine contamination and clearance data:

Mined Area Situation in Afghanistan as of 31 December 2002[19]
(Area in thousands of square meters)


Agricultural land
Residential areas
Irrigation system
Road
Grazing land
Total area
Total mined area cleared (all high priority)
104,705
36,874
8,484
33,791
79,402
263,259
High priority area remaining to be cleared
180,995
24,992
3,364
38,764
156,218
404,336
Low priority area remaining to be cleared
24,929
127
582
7,134
343,344
376,116
Total Area Remaining to be cleared (High + Low priority)
205,924
25,119
3,946
45,898
499,562
780,452

Survey and Assessment

Survey and assessment of mine/UXO-infested areas is an integral component of the Mine Action Program in Afghanistan. Landmine surveys are an ongoing process, designed to identify and classify contaminated areas as high or low priority. In 2002, mine action agencies surveyed approximately 25.4 square kilometers of mined land and 92.6 square kilometers of former battlefield areas.

A new national Landmine Impact Survey began in June 2003, measuring the impact of landmines and UXO in all provinces and districts of Afghanistan. The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA), with oversight and monitoring by the Survey Action Center (SAC), is implementing the survey. The European Commission is providing funding. The survey should be completed in fourteen months.[20]

Minefields and battle areas surveyed and marked during 2002[21]
(in square meters)

Agency
Total mined area surveyed and marked
Battle area marked
Total mine/UXO- infested areas surveyed and marked
ATC
40,914
933,742
974,656
DAFA
160
9,600
9,760
DDG
52,382
30,008
82,390
HALO Trust
5,392,385
55,644,004
61,036,389
MCPA
19,697,542
35,919,158
55,616,700
MCPAS*
177,591
0
177,591
MDC
74,334
41,205
115,539
Total
25,435,308
92,577,717
118,013,025

* This survey activity has been supported by MDS.

The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) has been conducting survey operations throughout Afghanistan since 1990. Headquartered in Kabul, its other offices operate in Kandahar, Jalalabad, Gardez, Herat, and Mazar-I-Sharif. The Mazar office was opened in August 2002 to conduct surveys in the northern region of Afghanistan. MCPA employed 373 people during 2002, an increase of seventeen percent compared to 2001.[22] MCPA primarily conducts surveys of minefields and battlefields, as well as general and technical surveys. During 2002, MCPA executed a Post-Conflict Contamination Assessment, through which new mine/UXO-contaminated areas were identified. During 2002, MCPA surveyed, marked, and mapped approximately 19.7 square kilometers of mined land and 35.9 square kilometers of former battlefield areas contaminated by UXO.[23] The mined areas surveyed by MCPA will be assigned by MAPA to mine clearance NGOs on the basis of clearance priority.

HALO Trust conducts surveys for its own use, to support its mine/UXO clearance activities, in the central region (Kabul, Wardak, Parwan, Kapisa) and in the northern region (Badakhshan, Balkh, Takhar, Konduz, Baghlan, Samangan). In 2002, HALO surveyed over 5.2 square kilometers of minefields and 55.6 square kilometers of battle areas.[24]

Mine Action Coordination and Planning

The UN humanitarian demining program in Afghanistan has, since its inception in 1989, been guided by the idea of assisting Afghans themselves to clear Afghanistan of mines and UXO. The activities of MAPA are divided into several main parts: contamination surveys; clearance; mine risk awareness and education; monitoring and training of mine action practitioners; and technical support, planning, and coordination among agencies.

From 1989 to June 2002, MAPA was under the administration of the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance for Afghanistan (UNOCHA). Since then, the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) has taken over this responsibility.[25]

MAPA expanded its staff to over 5,000 Afghans and around 30 foreign experts in 2002, with a total of 7,200 Afghans expected to be employed in 2003, constituting one of the largest national mine action efforts in the world.[26] MAPA is comprised of the UN Mine Action Center for Afghanistan (UN MACA) and fifteen NGO implementing partners.

UN MACA plans to hand over its functions to an Afghan government counterpart within two to three years, as per a transition plan to be developed with the government. UN MACA has focused capacity-building efforts and training on various focal points within the Afghan government.

MAPA developed a strategic plan, released in early 2003, for mine action in Afghanistan over the next ten years. MAPA proposed that, provided adequate funding, all mines in high-priority areas can be removed in five years (2003-2007) under an accelerated demining program, and all mines in low-priority areas can be cleared over the subsequent five years.[27]

Mine Action Funding

Mine action funding for Afghanistan for 2002 totaled approximately US$64.3 million. Of this, about $51.4 million was provided through UN MACA and about $12.9 million was provided through bilateral donations and in-kind contributions. Mine action funding for 2002 was more than four times the 2001 total of $14.1 million. Mine action funding from 1991 through 2002 amounted to some $254 million.

The details of donor funding for 2002 and for the years 1991-2001 are given in the following two tables:

Donor Funding for the Mine Action Program in Afghanistan in 2002[28]

Donor
Through UN
In-Kind or Bilateral
TOTAL
Australia
1,663,550
0
1,663,550
Belgium
222,634
0
222,634
Canada
5,020,824
0
5,020,824
Denmark
325,090
1,440,000
1,765,090
European Commission
10,779,072
600,000
11,379,072
Finland
883,935
0
883,935
Germany
3,347,347
3,000,000
6,347,347
Italy
1,380,000
0
1,380,000
Japan
21,128,699
81,900
21,210,599
Luxembourg
0
300,000
300,000
Netherlands
1,000,000
0
1,000,000
Norway
495,517
500,000
995,517
United Kingdom
4,241,100
0
4,241,100
United States
700,000(UNICEF)
7,000,000
7,000,000
United Nations Association-USA
920,000
0
920,000
Total
51,407,768
12,921,900
64,329,668

Funding for the Mine Action Program in Afghanistan from 1991 to 2001[29]

Country/Agency
1991-1995
1996-2000
2001
Beginning Balance
-
11,458,205
842,073
Australia
1,377,947
1,675,920
-
Austria
655, 707
637,689
200,000
Belgium
-
273,224
-
Canada
1,634,973
10,553,217
253,164
EC
2, 785,321
18,346,334
3,551,400
Cyprus
10, 000
-
-
Denmark
1,502, 823
3,232,859
631,756
Finland
1,638, 304
2,235,342
446,122
France
-
169,779
-
Germany
374, 232
10,961,041
-
Greece
16,365
-
-
Italy
-
100,000
-
Japan
11,000,000
2,600,268
-
Korea
75,000
-
-
Netherlands
2,497,674
9,581,730
1,000,000
Norway
4,904,965
6,885,437
555,000
Sweden
7,028,818
11,553,166
1,276,762
Switzerland
1,054,048
479,963
-
UK
6,409,268
9,413,406
-
USA
8,519,517
9,302,949
1,700,000
Adopt-a-Minefield
-
141,263
172,500
Direct in Kind Contribution
17,448,672
6,930,486
3,426,743
Total
60,589,300
116,532,278
14,055,520

Mine Clearance

From 1989 through 2002, a total of about 263 square kilometers of mined land has been cleared, in addition to about 422 square kilometers of battlefield areas. All areas cleared were classified as high priority. Over 268,000 antipersonnel mines, nearly 13,000 antivehicle mines, and over 2,488,000 items of UXO were detected and destroyed. As of December 2002, the remaining contaminated area totalled approximately 780 square kilometers, including 404 square kilometers of high priority areas.[30]

In 2002, a total of 22.5 million square meters of mine-affected land and 88.6 million square meters of battlefield areas were cleared. A total of 36,761 antipersonnel landmines were destroyed, along with 2,769 antivehicle mines and 873,234 items of UXO.[31]

There are eight key organizations involved in mine clearance operations in Afghanistan. The following table shows mine/UXO clearance activities by agency, by type and area of land cleared, and by categories of devices detected and destroyed in 2002.

Mine/UXO Clearance Activities by Agency During 2002[32] (areas in square meters)

Agency
AV mines
AP mines
UXO
Agri-Land
Residential
Irrigation
Road
Grazing
Total Cleared Area
Battlefield
AREA
0
27
82
49,129
0
0
0
254,517
303,646
0
ATC
176
5,300
417,186
143,252
578,092
46,450
1,698
823,105
1,592,597
13,078,623
DAFA
6
374
107,800
10,801
35,118
0
0
323,908
369,827
17,465,230
DDG
17
81
51,590
30,482
734,503
0
0
37,636
802,621
2,963,748
HALO[33]
2,122
29,345
274,749
2,415,248
961,854
24,605
221,015
93,166
3,751,888
54,495,734
MCPA
0
1
60
17,259
45,092
0
155
0
62,506
0
MDC
417
387
3,212
2,533,232
2,292,563
72,457
3,600,865
1,359,812
9,858,929
231,896
OMAR
23
1,246
15,111
950,576
2,711,180
41,054
0
2,096,129
5,798,939
370,422
WFP
8
0
3,444
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
2,769
36,761
873,234
6,149,979
7,358,402
184,566
3,823,733
4,988,273
22,540,953
88,605,653

After a series of attacks on demining staff in Afghanistan, the UN Mine Action Center halted demining activities along parts of the road between Kabul and Kandahar on 8 May 2003 and, after another attack in mid-May, it announced that deminers in six southern provinces would travel with armed escorts provided by local authorities to ensure their safety.[34] On 22 May, the UN suspended all demining activity in ten provinces of southern and southwestern Afghanistan, as well as along a road from Kabul to Jalalabad, and redeployed deminers and equipment to work in other regions. A failed rocket attack on a deminer camp took place on 5 June. By late July 2003, the attacks had injured nine deminers, including one seriously. The UN conducted a review of the security situation in July 2003 and operations have been resumed in all provinces, with added security measures in place.[35]

Afghan Technical Consultants (ATC) is an Afghan NGO that began demining activity in 1990.[36] In addition to clearance, ATC also offers mine risk education to civilians in mine-affected areas. From January 1990 to January 2003, ATC cleared 77.8 square kilometers of mined land and 187 square kilometers of battle areas. This constitutes about 30 percent of the mined land and 39 percent of the battle areas cleared by all operators in Afghanistan. During this period, ATC removed and destroyed 137,580 antipersonnel mines, 2,929 antivehicle mines, and 1,267,000 items of UXO.

In 2002, ATC cleared over 1,455,000 square meters of mined land and 13,467,000 square meters of battle areas, destroying 5,537 antipersonnel mines, 315 antivehicle mines, and approximately 555,000 items of UXO.

ATC deminers have experienced the most mine accidents among the demining NGOs in Afghanistan. Between 1990 and 2002, 254 ATC deminers were killed or injured in demining accidents. Of the total casualties, 30 were killed, 75 required an amputation, 40 lost their sight, and 109 suffered minor injuries. In 2002, five mine and three UXO casualties were reported during mine clearance operations. One deminer was killed.

At the end of December 2002, ATC had 1,491 employees; 890 were field staff (62 for mechanical teams and 828 for manual teams). ATC’s expenses in 2002 were about $6.8 million, of which about $3.1 million was received through UN MACA.

Agency for Rehabilitation & Energy Conservation (AREA), an Afghan NGO established in 1993, works in community development, rehabilitation, and alternative technology development. Additionally, AREA has undertaken community mine clearance activities since 1997. Its field staff, selected from communities affected by mines and UXO, uses manual clearance methods. In 2002, AREA deployed 120 demining personnel in four clearance teams and cleared 303,646 square meters of land, destroying 27 antipersonnel mines and 82 items of UXO. In 2003, AREA is deploying 150 demining personnel in five teams.[37]

Danish Demining Group (DDG) is an international NGO working in various regions of Afghanistan. In 2003, DDG is operational in the eastern and center of the country, with an operations center in Kabul, a site office in Nangarhar, and a liaison office in Islamabad, Pakistan. From late 1998 to March 2003, DDG cleared some 394,748 square meters of mined area and 2,805,779 square meters of former battlefields, destroying 3,561 antipersonnel mines, 73 antivehicle mines, and over 130,387 UXO.[38] In 2002, DDG cleared 32,092,549 square meters of land (including mine clearance, battle area clearance and EOD), destroying 218 antipersonnel mines, 36 antivehicle mines, and nearly 97,000 items of UXO.[39] The 2002 budget of DDG’s Afghanistan program was $3.9 million, with funds provided by the EC, Denmark and Sweden. DDG employed 223 persons in 2002, including 209 field staff working in four mine clearance teams and twelve EOD teams. In 2002, two DDG staff were injured in an accident at Bagram airbase and a third injured in a separate incident.

Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA) started a mine action program in 1990. Its manual and mechanical demining teams conduct clearance of battlefields and mined areas mainly in southern and western regions of the country. In 2002, DAFA cleared nearly 370,000 square meters of mined land[40] and some 17,598,000 square meters of battlefield area, destroying 370 antipersonnel mines, six antivehicle mines and 107,804 items of UXO. From 1990 to December 2002, DAFA destroyed 21,176 antipersonnel mines, 569 antivehicle mines and 295,680 items of UXO. In 2002, DAFA concentrated its activity on clearance of areas contaminated during post-September 2001 coalition attacks on Al-Qaida and Taliban positions. In 2002, DAFA employed 543 people, including 467 field staff. From 1990 to 2002, five deminers were killed and another 140 injured during mine clearance operations; five DAFA deminers were injured in 2002.[41]

The HALO Trust started its demining activities in Afghanistan in 1988.[42] It conducts manual and mechanical clearance, battle area clearance, general and technical surveys of minefields and battle areas, and mine risk education in nine provinces in central and northern regions. In 2002, HALO employed some 2,000 personnel, including 1,750 field staff, making it the largest mine clearance program in Afghanistan. Rapid expansion allowed HALO to provide mine clearance urgently required as hundreds of thousands of refugees returned to the abandoned Taliban/Northern Alliance frontlines. HALO teams began re-surveying three days after the Taliban left Kabul. In 2002, HALO cleared 3,715,888 square meters of land (3.2 million square meters manually). Since 1990, HALO has cleared 21,290,971 square meters of minefields and 283,425,982 square meters of battle areas. In 2002, HALO’s expenditure was approximately $6 million. Funding was received from the United States, United Kingdom, the European Commission, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, New Zealand, and the NGOs Association for Aid and Relief – Japan and Roots of Peace.[43]

Mine Detection and Dog Center (MDC) has been working in Afghanistan since 1989. Its activities include mine detection dog training, dog handler training, and mine clearance. MDC employed 885 people in 2002. It deployed 21 mine dog groups and provided 31 mine dog sets to MCPA to support its survey operations. As of December 2002, the MDC had a total of 211 dogs, 130 of which were in training.[44] In 2002, MDC cleared over 10,300,000 square meters of minefield area and 166,000 square meters of battlefield area. It destroyed 431 antivehicle mines, 392 antipersonnel mines and 3,294 items of UXO. During 2002, MDC’s expenditures totaled approximately $3.69 million.[45] As of March 2003, MDC employed 940 people and was operating with 24 clearance teams deploying 96 dogs; it had provided MCPA with 33 mine dog sets to support survey operations. From 1989 through 2002, mine accidents killed ten deminers or handlers and seven dogs, and injured another 26 MDC personnel. In 2002, one deminer and one dog handler were injured in separate accidents.[46]

Organization for Mine Awareness and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) started mine action programs in 1990, and conducts both mine awareness and clearance activities. OMAR has 750 employees, with 99 percent of its staff stationed at the activity site in Afghanistan. From 1992 to 2002, OMAR cleared more than 27.2 square kilometers of land and destroyed 35,519 antipersonnel mines, 700 antivehicle mines and 109,151 items of UXO. Since 1992, fifteen OMAR deminers have been killed and 51 injured in mine clearance activities; there were no casualties in 2002. OMAR has an annual budget of US$2.5 million, and is funded by the UN, Germany, Japan, and NOVIB (the Netherlands).[47]

Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) primarily conducts minefield and battlefield surveys. It also performs some manual clearance, either as a special task or as boundary reduction of minefields to make them ready for clearance by other agencies. In 2002, MCPA survey teams cleared some 933,000 square meters of land, destroying 1,037 antipersonnel mines, 19 antivehicle mines and 1,466 items of UXO. In 2002, four MCPA field staff were killed and three others injured during operations.[48]

Monitoring, Evaluation and Training Agency (META) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation of mine action operations in the field, as well as training of demining staff. It has carried out these duties since 1998. The objective of the program is to improve operational efficiency and to promote national capacity building.[49] META operates in nearly all provinces of the country wherever mine action operations take place. In 2002, META introduced reforms to develop and implement the Technical Quality Management approach, including quality control sampling to meet the Quality Management requirement of MAPA. From 1998-2002, META organized 1,433 technical training courses for 41,519 field staff, 14 management training courses for 320 supervisors/managers. META employed a total staff of 125 in 2002 with a $700,000 budget, which is expected to increase to $2.7 million in 2003. META receives funding from the UN, European Commission, Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), and UN Development Program (UNDP).

Others: RONCO Consulting Corporation, a US commercial mine clearance contractor, was working in Afghanistan in 2002, gradually clearing Bagram Air Base of thousands of mines in June 2002.[50] A thirteen-man team of Jordanian engineers arrived in Bagram in December 2002 to begin mechanical demining operations at the air base using the Aardvark chain flail system. This is the first known deployment of Jordanian deminers in an international mine clearance operation. Following operations in Bagram, the deminers were redeployed to Kandahar. In 2002 at Bagram, Jordanian deminers cleared 23,100 square meters and destroyed two antipersonnel mines and one piece of UXO. In Kandahar, 278,000 square meters were cleared and 34 mines and 261 UXO were destroyed.[51] Clearance by Jordanian deminers in Afghanistan continued in 2003.

Mine Risk Education

Since its inception in 1989, the Mine Action Program in Afghanistan has implemented a mine risk education (MRE) program along with the other components of mine action. Initially the program targeted refugees living in camps on or near the Pakistan border, with operations designed to disseminate quickly, to large numbers of people, information on mine dangers and avoidance. The programs moved into Afghanistan in response to the critical needs of the population, and new approaches have included child-focused school programs, informal education for women and girls, community-based methods, and mass media campaigns.[52]

From January 1990 to December 2002, over 11 million people received MRE. Forty percent were adults, and 42 percent were females.[53] The UN reported that in 2002, a total of 3,436,410 people received MRE.[54] This included about 2.5 million people (1.5 million returning refugees and 1 million school children) who received short (5 to 10 minutes) MRE briefings in schools or when passing through UNHCR centers.[55] Eighty newly trained MRE educators taught mine awareness to the students of 2,100 schools during the year.[56] UNICEF, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and NGOs, trained 18,000 schoolteachers in a winter MRE training program in 2002-2003.[57] In early 2002, UNICEF joined the mine action program to provide coordination, technical assistance and capacity building initiatives for the MAPA partners to help strengthen MRE activities throughout Afghanistan. Currently one national and one international staff member of UNICEF form the MRE section of UN MACA to coordinate and provide overall technical support to the MRE component of the program.[58]

At least twelve nongovernmental organizations have been providing MRE to civilians in mine/UXO-affected communities, to internally displaced persons, refugees and returnees. The following table shows MRE agencies and the number of civilians who received MRE during 2002.

Mine Risk Education Report for 2002[59]

Agencies
Number of Civilians Who Received Mine Risk Education


Foreigners
Afghans



Total


Adult Males
Adult Females
Boys
Girls

ARCS
0
10,566
18,309
31,260
27,538
87,673
AREA *
0
43,126
156,976
51,729
81,740
333,571
ARI
0
284,313
43,115
42,815
37,371
407,614
ATC
0
2,077
155
3,216
1,674
7,122
DAFA
0
1,474
40
1,732
672
3,918
HALO Trust *
59
65,162
31,323
102,247
63,232
262,023
HIB *
511
45,421
12,778
223,383
69,589
351,682
ICRC
78
4,903
0
7,000
2,606
14,587
MCPA
0
2,613
118
9,267
2,830
14,828
MDC
0
1,307
0
1,615
74
2,996
OMAR *
623
337,723
301,648
657,640
461,367
1,759,001
SC - US *
0
0
12,609
71,640
107,146
191,395
Total
1,271
798,685
577,071
1,203,544
855,839
3,436,410
* The figures include participants in Quick Impact Campaigns of Schools and Returnees.

Among the NGOs engaged in MRE in Afghanistan are:

Organization for Mine Awareness and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) reportedly conducted MRE briefings to more than 1.7 million people in 2002. This figure includes returning refugees who received short MRE briefings at UNHCR centers as well as students involved in activities of the UNICEF-sponsored Back to School campaign. OMAR had approximately 70 MRE trainers in 2002.[60] OMAR’s MRE classes are conducted in local meeting places, such as schools, mosques and bazaars.[61]

Agency for Rehabilitation and Energy Conservation in Afghanistan (AREA) implements MRE program in eastern and western Afghanistan (Herat, Badghis and Ghor provinces).[62] During 2002, AREA gave MRE to 333,571 persons.

HALO Trust in 2002 provided MRE training to 262,023 people in central and northern provinces of Afghanistan. The highest numbers were reached at the UNHCR Refugee Center in Puli Khumri.[63]

The Association for Aid and Relief, Japan (AAR) funded four HALO Trust MRE teams. AAR also developed and distributed posters and booklets in northern and central Afghanistan.[64] In 2003, AAR will take an active role in an educational material development initiative in cooperation with UN MACA.[65]

Ansar Relief Institute (ARI) is an Iran-based organization that provided MRE to 407,614 people in 2002, mostly returning refugees.

Save The Children–USA provides training and builds the capacities of agencies that have educational programs in child-focused MRE. Save the Children also works closely with communities and trains volunteers, teachers and health workers. SC-US uses an informal teaching methodology including games and activities to teach children how to live in mined communities.[66] It provided MRE to 191,395 people in 2002.[67]

Afghan Red Crescent Society (ARCS) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): In 2002 ARCS and ICRC conducted MRE training in Bamyan, Faryab, Kabul, Logar, Mazar-I-Sharif, Nangahar, Parwan, Sar-I-Pul and Wardak.[68] The ARCS is reported to have provided MRE to 87,673 people through six male teams and eleven female MRE instructors, as well as two quick mine awareness response teams.[69] The ICRC reports that in 2002, ARCS and ICRC teams provided MRE to more than 201,000 people in the above-mentioned provinces.[70] In 2003, in addition to the aforesaid provinces, ARCS and ICRC conducted MRE training in Paktia, Ghazni, and Kapisa provinces, while female teams provided MRE training in ARCS clinics in Kabul. In 2002, the all-female teams reached 63,000 women in clinics in Kabul, Parwan and Logar provinces. ARCS teams also collect information on new mine incidents through a standard form, and report to ICRC.[71] The ICRC signed an agreement with HALO to allow a more direct response to requests by communities for survey, marking or clearance.[72]

Handicap International Belgium (HIB) has, since 1996, implemented community-based mine risk education programs in six provinces of Afghanistan (Kandahar, Herat, Zabul, Helmand, Farah and Ghazni).[73] During 2002, HIB provided MRE to 351,682 people, including 137,345 who were trained by volunteers. HIB also trained 7,898 teachers and 4,290 aid workers and journalists. It provided short briefings to 21,884 people and received 287 clearance requests.[74] In response to these requests, in early April 2003 HIB deployed two EOD teams in Kandahar.[75]

Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) survey teams also conduct MRE training sessions to ensure the safety of the population in and around contaminated areas.[76] In 2002, MCPA survey teams provided MRE to 14,828 people living near contaminated areas.

BBC Afghan Education Project has been broadcasting MRE storylines in radio soap operas, along with their other educational radio programs. The coverage of the radio programs has reached almost 60 percent of the population.[77]

Demining Agency for Afghanistan in 2002 conducted MRE programs for 3,918 people.

The Monitoring, Evaluation and Training Agency (META) is responsible for the monitoring and evaluating of mine action operations in the field, as well as training demining and MRE staff.[78] Since 2002, META engaged in MRE capacity building activities; developing training courses in community based MRE, providing training for Ministry of Education personnel for the integration of MRE into the primary school curriculum, and developing MRE materials and guidelines for field-testing and production. These recent activities and future plans have established META as the MAPA focal point for MRE training and materials development. META currently employs ten MRE staff including a project officer, materials development officer and eight master trainer/quality assurance supervisors. META has an estimated MRE budget of $270,000 funded through UNICEF.

The Afghan Campaign to Ban Landmines (ACBL) has worked to promote awareness among the Afghan people of mines and UXO, and their hazards. ACBL celebrated Afghan Mine Action Awareness Month in six major cities (Bamyan, Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, and Mazar) from 15 April to 15 May 2003. During this period, ACBL also organized events such as sport for the disabled tournaments to raise awareness. Additionally, the ACBL, with the help of member agencies, held conferences and meetings, organized mine exhibits, and distributed thousands of leaflets.

Landmine Casualties

In 2002, the ICRC recorded 1,286 new casualties from landmines, UXO and cluster munitions, of which 154 people were killed and 1,132 injured.[79] The collection of comprehensive landmine casualty data in Afghanistan remains problematic, due in part to communication constraints and the time needed to centralize all the information. The ICRC is the principal source of mine casualty data, providing the UN Mine Action Program with ninety percent of its information on new casualties. ICRC data is collected through a network of 400 health care facilities, ninety more than in 2001, and direct links with mine-affected communities.[80] It is believed that many mine casualties die before reaching medical assistance, and are therefore not recorded in the statistics. UN MACA estimates that there continues to be around 150 new mine casualties each month in Afghanistan.[81]

Of the recorded casualties in 2002, about 91 percent were male. Of those injured, at least 260 required a single amputation, 51 a double amputation, and 75 lost their sight in one or both eyes. Children under 18 years of age accounted for more than half of the new casualties, 685 (53 percent) and 1,144 (89 percent) were civilians.

Casualties were reported in 29 provinces. The highest number of casualties was recorded in the provinces of Kabul (18 percent), Nangarhar (15 percent), Kandahar (9 percent), Herat (8 percent), and Parwan (8 percent). Only 83 mine casualties reported having received MRE before the incident occurred, and only 107 were aware that they were in a contaminated area.[82]

In 2002, antipersonnel mines were responsible for 378 new casualties (30 percent), antitank mines 109 (9 percent), UXO 506 (39 percent), cluster munitions 78 (6 percent), fuzes 69 (5 percent), booby-traps 16 (1 percent), and the cause of 130 casualties (10 percent) is unknown.[83] Activities at the time of the incident included tending animals (15 percent), playing or recreation (14 percent), collecting wood, fuel or scrap metal (9 percent), farming (9 percent), traveling on foot (9 percent), handling (9 percent), traveling by vehicle (8 percent), military activity (6 percent), incidental passing (6 percent), demining (2 percent), other activities or unknown (13 percent).[84]

In 2002, twelve deminers and survey staff were killed, and 28 others injured in landmine and UXO accidents.[85] Since 1990, there have been over 520 mine/UXO casualties recorded during survey and clearance activities, of which over 80 were killed, according to Afghanistan’s mine action community.[86] Foreign casualties include a Bosnian demining specialist who lost a foot after stepping an antipersonnel mine in May 2002[87] and a Swiss deminer was injured in central Afghanistan in August 2002.[88]

In 2002, several soldiers and peacekeepers have been killed or injured by landmines and UXO, during mine clearance operations, on patrol, or otherwise. Soldiers killed or injured in landmine incidents/accidents in 2002 include one Australian soldier killed and another injured and one Canadian, two French, three New Zealand, four Polish, two Romanian, and one Turkish soldier injured.[89] US military casualties include five soldiers killed and ten injured in landmine and UXO incidents. There are also several reports of Afghan soldiers fighting with coalition forces killed and injured by landmines. In March 2002, three Danish and two German peacekeeping soldiers were killed and another eight injured while destroying missiles at a munitions dump in Kabul.[90]

Mine casualties continue in 2003. The ICRC recorded 412 new mine/UXO casualties in the first six months of the year.[91] In May 2003, the first death in Afghanistan’s nascent national army occurred when an Afghan soldier fresh from training stepped on a landmine while on patrol.[92] Foreign nationals also continue to be killed and injured in landmine incidents in 2003. In January, a U.S. and Polish soldier were injured in a mine accident, and two more U.S. soldiers were injured in February and April.[93] In April, several Italian soldiers were injured when their vehicle hit a mine in Khost Province.[94] In May, one German peacekeeper was killed and another injured when their vehicle hit a mine.[95] In July, three Dutch ISAF peacekeepers were injured when their vehicle hit a landmine near Kabul.[96]

As of June 2003, the ICRC database contained 4,929 mine/UXO casualties between 1998 and 2001; 656 people were killed and 4,273 were injured. In 2001, 1,445 new casualties were recorded, 1,327 in 2000; 1,270 in 1999; and 887 in 1998.[97] The database also contains information on 1,744 casualties recorded between 1980 and 1997, of which 365 were killed and 1,412 injured.[98] Data collection is an on-going process and statistics are continually updated as new casualties, and those from previous periods, are identified.

Survivor Assistance

Decades of conflict have had a severe impact on health care in Afghanistan, with much of the health infrastructure damaged. Afghanistan has seventeen national, nine regional, 34 provincial and 41 district hospitals, along with a network of 365 basic health care centers and 357 health posts.[99] The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that 65 percent of Afghans do not have access to health facilities. Twenty percent of districts reportedly have no health care facilities. It is believed that many mine casualties die before reaching a medical facility due to the lack of emergency medical care or an adequate evacuation/transport system to a suitably equipped health facility.[100]

In 2002, the ICRC continued to support first aid posts and clinics with supplies and up to 20 hospitals were supplied with surgical materials, medicine and equipment. Support was also provided to the ambulance services in Kabul. In addition, the ICRC has been providing surgical training in emergency techniques to Afghan surgeons for about ten years.[101]

The Italian NGO Emergency operates surgical centers in Anabah and Kabul providing emergency medical care and surgery, physical rehabilitation, capacity building and data collection, and eleven first aid posts. In 2002, the two centers provided assistance to 3,246 surgical patients, of which 396 were mine casualties. These activities were funded by Emergency through private donors, fundraising campaigns and Italian local authorities support. In 2003, Emergency plans to open a new surgical center in Lashkarga (Helmand district).[102]

Médecins sans Frontières-France (MSF-F) provides emergency and continuing medical care through its seven health clinics and supported hospitals in Parwan, Ghazni and Kapisa provinces, working with the ICRC. In 2002, MSF-F provided medical assistance to more than 280,000 people, including some landmine casualties. MSF-F employs 400 Afghans and 23 expatriates. MSF-Holland, MSF-Belgium, MSF-Switzerland and MSF-Spain are operating in different parts of Afghanistan, providing similar essential medical assistance, but with differing capacities.[103]

The International Medical Corps (IMC) provides medical care and psychosocial support. IMC has 24 health clinics in the central region, three in the western region, and eight in the eastern region (plus three clinics supported by the WHO). In 2002, IMC assisted 379,039 people, including 145 landmine survivors.[104]

The Child Health Institute (CHI) in Kabul is one of the main hospitals designated for the treatment of children under 15 years-of-age. The hospital, under the Ministry of Public Health, is partially supported by the Indian Government. In 2002, 23 mine survivors, 18 boys and five girls, received treatment in the orthopedic/surgery ward. Four of the children were single amputees, two were double amputees, and 17 children received other surgical/orthopedic treatment.[105]

Only 60 out of 330 districts have rehabilitation or socioeconomic reintegration facilities for the disabled and even in those districts the needs are only partially met.[106] National and international NGOs and agencies play an important role in the delivery of assistance to persons with disabilities including landmine survivors in Afghanistan.

The Comprehensive Disabled Afghans Program (CDAP) operates community-based rehabilitation programs in Takhar, Ghazni, Herat, Mazar and Wardak provinces. CDAP’s programs in Mazar, Ghazni and Takhar were implemented in 2002 in partnership with the Swedish Committee for Afghanistan (SCA). CDAP also works with the ICRC and Handicap International (HI). The ICRC provides CDAP with orthopedic materials and HI cooperates in training and capacity building. CDAP’s main area of work includes orthopedic services, physiotherapy, employment support, home-based therapy, and special and primary education. CDAP employs over 500 personnel with a budget exceeding $4 million. CDAP’s main donors are the UNDP, Norway, Japan, Germany, Sweden and Denmark. In early 2003, CDAP expanded its program in four districts of Kabul province, and in the Shamali valley.[107]

The ICRC operates prosthetic/orthotic centers in Kabul, Mazar-I-Sharif, Jalalabad, Gulbahar, and Faizabad. The orthopedic centers fit prostheses and orthoses, provide free medical care, physical rehabilitation, psychosocial support, vocational training, micro-credits for small business, and public awareness services related to government rules and programs. In 2002, approximately 20,000 people, including nearly 8,000 mine survivors, were assisted at the six centers.[108] In 2002, 4,525 prostheses and 7,311 orthoses were produced, of which 3,351 prostheses and 32 orthoses were for mine survivors. In addition, 6,291 pairs of crutches and 764 wheelchairs were distributed.[109] Under the micro-credits program beneficiaries are offered a $100 interest-free-loan to start up their own business. The loan is repayable in 18 monthly installments. By the end of 2002, about 1,700 businesses had been started.[110]

The Kabul Orthopedic Center (KOC) provides physical rehabilitation and orthopedic devices. In 2002, Sandy Gall’s Afghanistan Appeal (SGAA) partially resumed its financial assistance to the KOC, having withdrawn during the Taliban period. In 2003, the KOC is operating as a joint project between the government, SGAA, and the NGO Ashram International. The KOC works closely with the government’s Medical Science Academy and provides assistance to all patients free of charge. In 2002, 5,320 people were assisted, 642 prostheses were produced, of which 510 were for landmine survivors, and more than 3,000 assistive devices were distributed, including crutches, wheelchairs, and walking sticks. The KOC employs 25 people, with an annual budget of $78,000.[111] SGAA also supports a rehabilitation center in Jalalabad. In March 2002, training commenced for 16-20 candidates in a three-year physiotherapy training course.[112]

Handicap International Belgium (HIB) is providing physical rehabilitation and prostheses through its orthopedic center in Kandahar and collects information on persons with disabilities in the Helmand, Zabul, Farah, Ghazni and Herat provinces through a network of community volunteers. HIB cooperates closely with the Afghan NGO Guardians in Kandahar. In 2002, HIB assisted 1,243 people, including 128 landmine survivors. HIB also produced and distributed 2,518 walking aids, 349 orthoses and 84 wheelchairs. The annual budget of the program is $350,000, funded by ECHO in 2002.[113] Guardians provide physical rehabilitation services and limited health services. In 2002, the workshop produced 1,164 prostheses.[114] HIB also provided physiotherapy and other rehabilitation services in three Afghan refugee camps (Charman, Mohammad Khail, and Loralai) in Pakistan.[115]

In January 2002, an Indian orthopedic team arrived in Kabul with 1,000 prostheses for Afghan amputees, which were fitted free of charge. The Indian government funded the project, with the prostheses provided by the BMVSS charity from Jaipur.[116]

The Technical Orthopedic Center (TOC), founded almost 30 years ago, resumed providing orthotic and prosthetic assistance in March 2003 after having been closed for five years. TOC is supported by the Ministry of Public Health and employs 55 personnel.[117]

Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Support for Afghans (PARSA) provides physiotherapy services, through its two clinics in Kabul. PARSA also distributes wheelchairs, and walking aids, and refers amputees to the ICRC or Kabul Orthopedic Center. In 2002, PARSA assisted 3,600 people, including about 500 landmine survivors. PARSA receives funds from the ASIA Foundation and employs 22 people.[118]

Association for Aid and Relief, Japan (AAR), has operated a physiotherapy treatment program in Takhar province since August 2002. In 2002, AAR provided physiotherapy assistance for 327 people, including 22 landmine survivors, and distributed 37 prostheses. The budget in 2002 was $80,000 and will be increased to $90,000 in 2003.[119]

Handicap International France (HI) commenced its program to support mine survivors and other persons with disabilities in January 2002, working mainly in Herat and the province of Badghis. The program focuses on upgrading physiotherapy centers, through training, materials and technical support to physiotherapy services. HI is cooperating closely with the CDAP and the Ministry of Martyrs and Disabled.[120]

Afghan Amputee Bicyclists for Rehabilitation and Recreation (AABRAR) provides physiotherapy, recreational rehabilitation, vocational training, and psychosocial support to persons with disabilities, including landmine survivors. Since 1992, AABRAR has provided recreational rehabilitation for more than 3,000 disabled men and given graduates a bicycle. Beneficiaries are also given basic literacy and math skills and skills to repair bicycles. In the same period 600 disabled women received six-month-long vocational training in tailoring and were then provided with sewing machines as a means to generate income for their families and become self-reliant. The annual budget of AABRAR is approximately $130,000, which is funded by DED (Deutcher Entwicklungsdienst), CARITAS of Germany, and TROCAIRE of Ireland. AABRAR has offices in Kabul and Jalalabad. In 2003, AABRAR started carpet-weaving courses for women in Jalalabad and a Disabled Cycle Messenger Service in Kabul.[121] The Assistant Executive Director of AABRAR, Omara Khan, a landmine survivor, took part in the Raising the Voices program in Geneva in May 2003.

SERVE/EMAD (Enabling and Mobilizing Afghans with Disabilities), based in Kabul, provides training in mobility/living skills, early intervention programs, school reintegration training, and vocational training for the blind, deaf, and physically impaired, including landmine survivors. SERVE/EMAD also provides mobile basic eye services, along with preventive education to the rural population of the country, and operates a school for the deaf, vocational training and community-based rehabilitation. In 2002, 517 people were assisted, of which about 40 percent were landmine survivors. In 2002, EMAD was active in some districts of Nangarhar, Kunar, Parwan, Laghman and Kabul provinces. EMAD’s program budget was approximately 2.2 million Pakistani Rupees (approximately $37,400) and employed about 200 Afghan nationals. SERVE’s funding comes from private donors.[122]

The International Assistance Mission (IAM) operates physiotherapy and ophthalmic rehabilitation and psychosocial support programs in Afghanistan for persons with disabilities, including landmine survivors. IAM works with the cooperation of the Intermediate Medical Institute and the Ministry of Public Health. It operates the Noor Eye hospital in Kabul and eye clinics in Herat and Mazar-i-Sahrif and provides financial and technical support to the Physiotherapy School of Kabul and the Blind School of Kabul. IAM’s annual budget is $60,000.[123]

The Baluchistan Community Rehabilitation program supports disabled Afghan refugees, including landmine survivors, in camps in Baluchistan Province, Pakistan, providing physiotherapy and prostheses.[124]

In 2002, the US government’s Leahy War Victims Fund provided $1 million to support the socio-economic reintegration of mine survivors and others persons with disabilities as well as funds for training Afghan orthopedic technicians.[125]

Disability Policy and Practice

The Transitional Islamic Government of Afghanistan has established the National Disabled Commission, with representatives from the Ministry of Martyrs and Disabled, the Ministry of Public Health, the Ministry of Justice, and the Ministry of Finance. The Commission is to draft a comprehensive law on the rights of persons with disabilities in Afghanistan. Legislation approved in 1999 stipulated that persons with disabilities would be granted free medical care, a monthly pension, and employment opportunities according to their ability and degree of disability. The Ministry of Martyrs and Disabled is the focal point for all issues relating to persons with disabilities, including mine survivor assistance.[126]


[1] “Afghan Taliban said killed while laying landmine,” Reuters, 21 April 2003.
[2] “Man blows himself up planting mine outside Afghan government office,” Associated Press, 15 May 2003.
[3] “Afghan source says 16 troops killed in land mine attack,” Interfax, 10 November 2002.
[4] “Landmine injures soldier, weapons found in Afghanistan,” Army News Service, 6 January 2003.
[5] Janullah Hashmizada, “Afghan authorities clear key highway of deadly land mines east of Jalalbad,” Associated Press, 20 February 2003.
[6] “Three Afghan soldiers wounded in land mine blast in southern Kandahar,” Associated Press, 2 March 2003.
[7] “Two Afghan soldiers killed in landmine blast,” Agence France Presse, 23 April 2003.
[8] “Afghan militia men wounded in land mine explosion near Pakistani border,” Associated Press, 12 May 2003.
[9] Janullah Hashimzada, “Afghan Land Mine Explodes Near BBC Convoy,” Associated Press, 14 March 2003.
[10] Letter from Afghan Technical Consultants to the Afghan Campaign to Ban Landmines, 3 November 2002.
[11] Interview (by Shohab Hakimi, Chairperson, ACBL) with General Bismella Khan, Deputy Minister of Defense, 3 March 2003; letter to Landmine Monitor from ACBL, 15 June 2003.
[12] Interview with General Amir Mohammad, Head of Engineering Department, and Mohammad Aslam, Ministry of Defense, 4 March 2003.
[13] Presentation by Brig. General Amir Mohammad Ahmadi, Engineering Corps Command, Ministry of Defense, to the Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 15 May 2003.
[14] Ibid; oral remarks to the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, 16 May 2003 (Landmine Monitor/HRW notes).
[15] Office of the Spokesman, US Department of State press release, “Destruction of Stored Landmines in Afghanistan Helps to End Legacy of Suffering by the Taliban,” 30 June 2003.
[16] “Afghanistan’s Cabinet ratifies treaty banning land mines,” Associated Press, 29 July 2002.
[17] UN Mine Action Program for Afghanistan (MAPA), “Update on the United Nations Mine Action Programme for Afghanistan–December 2002,” December 2002.
[18] “Flood sweeps, scatters land mines in northern Afghan province,” Wahdat, 16 June 2003.
[19] MAPA, “Monthly Progress Report: December 2002.”
[20] See Survey Action Center contribution to Appendices.
[21] MAPA, “Progress Report for the Year 2002.”
[22] Interview with Operations Coordinator, MCPA Kabul, unknown date.
[23] MAPA, “Survey Progress Report by Year and by Agency,” as of 5 February 2003.
[24] Interview with Dr. Nasir Ahmad, Assistant Manager/Press Officer, HALO Trust, 18 March 2003.
[25] UNOCHA, “Afghanistan Brief,” 2 May 2002.
[26] MAPA, “National Operational Work Plan 2003.”
[27] UNMAS, “The strategic plan for mine action in Afghanistan and related socio-economic benefits,” ReliefWeb, 28 February 2003.
[28] Email from Takuto Kubo, External Relations Section, UN MACA, 26 May 2003.
[29] Ibid; MAPA, “Annual Report: 2000;” MAPA, “Annual Report: 2001.”
[30] MAPA, “Monthly Progress Report: December 2002.”
[31] MAPA, “Update: December 2002,” December 2002; updated HALO statistics provided in email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Tom Dibb, Central Asia Desk Officer, HALO Trust, 29 July 2003.
[32] MAPA, “Progress Report for the Year 2002.”
[33] Email from Tom Dibb, HALO, 29 July 2003.
[34] Email from Tammy Hall, External Relations Officer, UN MACA, 28 July 2003; Todd Pitman, “Rebels Target Aid Workers in Afghanistan,” Associated Press, 20 May 2003.
[35] Email from Tammy Hall, UN MACA, 28 July 2003.
[36] Information in this section is from an interview with Kefayatullah Eblagh, Director, and Farid, Operation Officer, Afghan Technical Consultants, 16 March 2002.
[37] Interview with Deputy Managing Director and Monitoring & Evaluation Officer, Agency for Rehabilitation & Energy Conservation (AREA), 4 March 2003.
[38] Email from Tammy Hall, UN MACA, 28 July 2003.
[39] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Malene Lomholt, DDG, 1 August 2003.
[40] MAPA, “Clearance by Agency: 1 January 2002-31 December 2002.”
[41] Email from DAFA, 22 March 2003.
[42] Email from Tom Dibb, HALO, 29 July 2003.
[43] Interview with Dr. Nasir Ahmad, HALO.
[44] Institute of War and Peace Reporting, “Sniffing Out Landmine Danger,” 20 December 2002.
[45] Interview with Deputy Director and Operations Officer, Mine Detection and Dog Center, 12 March 2003.
[46] Institute of War and Peace Reporting, “Sniffing Out Landmine Danger,” 20 December 2002.
[47] Organization for Mine Awareness and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR), “Fact Sheet;” Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by OMAR.
[48] MCPA, “Annual Report for 2002;” interview with Operations Coordinator, MCPA.
[49] Letter from Monitoring Evaluation and Training Agency, 18 March 2003.
[50] Joseph Giordono, “Deminers Slowly Clear Bagram Base,” European Stars and Stripes, 30 June 2002.
[51] Email from Brigadier General Fayez al-Dwairi, Director of the Royal Jordanian Corps of Engineers, 9 June 2003.
[52] MAPA, “Briefing,” August 2002.
[53] MAPA, “Progress Report for Mine Awareness Activities,” 20 February 2003; email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Sharif Baaser, MRE Project Officer, UNICEF, UN MACA, Kabul, 29 July 2003.
[54] Ibid.
[55] Email from Sharif Baaser, UNICEF, 29 July 2003.
[56] MAPA, “Update on the United Nations Mine Action Programme for Afghanistan–December 2002.”
[57] Mine Action Support Group, “Newsletter: June 2003.”
[58] Email from Sharif Baaser, UNICEF, 29 July 2003.
[59] MAPA, “Mine Awareness Monthly Activity Report for the Year 2002;” email from Sharif Baaser, UNICEF, 29 July 2003.
[60] Email from Sharif Baaser, UNICEF, 29 July 2003.
[61] OMAR, “Fact Sheet;” Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by OMAR.
[62] Interview with AREA, 4 March 2003.
[63] Email from Tom Dibb, HALO, 29 July 2003.
[64] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Minami Tsubouchi, Program Coordinator, AAR, Japan.
[65] Email from Sharif Baaser, UNICEF, 29 July 2003.
[66] Whitney Tolliver, “Mine Risk Education and Mine Awareness in Afghanistan,” Journal of Mine Action, Fall 2002.
[67] Email from Sharif Baaser, UNICEF, 29 July 2003.
[68] Interview with Dr. Noor Mohammad, MRE Program Coordinator, ARCS, 30 March 2003.
[69] Email from Sharif Baaser, UNICEF, 29 July 2003.
[70] ICRC, “Annual Report 2002,” 19 June 2003, p. 148.
[71] Email from Sharif Baaser, UNICEF, 29 July 2003.
[72] ICRC, “Annual Report 2002,” 19 June 2003, p. 148; telephone interview with Mathieu Soupart, Head of Sector, Mine Action, ICRC, Geneva, 8 July 2003.
[73] Interview with Martin Lagneau, Afghanistan Program Director, Handicap International Belgium, 11 March 2003.
[74] Email from Martin Lagneau, Program Director, HIB, Kandahar, 23 July 2003.
[75] Article 7 Report of Belgium, Form J, 30 April 2003; HIB website, www.handicapinternational.be
[76] MCPA, “Annual Report for 2002.”
[77] Email from Sharif Baaser, UNICEF, 29 July 2003.
[78] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Susan Helseth, UNICEF, MRE Advisor to UN MACA, 19 July 2003.
[79] Interview with Dr. M. K. Malwan and Mr. Zamanuddin, Mine Action Program, ICRC, Kabul, 11 March 2003; information provided to Landmine Monitor (HIB) in email from Mathieu Soupart, Head, Mine/ERW Action Sector, ICRC, Geneva, 7 July 2003.
[80] ICRC, “Annual Report 2002,” Geneva, June 2003, p. 148.
[81] Tammy Hall, UN MACA, presentation to the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 13 May 2003.
[82] Interview with Dr. M.K. Malwan and Mr. Zamanuddin, Mine Action Program, ICRC, 11 March 2003; information provided to Landmine Monitor (HIB) in email from Mathieu Soupart, ICRC, 26 June 2003.
[83] Information provided to Landmine Monitor (HIB) in emails from Mathieu Soupart, ICRC, 26 June 2003 and 10 July 2003.
[84] Email from Mathieu Soupart, ICRC, 26 June 2003.
[85] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Dan Kelly, Program Manager, UN MACA, 31 July 2003.
[86] Information collected from mine clearance agencies by Landmine Monitor and UNOCHA Database on Mine Incident Status from 1989 to 2000 (hard copy).
[87] “Bosnian de-miner loses foot in Afghan blast,” Agence France Presse, 11 May 2002.
[88] “U.S. soldier wounded in demining accident in central Afghanistan,” Associated Press, 27 August 2002.
[89] “First Australian Soldier Killed in Afghanistan,” Reuters, 16 February 2002; Mark Forbes, “SAS destroys weapons stashes,” The Age (Melbourne, Australia), 23 January 2002; “Canadian soldier hurt by landmine in Afghanistan,” CBC News Online (Canada), 28 April 2002; “Two French soldiers injured in Kabul mine blast,” Associated Press, 7 July 2002; “Afghan mine injures SAS soldiers: Three New Zealand SAS soldiers have been injured by a landmine in Afghanistan,” One News (NZ), 23 October 2002; “Romanian troops hurt by landmine in Afghanistan,” Reuters, 7 October 2002; “Turkish Soldier Hurt in Afghan Mine Blast,” Reuters, 19 July 2002; letter from Norwegian Ministry of Defense, 21 March 2003; letter from Adam Kobieracki, Director of Security Policy Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland, 27 March 2003; “Do domu z Afganistanu” (Back Home from Afghanistan), Gazeta Wyborcza (Poland), 27 June 2002.
[90] “Wounded Kabul peacekeepers to fly to Germany,” Agence France Presse, 7 March 2002.
[91] Email from Mathieu Soupart, ICRC, 7 July 2003.
[92] “New Afghan army suffers first casualty,” Reuters, 17 May 2003.
[93] “American Soldier Loses Foot in Mine Explosion,” American Forces Press Service, 10 January 2003; “GI Loses Foot in Afghan Land-Mine Blast,” Fox News, 19 February 2003; “U.S. troops kill one, detain seven in Afghan raid,” Reuters, 22 April 2003.
[94] “Several injured as Italian military vehicle hits mine in Afghan southeast,” Islamic Republic of Iran External Service, 26 April 2003.
[95] “Blast Kills Peacekeeper,” Washington Post, 30 May 2003.
[96] “Dutch peacekeepers injured in Kabul landmine explosion,” Xinhua, 5 July 2003.
[97] Email from Mathieu Soupart, ICRC, 10 July 2003.
[98] Email from Mathieu Soupart, ICRC, 26 June 2003.
[99] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 605.
[100] For details see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 605.
[101] ICRC, “Annual Report 2002,” Geneva, June 2003, pp. 148-149; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 605.
[102] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Rossella Miccio, Desk Officer for Afghanistan, Emergency, 14 March 2003.
[103] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Denis Lemasson, Medical Coordinator, MSF-France, Kabul.
[104] Information provided by database section, International Medical Corps, 22 April 2003.
[105] Interview with the Head of the Hospital and the Child Health Institute’s Statistics Office, Kabul, 24 March 2003.
[106] WHO, “Reconstruction of the Afghanistan Health Sector,” 2002, p. 4.
[107] Interview with Dr. Ghani, National Manager, CDAP, 1 May 2003.
[108] Information provided by Alberto Cairo, Manager, ICRC Orthopedic Center, Kabul, March 2003.
[109] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programs, “Annual Report 2002,” June 2003.
[110] “Afghanistan: Micro-credit programme for the disabled,” ICRC News 03/44, 29 April 2003.
[111] Interview with Gulmakai Siawush, Manager, Kabul Orthopedic Center (KOC), Kabuk; Interview with Sameuddin Saber, Field Director, Sandy Gall’s Afghanistan Appeal, Kabul.
[112] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 606.
[113] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Martin Lagneau, Program Director, HIB.
[114] HIB, “Activity Report 2002,” p. 11.
[115] Report from Jean Gauthier Heymans, HIB, Program Director, Quetta (Pakistan), December 2002.
[116] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 607.
[117] Interview with Dr. Mehboobi, Director, Technical Orthopedic Center, Wazir Akbar Khan Compound.
[118] Interview with Ms. Palwasha, Finance Manager, PARSA, Kabul, 30 March 2003.
[119] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by AAR Japan.
[120] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Richard K. Pinder, Country Director, Handicap International; HI, “Review of Activities 2001-2002,” pp. 80-81.
[121] Interview with Administration Manager, AABRAR.
[122] Interview with Abdul Basir Miakhail, Manager, SERVE/EMAD, Kabul, 21 April 2003.
[123] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by J. Thoren, Program Manager, Training and Capacity Building, International Assistance Mission.
[124] Aid International/Mercy Corps Scotland, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 4.
[125] USAID, “Rebuilding Afghanistan: Our current efforts in a war-torn country,” 11 April 2002, available at www.usembassy.it/pdf/other/rebuilding_afghanistan.pdf
[126] Interview with Dr. Mahmood Shah Darwaish, Head of Paraplegic Hospital and member of National Disabled Committee (NDC), Kabul, 2 February 2003; interview with Noor Ahmad Nazary, President of Planning, Ministry of Martyrs and Disabled.