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Table of Contents
Country Reports
Mozambique, Landmine Monitor Report 2003

Mozambique

Key developments since May 2002: Mozambique completed destruction of its stockpile of 37,318 antipersonnel mines on 28 February 2003, meeting its treaty-mandated deadline. Mozambique decided to retain 1,427 mines for training purposes, instead of none as it previously reported. In April 2003, the National Demining Institute reported it had re-evaluated information from the 2001 Landmine Impact Survey and decided to reduce its estimate of mined areas by 38 percent, from 558 million square meters to 346 million square meters. The National Demining Institute reported clearance of a total of 8.9 million square meters of land in 2002, although there is conflicting data. Mozambique reports that from January 2002 to March 2003, mine risk education was provided to 202,334 persons, and 100 MRE facilitators were trained.

Mine Ban Policy

Mozambique signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified on 25 August 1998 and the treaty entered into force for it on 1 March 1999.

Domestic implementation legislation is still in preparation. In February 2003, the new director of the National Demining Institute (Instituto Nacional de Desminagem, IND), Gamiliel Munguambe, told Landmine Monitor that the national parliament was working on legislation related to the treaty in a joint effort by the Commission for Juridical Affairs and the IND.[1] He said the completion date would depend on the Parliament. In its most recent Article 7 Report, Mozambique stated that it was developing national legislation, but currently “no legal measures have been taken, apart from those taken back in June 1999...”[2]

Mozambique’s most recent Article 7 Report is undated, but covers the period from January 2002 to March 2003.[3] This is the country’s fourth Article 7 report.[4]

Mozambique attended the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2002 with a delegation led by its Minister of Defense, Tobias Dai. It also participated in February and May 2003 Standing Committee meetings.

On 22 November 2002, Mozambique voted in favor of UN General Assembly Resolution 57/74, promoting universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty.

On 10 December 2002, a representative from the Mozambican Embassy to Ethiopia and the African Union participated in the opening of a regional ICBL/Landmine Monitor meeting held in Addis Ababa.[5]

Mozambique has never produced or exported antipersonnel mines.[6] In the past, it imported antipersonnel mines from a number of sources.[7] There is no evidence of any use of antipersonnel mines in this reporting period.

Stockpile Destruction

Mozambique completed destruction of its stockpile of 37,318 antipersonnel mines on 28 February 2003, meeting its treaty-mandated deadline.[8] The mines were destroyed in six separate events.[9] While international donors supported some of the costs of the destruction program, the government paid for most of it. The destruction included stocks of antipersonnel mines that originated from the former rebel RENAMO movement.[10]

While Mozambique’s three previous Article 7 reports stated that no antipersonnel mines would be retained for training or development purposes, the 2003 report indicated that 1,427 antipersonnel mines had been retained as permitted under Article 3 and provided details on the locations of these mines.[11]

Landmine Problem, Survey, and Assessment

Mozambique’s landmine problem is mostly the result of a two-decade-long civil war that ended in 1992. In September 2002, the then-IND director, Artur Veríssimo, stated that the country was still suffering from the mine problem, but stressed that the number of mine incidents was diminishing, reflecting a greater awareness among the population.[12]

According to the country’s first comprehensive Landmine Impact Survey (LIS), published in August 2001, virtually every part of Mozambique experiences negative social and economic consequences from landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO).[13] In its 2003 Article 7 Report, Mozambique provided updated figures to the LIS. Because of successful mine clearance operations, the government identified 1,249 “Suspected Mined Areas” (SMAs) and 719 mine-affected communities, and not 1,374 SMAs and 791 affected communities, as reported by the 2001 survey.[14] The total affected population was estimated at 1.3 million people, down from 1.5 million. Twenty communities with 36,000 inhabitants were classified as high-impact, 164 communities with 393,000 inhabitants were classified as medium impact, and 607 communities with 1.1 million inhabitants were classified as low-impact. While mines are a problem in all ten provinces of the country, according to the Article 7 Report, Inhambane is the most affected province, followed by Zambézia and Nampula.[15]

According to an April 2003 IND summary report, the IND cross-referenced and reconciled all the SMAs identified in the 2001 LIS and in reports submitted to IND between 1993 and 2002; this process resulted in a 38 percent reduction in the total suspected mined area, from 558 million square meters to 346 million square meters – a drop of 212 million square meters.[16]

Mined Areas or Suspected Mined Areas[17]

Province
Affected Communities
Affected Population
Number of suspected mined areas
Area Affected
Number
%
Number
%
Number
%
Sq. Km.
%
Niassa
34
4.7
59,366
4.4
56
4.5
19.7
3.7
Cabo Delgado
83
11.5
166,446
12.3
164
13.1
105.4
19.7
Nampula
79
11.0
177,214
13.1
127
10.2
155.6
29.1
Zambézia
102
14.2
148,928
11.1
181
14.5
86.3
16.2
Tete
53
7.3
78,828
5.8
80
6.4
20.9
3.8
Manica
50
7.0
77,727
5.8
90
7.2
15.9
3.0
Sofala
45
6.3
124,485
9.3
86
6.8
6.8
1.3
Inhambane
138
19.2
331,134
24.6
232
18.6
26.5
5.0
Gaza
43
6.0
88,216
6.5
65
5.2
57.1
10.7
Maputo
92
12.8
96,063
7.1
168
13.5
40.1
7.5
Total
719
100
1,348,407
100
1,249
100
534.3
100

Since the 2003 Article 7 Report, new information has been reported by HALO Trust, a British mine clearance NGO active in Mozambique since 1994. HALO reported to Landmine Monitor that, by March 2003, it had re-surveyed 433 of 560 Suspected Mined Areas in the four northern provinces where it has operations and that had been covered by the LIS. Of the 433 re-surveyed sites, HALO cleared 65 and confirmed another 86 as SMAs. However, it determined that the remaining 282 sites were in fact not affected. At the same time, HALO identified 89 contaminated sites in those four provinces that had been missed in the survey. Thus, according to HALO’s findings, the LIS overestimated the landmine impact for much of northern Mozambique, but also failed to identify many mined areas.[18]

Describing the LIS, Handicap International’s demining project manager told Landmine Monitor that the 2001 impact survey “was the first of its kind, it was faced with several problems due to the floods, [and] access problems.” He added that “the results were not understood by all. Its purpose was not to be exhaustive and clearly map every mined site. Therefore, it should be completed by a technical survey.”[19] In terms of technical surveys, IND reported in April 2003 “limited activities” in all provinces except for Inhambane where “full activities are reported.”[20]

On 15 April 2003, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Leonardo Simão, stated that “one of the priorities of the government is an urgent survey which will permit a real assessment of the situation of the country. The issue of the deactivation of landmines is of extreme importance for the government, because, with the success of that operation, it will impel the freedom of circulation of people and goods.”[21]

In October 2002, officials from Mozambique and Zimbabwe held a meeting in Chimoio (Manica) and it was reported that “the two parties also acknowledged the existence of landmines planted along the border. They agreed to exchange information on this matter, and to carry out joint demining work.”[22] The government of Mozambique is also working with its Zambian counterpart on a joint Permanent Commission on mine clearance of the border region.[23]

The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is working to establish a database on all mine-affected countries in the region. These countries will be able to share experiences, advice and information among themselves and with the international community about national and regional mine action activities. The main office of this database is in Maputo at the IND and will be connected to sub regional offices in Angola, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe and possibly Malawi.[24]

Mine Action Funding

According to the IND, US$16.9 million was allocated in mine action funding for 2002, as outlined in the chart below, but it cautioned the “amounts disbursed cannot be accurately confirmed” and notably “fiscal years are not always uniform.” It also said that some financial data was “unavailable” or “not received in time.”[25]

By comparison, in 2001, thirteen donors reported to Landmine Monitor a total of about $15.1 million in mine action contributions to Mozambique.[26] However, it is unlikely that was a complete picture of mine action funding for Mozambique. In 2000, Landmine Monitor had estimated a total of approximately $17.1 million in mine action funding.[27]

Mine Action Funding for Mozambique in 2002[28]

Donor
Operator
Total ($US)
Afrovita
HALO
HI
IND
MgM
NPA
PAD
RONCO
Germany




750,000



750,000
Australia

245,366
497,000
187,436


540,540

1,470,343
Austria



186,604




186,604
Canada


540,000
333,333




873,333
Denmark



698,750

648,513
1,260,382

2,607,646
US







2,500,000
2,500,000
Finland






289,081

289,081
France


698,500





698,500
Netherlands

787,554



500,000


1,287,554
Ireland

256,142

108,507


281,832

646,481
Japan

400,000






400,000
Norway





1,816,769


1,816,770
UK

249,139






249,139
Sweden



149,105

524,134
372,000

1,045,240
Switzerland
505,050
300,000




133,000

938,050
EC



900,000




900,000
UNMAS


270,529




270,529
Total
505,050
2,238,201
1,735,500
2,563,735
750,000
3,489,418
2,876,837
2,500,000
16,929,270

Information provided directly by some donors varies considerably from the information provided by IND in the chart above. Landmine Monitor identifies about US$13.5 million in mine action funding for Mozambique in 2002 from 16 donors.

In Australia’s Financial Year (FY) of July 2001-June 2002, AUS$1,724,329 (US$931,138) was spent for mine action in Mozambique. In FY July 2002-June 2003, Australia anticipates contributing AUS$405,358 (US$218,893) for mine action in Mozambique.[29] Austria donated €270,389 ($256,869) to the Austrian Development Cooperation for capacity building and mine risk education in Sofala, and another €158,180 ($150,271) to UNDP for training mine action managers.[30]

Canada reported contributing US$1,317,342 for mine action in Mozambique.[31] Denmark provided DKK15,000,000 ($1,900,000) to IND, NPA, ADP and UNDP.[32] The European Commission contributed $950,000 to the IND.[33] Finland provided €336,376 (US$319,557) to UNDP and the Accelerated Demining Program for mine clearance.[34]

France approved a Priority Solidarity Fund for mine clearance in Mozambique totaling €1,170,000 ($1,111,500), but it not known when or if funds have been disbursed.[35] France also contributed a total of $687,240 to HI for demining in Inhambane Province.[36] Germany provided $912,007 to MgM, ADP and GICHD.[37] Italy reports providing €900,000 (US$855,000) to the Accelerated Demining Program and to UNDP for the IND.[38] Italy does not appear on IND’s chart.

The Netherlands provided $1,230,862 to HALO ($730,862 for mine clearance) and to NPA for the integrated mine action program in Nampula Province ($500,000 for mine clearance, dog training, local capacity building).[39] New Zealand made an in-kind contribution valued at NZ$190,000 (US$108,300) for two advisors from the New Zealand Defence Force to assist the Accelerated Demining Program.[40]

Norway provided $1,875,000 to NPA for mine action and $375,000 to HI France for mine clearance in 2002.[41] Sweden provided SEK9 million ($926,000), including SEK5 million to NPA for mine clearance, mine risk education, and capacity building, and SEK4 million to UNDP for mine clearance and capacity building.[42] Switzerland donated $1,160,000 for demining in North and Matalane regions by HALO Trust, National Demining Institute, the Accelerated Demining Program, and UNDP.[43]

The United States has been the largest donor to mine action in Mozambique, providing nearly $29 million since 1993. For its fiscal year 2002, the United States allocated $2,424,000, primarily for demining and training of IND staff. This included $2.11 from the State Department, $14,000 from the Defense Department, and $300,000 from the Centers for Disease Control. It estimates a contribution of $3.01 million in FY 2003, and $1.75 million in FY 2004.[44]

In April 2003, the Minister of Foreign Affair and Cooperation, Leonardo Simão reportedly stated that, “10 million euros will be needed in order for Mozambique to get rid of the danger caused by these devices.”[45]

In July 2002, IND held a meeting in Maputo of international donors, government representatives, and NGOs and individuals working in the mine action sector to review the past ten years of mine action activities and consider perspectives for the future. During the meeting, on 22 July 2002, IND stated it would need about US$2.9 million for demining operations over the next two years. [46]

Mine Action Coordination and Planning

The National Demining Institute is a semi-autonomous governmental institute reporting directly to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, which coordinates all mine action in the country. Besides its headquarters in Maputo, IND has a regional office in Beira (Sofala Province) for the central region and another in Nampula for the northern part of the country.[47] A National Demining Fund (Fundo Nacional de Desminagem, FUNAD) has been established.

From March 2000 to March 2003, the UN Development Program provided capacity-building assistance to IND. Four senior staff from IND and the Accelerated Demining Program completed UNDP’s Senior Management Training Course at Cranfield University and all IND department heads have received middle management training, delivered through a joint effort of Cranfield University and a private Mozambican university.[48] Another Cranfield management training was held in Maputo in May and June 2003 for IND and ADP, along with mine action practitioners from Angola.[49]

As reported in last year’s Landmine Monitor Report, at the end of 2001, the IND produced its first Five Year National Mine Action Plan: 2002-2006 (NMAP). The plan and its priorities are based on the information and findings of the Landmine Impact Survey.[50] The mission of the plan is to create a “mine-impact free” Mozambique, defined as “the elimination of impediments to fundamental socio-economic activity and significant reduction in the risk of encountering landmines,” within ten years. To reach this goal, the first five year plan must accomplish the following: all high and medium impact sites must be cleared and all UXO destroyed; all existing stockpiles destroyed; remaining low impact areas must be surveyed and marked; there must be a fully operational national mine risk education program and long-term survivor and victim assistance programs established.[51]

An Inter-Ministerial Standing Committee chaired by the Director of IND has been created. In February 2003, the director of IND stated, “Soon we will be adopting the National Mine Action Standards that take into account international standards, while IMSMA based socio-economic impact mine action tasking and evaluation forms are in their final stages for adoption. These efforts are geared towards the establishment of the proper safe environment for mine action, as well as ensure transparency in the management of the funds earmarked for these activities.”[52]

IND anticipates that after completing the major tasks by 2006, there will still be a large number of low priority suspected mined areas – perhaps as many as 900 distributed throughout the country. IND’s director said, “This means that the country will still be in need of further assistance beyond 2006. We are currently working towards assessing the real situation, and we hope to be able to discuss the outcome with our partners, both domestic and international, in a major conference to be convened in Maputo by 2004.”[53]

Mine action is integrated into the government’s Plano de Acção para a Redução da Pobreza Absoluta (Absolute Poverty Reduction Plan of Action, PARPA), which is aimed at reducing poverty by 20 percent over the next ten years and raising the standard of living of all Mozambicans.[54] In keeping with these overall national priority concerns, the National Mine Action Plan adopts a “development orientated” approach that seeks to maximize the socio-economic impact and benefit of mine action in the country.[55]

During the July 2002 ten-year mine action meeting hosted by IND, some participants criticized the government’s strategy, noting “various sectors such as agriculture do not include the mine problematic in their activity plans which delays the explosives devices removal.” Some of the NGO operators there also noted that there are situations where the government’s plans are “contradictory,” such as when the government cites mine removal as a priority for the development of the country, but such priorities are not properly reflected in the PARPA.[56] In June 2003, in discussing the NMAP, Handicap International’s Chief of Project said that “coordination clearly improved but priority criteria based on the LIS still have to be clarified.”[57]

Mine Action

A January 2003 media report cited IND as stating that demining operations have destroyed 78,113 antipersonnel mines in the past ten years, in a total area of 186 square kilometers, using US$160 million in funds.[58]

According to an IND activity report for 2002, a total of 8.9 million square meters of land were cleared in 2002, a slight increase over the 2001 figure of 8.7 million square meters.[59] But for 2002, there is conflicting mine action data from Mozambique, as Landmine Monitor had also reported for 2001.[60]

For example, in February 2003, the IND director reported, “To date, following completion of the first year of implementation of the five-year plan, four of the 19 high impact sites, ten of the 165 medium impact sites, have been already cleared. In addition, a total area of 7,371,806 m2 [square meters] in 20 areas were cleared, that include bridges and roads, schools, villages and power lines. In that process, 1,013 mines were destroyed.”[61] In its 2002 activity report, IND states that a total of 11,532 mines (of which 10,401 were antipersonnel mines) and 1,862 UXO were destroyed.[62]

Also in 2002, IND-reported clearance statistics did not always match figures as provided by NGO demining operators directly to Landmine Monitor. In the chart below, the clearance data in parentheses are the numbers provided directly to Landmine Monitor, all other numbers came from the IND.

2002 Mine Clearance in Mozambique[63]

Operator
Area Cleared (sq. meters)
NGO operator

HALO Trust
613,854 (686,257)
HI
135,568 (252,636)
MGM
202,302 (232,441)
NPA
1,112,734
PAD (or ADP)
2,890,138 (2,939,727)
Subtotal
4,954,596
Commercial operator

EMD
859,815
MMA
2,307,354
RONCO
172,406
AFROVITA
390,391
NECOCHAMINAS
78,000
MECHEM
143,296
Subtotal
3,951,262
TOTAL
8,905,858

In April 2003, the IND said mine action organizations operating in Mozambique included five accredited NGO demining organizations, eleven commercial firms, and two quality assurance operators. Collectively the NGOs operate in all ten provinces and concentrate on “humanitarian” demining tasks. In the NGO sector, there are approximately 1,016 full-time deminers, eight machines, and 24 mine detection dogs.[64]

Commercial operators undertake contract work that is either managed via IND or through a direct contract with a client. According to one mine action study, “One distinctive feature of mine action in Mozambique has been the extent of commercial involvement. By 1997, as much as 45 per cent of the total funding had gone to different commercial companies.”[65]

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA):[66] NPA works in Tete, Manica and Sofala provinces. It has a mine action program staff of approximately 550 in Mozambique, of which about 350 are directly involved in mine clearance and mine survey tasks. It uses about ten mine detection dogs. In 2002, NPA cleared and conducted technical survey on a total of 1,989,935 square meters of land destroying 468 antipersonnel mines, four antivehicle mines and 191 UXO. In 2002, NPA’s mine action budget for the Mozambique program totaled approximately NOK 31 million (US$3,875,000), and donor support was provided by Denmark (DANIDA), Netherlands, Norway (NORAD), and Sweden (SIDA). From January to March 2003, NPA cleared a total of 129,829 square meters. In 2003, NPA plans to introduce a mechanical component to its mine action program. In 2002, NPA introduced the task impact assessment (TIA) tool that allows NPA teams to conduct pre-clearance socio-economic impact assessments. In addition to mine action, the program also conducts small scale, rural community service, focused on primary heath care, in areas where demining teams are working.

Accelerated Demining Program (ADP)/Programa Acelerado de Desminagem (PAD): ADP carries out humanitarian mine clearance in the south of the country in Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane provinces. In March 2003, ADP reported a staff of 339 Mozambicans and two expatriates.[67] Its field operations are conducted by ten manual demining platoons, two independent demining sections for smaller clearance tasks, four survey teams and a mine detection dog team. The Finnish Flail Team provides mechanically assisted mine clearance capability. ADP also runs a Demining Training School in Moamba near Maputo, in which deminers from NPA and HALO were trained.[68] ADP reported receiving a total of US$2.4 million for activities in 2002 from the following donors: Germany, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland, Denmark, Finland, USA, EU, Ireland, Japan, Canada, Austria and UNDP.[69]

Formerly part of the “Swords to Ploughshares” of UNOMOZ, involving demobilized soldiers from both sides of the civil war, ADP is now independent, with limited UN involvement. It will become a Mozambican NGO as required by the government. According to the UN, in 2003, ADP remained focused on completing clearance in 14 demining locations, as well as beginning operations in seven new minefield locations, with a total clearance rate equal to at least the 2001 total of 1,760,780 square meters.[70]

ADP's 2002 survey objectives included Level Two Surveys of all minefields needing them, and completion of Level Three Surveys for all tasks completed in 2001. In 2002, ADP’s survey teams carried out basic survey training for deminers in the UNDP-supported Guinea-Bissau Mine Action Program. In 2003, ADP will continue to provide on-site training in Guinea-Bissau.[71]

ADP’s demining training personnel will deliver refresher training to all platoons, as well as in house training. ADP is the sole national capacity in Mozambique for demining training.[72]

In 2002, ADP cleared 2,939,727 square meters in battlefields, health centers, schools, outskirts of towns and villages, edges of the roads and agricultural land. It removed 500 antipersonnel mines, six antitank mines, and 1,190 UXO. ADP estimates the number of beneficiaries to be “around 250,000 inhabitants.” As a result of ADP demining, “projects to build a new small town were resumed.” [73]

In the first quarter of 2003, ADP cleared 854,900 square meters, including 150 antipersonnel mines and 50 UXO. Demining is underway in Mafuvuca-Namaacha, Catuane Sede–Matutuine, Inharrime Ring–Inharrime, Coculuane–Panda, and in Massagena Sede-Massangena. ADP reported three accidents related to their demining activities.[74]

HALO Trust:[75] In 2002, the HALO Trust continued manual and mechanical humanitarian mine clearance activities in the four northern provinces of Zambézia, Nampula, Niassa and Cabo Delgado. As of March 2003, HALO employed 450 staff as well as two supervisory expatriates, working in 14 manual teams, 8 mobile survey/EOD teams and 4 mechanical teams. The manual teams range in size from 10-20 persons. HALO has also established a mine detection dog training school in Mozambique. In 2002, HALO reported clearing 686,257 square meters of land, destroying a total of 3,666 antipersonnel mines, eight antivehicle mines and 601 UXO.[76] In the first three months of 2003, HALO reported clearing 129,965 square meters of land, destroying a total of 5,844 antipersonnel mines, 1,382 antivehicle mines and 606 UXO.[77]

In 2002, HALO’s activities were funded by the UK (in Zambézia), the Netherlands (in Nampula), Ireland (in Niassa), and Switzerland (in Cabo Delgado). The Tokyo Broadcasting System, in association with the “Zero Landmine Campaign of the Association for Aid and Relief” (Japan), is funding manual operations across all four provinces. The total reported funding for the period 2002-2003 was approximately US$3,550,000.[78] At the end of March 2003, the UK’s support, provided by the Department for International Development, came to an end after almost ten years of continuous funding. HALO reports that it has secured funding from Japan and the United States (US Department of State) to finish off the remaining mined areas within Zambézia. At the end of 2002, HALO secured funding from the US for a clearance commencing in mid-2003 of “the extensive Portuguese military laid minebelts along Mozambique’s northern border with Tanzania in Cabo Delgado Province.”

According to HALO, all minefields worked on in 2002-2003 were selected following close consultation with provincial and district authorities as well as the IND. Yearly provincial planning meetings are held at HALO headquarters in Nampula to prioritize tasks for the year ahead. As of the start of 2003, HALO had identified 172 confirmed mined areas in northern Mozambique (Zambézia 66, Nampula 53, Niassa 27 and Cabo Delgado 26).

Empresa Moçambicana de Desminagem, Lda (EMD): In 2001, EMD was engaged in clearance operations in Zambézia province, notably in Luchinga and Gurué. EMD told Landmine Monitor that there was “little demining going on” at that time as they had “just concluded in September their work along a power line.” EMD works by small contracts financed privately notably in recent times for Sasol and ABB. Funding for 2002 was described as “a little amount.”[79]

Menschen gegen Minen (MgM): In 2002, MgM reported clearing a total of 232,441 square meters of land in Gaza province, removing a total of 689 antipersonnel mines, 196 antivehicle mines and 44 UXO. For the period from January 2003 to May 2003, it reported having cleared 93,346 square meters, removing 374 antipersonnel mines, plus 113 antivehicle mines and 24 UXO.[80] MgM’s clearance of 40 kilometers of minefield along the Limpopo railway (from Maputo to Zimbabwe between Monte Alto at Mpelane and Mabalane) continued into 2003. MgM described the Limpopo railway clearance project as “more complicated than planned” due to “much more mines laid in the minebelts aside the Limpopo railroad than expected and the patterns seem to be more and more chaotic. Official data concerning the type and layout of the minebelts do not match the reality in many cases... The deminers are working now in the difficult and extensively overgrown terrain on both sides of the tracks. Therefore MgM resorted to more heavy machinery to cut the dense vegetation and for the mechanical process of sifting the mine suspected soil.”[81]

MgM reported a budget of approximately €800,000 (US$851,064) per year for 2002 and 2003, provided by Germany and a “small percentage” from MgM’s own funding.[82] MgM started mine clearance in Mozambique in 2000, using manual and mechanical methods with the assistance of explosive detecting dogs. Its current mine action capacity includes 70 staff (43 deminers) and four mine detection dogs. MgM uses a modified and armored big Caterpillar excavator with two tools: a vegetation-cutting device and a large version of a ROTAR mine sifting drum.[83]

Handicap International (HI):[84] HI conducts demining in Inhambane province using manual clearance and explosive detection dogs. In 2002, it reported clearing 252,636 square meters of land, destroying 59 antipersonnel mines, one antivehicle mine, and 74 UXO. From January to April 2003, HI reported clearing 52,765 square meters of land, destroying 15 antipersonnel mines, one antivehicle mine and nine UXO. HI maintains “small mobile teams and works for the communities outside of the big projects (clearing schools, medical posts, maternity, catholic missions, etc).”

Due to budget constraints, HI had to reduce its staff from 110 in 2002 to 60 as of March 2003. In December 2002, the four original manual teams were reduced to two manual teams, as well as one technical survey and one EOD team; its “megateam” of 24 deminers was disbanded. In May 2003, HI had 21 deminers working in Pande, Quissico (alongside ADP), Mavila and Covane bridge. Its EOD teams concentrate on reducing small suspected mined areas, notably in Massinga and Funhalouro Sede. HI also deploys a Community Liaison Team to ensure that the sites cleared are effectively put to use and that the communities understand demining work. Handicap International reported a total demining program cost of US$1,183,837 (of which $962,469 is the direct cost) in 2002; the main donors to HI’s program were Australia (Austcare), Canada, France, Japan, Norway, and the Canadian Auto Workers. As of 31 March 2003, the two remaining donors were Japan and Norway.[85]

RONCO: RONCO has 12 mine detection dogs and handlers conducting demining operations on one of the Mozambican government's top demining priorities, the Sena Railway. The railway is located in central/northern Mozambique and links Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique's mineral-rich heartland with its international port of Beira. The line was closed in 1983 at the height of the civil war. RONCO began work on the railway in 2000.[86] RONCO is funded by the US government, and has received $2.5 million for its work on the Sena Line.[87]

According to RONCO spokesman Nino Carvalho, it removed 60 landmines from the Sena railway from 2000 to 2002 that had not been detected in earlier mine clearance work, begun in 1996 by a Zimbabwean company. After concluding verification along the 462-kilometre line to confirm it free of mines in November 2002, RONCO has been assisting CFM (Mozambique Railways) teams in clearing working areas and access paths. Carvalho praised the cooperation RONCO had received from local communities, and from demobilized fighters both of the government army and Renamo, in identifying mined areas.[88] RONCO also supervises Mozambique’s Quick Reaction Demining Force, described below. [89]

JV Desminagem: In 2002, JV Desminagem, a commercial operator, carried out technical surveys in four minefields in Gaza province, in the districts of Mabalane and Chicualacuala. In the first three months of 2003, it demined along the edges of 24 kilometers of national road number 2, clearing a total of 55 hectares, removing ten mines and four UXO. It received US$139,500 in funding from the IND.[90]

Afrovita: Afrovita is a small commercial mine clearance company that is locally based, but managed by expatriates. A member of IND told Landmine Monitor that Afrovita still existed, but was not operating “due to problems of different natures.”[91]

Mozambique Mine Action (MMA): In 2002, MMA cleared 53,920 square meters in Nhassacara (Manica province) and Vilankulos (Inhambane province). MMA also reported having finished two mine clearance projects in Maputo: one industrial zone for Sasol and one residential area in the popular tourist resort of Ponta de Ouro, the southernmost point of the country bordering South Africa. MMA is based in Chimoio (Manica) and uses combined mine clearance methods (manual, mechanical and dogs). Its works is funded through “commercial contracts such as Sasol in Inhambane or by public contest (competition) contracts for IND or for, instance, a contract they had just finished for the German Cooperation GTZ in Manica Province.”[92]

Other agencies that also are or have been engaged in mine action in Mozambique include ArmorGroup, Minetech, Desminagem de Sofala (Dessof), Special Clearance Service (SCS), Carlos Gassmann Tecnologias de Vanguarda Aplicadas Lda (CGTVA), Lince Lda and Necochaminas.

Recognizing that Mozambique needs a long term demining capacity, the United States has been providing training and equipment to the 1st Battalion of the Mozambican infantry. Mozambican and Angolan officials and soldiers received a training course in the Spanish International Center for Demining from 23 February to 22 March 2002, in a joint cooperation project involving Spain, Portugal and Russia. It is expected that other similar courses will be provided in 2003.[93]

Because of the competence of Mozambican mine clearance operators, the United States selected Mozambique in August 2001 as the operations base for the Quick Reaction Demining Force (QRDF). The QRDF is capable of deploying anywhere in the world within 10 days of tasking from the US Department of State.[94] RONCO is contracted by the US to supervise the QRDF deminers. In May 2003, a RONCO employee reported that since February 2003, 117 QRDF deminers have been engaged in demining operations in Afghanistan (16 deminers), Iraq (53 deminers), Sri Lanka (24 deminers) and Sudan (24 deminers).[95] When not deployed outside Mozambique, QRDF teams conduct demining operations in Mozambique through taskings from the IND.

In September 2002, the IND Director stated, “Currently our country contributes with specialized staff in removal and destruction operations of mines in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Guinea Bissau, Sri Lanka, Croatia, and is also preparing teams to participate in identical activities in Lebanon... Mozambique is also contributing with the training of technicians from Angola and Guinea Bissau...and remains available to assist other countries.”[96]

Mozambican demining trainers from ADP also participate in a UNDP-funded Mine Action Exchange (MAX) project. The MAX program seeks to maximize regional competence in humanitarian technical demining standards within the Portuguese-speaking countries. In June 2002, the US Department of State’s Office of Humanitarian Demining funded the “Mine Action Managers Middle Management Training” program in Mozambique. Some 35 African middle-level mine action mangers have been trained since the program started in June 2001.[97]

IND also reports that it managed six external Quality Assurance contracts as part of the overall IND Quality Control function on donor-funded projects in the districts of Caia, Marrarcuene, Nyathulhu and the Mozal Smelter. This was in addition to the internal QA conducted by the operators as part of their own internal standards operations procedures.” IND reports preliminary activities in the three southern provinces (Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane).[98]

Mine Risk Education

The National Mine Action Plan recognized a need “for an aggressive and sustained Mine Risk Education and Marking campaigns to be re-launched” based on the Mine Risk Education Program (PEPAM) that had been developed by Handicap International in cooperation with the government between 1995-2001.[99]

In its Article 7 Report, Mozambique stated that from January 2002 to March 2003, some 3,379 mine awareness lectures had been delivered throughout the country, which reached 202,334 persons; 743 mine committees had been established and 100 MRE facilitators were trained.[100]

In April 2003, IND reported that it delivered MRE to 170,000 persons in 2002 in the southern region using flood assistance funding provided by the European Commission. IND said it had reestablished the links with the provincial and national MRE partners and has distributed MRE materials to a small area in Gaza and Maputo provinces.[101] IND acknowledges that there were limited MRE activities in the three southern provinces and “no activities” in all other provinces.[102] Landmine Monitor field research did not encounter any MRE signs or MRE activity in the three southern provinces (Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane), with the exception of a few “danger mines” signs.[103]

The Mozambican Red Cross (Cruz Vermelha Moçambicana, CVM) is a cooperating partner in the Mine Risk Education program. Handicap International provides training and materials in 2002, while CVM workers and community volunteers implement the program, carrying out MRE activities in 56 districts.[104] The CVM also assists in identifying the people with disabilities in rural areas. An average of eight administrative workers collect casualty information in each district, and two IND employees are in charge of incorporating the data. [105] HI supported data collection until 2001 and IND has not taken over the MRE program, as had previously been expected. IND is now looking for other sources of funding. According to HI, the quality of the data collection seems to have deteriorated seriously.[106]

Landmine Casualties

In 2002, the IND reported 47 mine casualties in eight of the country’s ten mine-affected provinces.[107] Details on whether the casualties were killed or injured were not provided. In 2001, 60 mine incidents were reported resulting in 80 new casualties.[108] In September 2002, the IND Director reported that due to the continued MRE and mine clearance work, there had been a “significant reduction” in mine incidents in 2002.[109] However, NGOs working in Mozambique have, in the past, questioned whether data collection on mine casualties is comprehensive and truly reflects the reality on the ground.[110] In April 2002, the IND Director was quoted as saying that people were still being injured every day by landmines.[111]

Nine of the 47 casualties in 2002 were deminers.[112] Landmine Monitor was able to obtain details on most of the demining accidents in 2002. An HI deminer was injured in Inhambane province and an EMD deminer was injured in Manica province.[113] ADP reported three mine accidents.[114] HALO Trust reported one mine accident in which the deminer suffered minor injuries and is now working again.[115] MgM reported one accident in which a deminer lost his leg on 1 November 2002 when he stepped on an antipersonnel mine during a clearance operation.[116] EMD reported an accident in Mabuzi, involving an EOD specialist who lost one eye and his hearing.[117]

In May 2002, a Mozambican peacekeeper serving with the United Nations force in southern Lebanon (UNIFIL) lost both his hands and injured his legs in an accident during mine clearance operations to clear Israeli mines. According to the Lebanese Police, he was the third Mozambican peacekeeper to be injured during clearance operations that month.[118]

In May 2003, the IND director said that three or four mine incidents had occurred in 2003, but no one had been killed in the incidents.[119] However, in a radio interview on 11 April, the Foreign and Cooperation Minister reported that a soldier had been killed in a mine incident the day before.[120]

The Mozambique Landmine Impact Survey, completed in May 2001, identified 2,145 landmine casualties. However, the report acknowledged that this figure is probably understated as 31 communities reported “many” casualties, but did not estimate an actual number.[121]

Survivor Assistance

The health infrastructure in Mozambique was severely damaged during almost thirty years of armed conflict, and the floods of 2000, and is dependent on international funding.[122] In Mozambique, responsibility for assistance to landmine survivors is shared between the Ministry of Health (MINSAU) and the Ministry for Women and the Coordination of Social Action (MMCAS). The IND Five Year National Mine Action Plan (2002-2006) affirms its coordinating role in mine victim assistance.[123] Mozambique’s 2003 Article 7 Report, states that from January 2002 to March 2003, 163 mine survivors were assisted, through the provision of medical aid and drugs, as well as mobility devices;[124] 133 were assisted in 2002.[125]

There is reportedly a lack of immediate first aid treatment and no mechanism to arrange treatment or transport to the nearest health facility. The lack of available transport makes facilities for continuing care and rehabilitation inaccessible for many landmine survivors. Orthopedic centers are reportedly not being used to their full capacity because of the difficulties of access encountered by people from rural areas.[126]

Cooperation Canada Mozambique’s four-year program in the provinces of Inhambane and Nampula ended in March 2002. The program provided transport to the orthopedic and rehabilitation centers, and assisted about 100 mine survivors over the four years.[127]

Mozambique has a national rehabilitation policy for persons with disabilities. There are eleven orthopedic workshops. Ten workshops are run by the Ministry of Health and one by the Mozambique Red Cross Society. In addition, there are rehabilitation centers and physiotherapy centers, some of which are managed by the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Section of the Ministry of Health.[128]

The Mozambique Red Cross Society (CVM) operates the Jaipur Orthopedic Center (COJ) in Gaza province. The COJ is the first rehabilitation center to be wholly run by a Mozambican NGO, and is located in a rural district to facilitate and improve access to rural communities. The center provides mobility devices, vocational training, disability awareness and social support programs.[129] The Jaipur Limb Campaign supported the COJ until November 2002. CVM continues the program with support from other Red Cross Societies. Since the center opened in February 2000, more than 531 people have benefited from the program;[130] about 80 percent were landmine survivors.[131] The CVM, with financial assistance from the Canadian Red Cross, also implements survivor assistance programs in the provinces of Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Zambezia and Tete. The program facilitates transport to the orthopedic centers and supports the socio-economic reintegration of mine survivors into their communities.[132]

In 2002, Handicap International’s activities in physical medicine and rehabilitation focused on supporting the quality of national services, including improving the skills of staff in the rehabilitation sector. HI also works with the MMCAS and the Forum of Mozambican Associations of Disabled Persons (FAMOD) to improve access to physical medicine and rehabilitation services, and to promote the rights of all persons with disabilities.[133]

POWER, a UK-based NGO, supported the Ministry of Health prosthetic and orthotic services until the end of May 2002. According to POWER, Mozambique suffers from a low productivity rate among prosthetic technicians that is well below international standards and there is a need to develop new policies to address the problem.[134] POWER is supporting two Mozambican technicians to undertake university degrees in prosthetics and orthotics in the United Kingdom and they will soon return to take up positions within the health service. POWER is also involved in a number of vocational training initiatives in metal work, leatherwork and carpentry, to provide specialized skills for people with disabilities.[135]

The Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) continues to engage community-based outreach workers, who are also amputees, to work with individual survivors to assess their needs, offering psychological and social support, and educating families about the effects of limb loss. LSN assists survivors in accessing services that provide mobility devices, rehabilitation, health-care, or vocational training. In 2002, LSN made more than 1,679 home visits, assisted about 193 mine survivors and facilitated the start of 27 small businesses.[136]

One of the major problems for mine survivors is the lack of opportunities for socio-economic reintegration. Even after receiving physical rehabilitation and prostheses many survivors cannot find employment to support themselves or their families.[137] The government acknowledges that financial constraints are limiting the availability of programs to assist mine survivors and that more facilities are needed to provide for their socio-economic reintegration.[138]

The World Rehabilitation Fund (WRF), in partnership with UNDP, is developing a number of projects, which include supporting POWER and the Association of the Mozambican Disabled (ADEMO) with two vocational training programs.[139]

ADEMO is also involved in a number of other mine survivor assistance projects. One project provides donkeys to mine survivors, while another project breeds ducks and goats. A computer-training project supported by the Irish Embassy faltered after the computers were stolen.[140]

Disability Policy and Practice

Mozambique has legislation to support the rights of persons with disabilities.[141] However, the legislation reportedly has not been implemented and there is a huge gap between the intent and the reality of the problems faced by the disabled in their daily lives.[142]

There are several Mozambican disability organizations working on advocacy and two in particular, ADEMO and ADEMIMO (Mozambican Association of Military Disabled) work to support the rights of landmine survivors. Two mine survivors from these organizations participated in the “Raising the Voices” initiative in Geneva in September 2002.[143] Following a meeting with the then-director of the IND it was agreed that ADEMO and ADEMIMO would cooperate to draft a survivor assistance policy in the future; however, neither ADEMO nor ADEMIMO have been invited to participate in subsequent IND meetings on survivor assistance.[144] In April 2002, POWER started a new four-year program of capacity building of Mozambican disability organizations, with funding of US$1.3 million provided by the European Commission, and is working closely with the ADEMO.[145]


[1] Interview with Gamiliel Munguambe, Director, National Demining Institute, Geneva, 5 February 2003.
[2] A resolution approved by the Council of Ministers formally recognized the Mine Ban Treaty on 10 June 1999: Decree 37/99, as published in Boletim da Republica, No. 29, 10 June 1999; Article 7 Report, Form A, covering the period from 1 January 2002 to 1 March 2003.
[3] Article 7 Report, for the period 1 January 2002-1 March 2003 (Hereafter, Article 7 Report, 2003).
[4] See Article 7 Report, 2 July 2002 (for calendar year 2001); Article 7 Report, 30 October 2001 (for the period from 1 September 1999-31 December 2000); Article 7 Report, 30 March 2001 (for the period from 1 March 1999-August 2000).
[5] Interview with David Chaboka, First Secretary, Embassy of Mozambique to Ethiopia and the African Union, Addis Ababa, 10 December 2002.
[6] Article 7 Report, Form E, 30 March 2000.
[7] For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 45.
[8] Article 7 Report, Form B, 2003. See also, “Mozambique army says it has destroyed stockpile of land mines,” Associated Press (Maputo), 1 March 2003. Details on the types and countries of origin of the mine stockpile were provided in Mozambique’s initial Article 7 report, submitted in March 2000.
[9] In Moamba, 2,000 mines were destroyed on 19 March 2002, 6,000 mines on 22 August 2002, and 2,700 mines on 28 February 2003; in Sofala, 13,818 mines were destroyed on 30 October 2002; in Nampula, 10,812 mines were destroyed on 25 February 2003; and in Chokwe, 1,988 mines were destroyed on 20 February 2003, as reported in Article 7 Report, Forms B and G, for the period 1 January 2002-1 March 2003. Landmine Monitor notes that these totals do not include 500 mines destroyed in September 2001 at Moamba, as reported in the 2002 Article 7 report.
[10] “Army Hopes to Destroy Stockpiles By Next Year,” IRIN/AllAfrica Global Media, Maputo, 26 April 2002.
[11] Landmine Monitor notes that it is unclear where these mines originated. All previous Article 7 reports cited a stockpile of 37,818 with no mines retained, and this is the total reported as destroyed in 2003. The mines are held by the Armed Forces (900), HALO Trust (216), ADP (172), MgM (121), and RONCO (18), as reported in Article 7 Report, Form D, 2003.
[12] “Destruição de 7 milhões de minas em Angola levará muito tempo” (Destruction of 7 million in Angola will take a long time), LUSA (Portuguese International News Agency), 23 September 2002.
[13] Canadian International Demining Corps and Paul F. Wilkinson & Associates Inc, “Landmine Impact Survey,” August 2001. The survey was carried out by the Canadian International Demining Corps, with quality assurance provided by the Survey Action Center and the UN Mine Action Service. See also Landmine Monitor 2001, pp. 109-112.
[14] Article 7 Report, Form C, 2003.
[15] Article 7 Report, 2003.
[16] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action Activities in Mozambique, 2002,” Summary Report, Maputo, April 2003.
[17] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[18] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Cameron Imber, Mozambique Program Manager, HALO Trust, 9 May 2003.
[19] Interview with Adérito Ismael, Chief of Project, HI France, Inhambane, Mozambique, 2 June 2003.
[20] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[21] “Governo de Moçambique admite que existam ainda 1.400 zonas minadas” (Mozambique’s Government admits that 1,400 mined zones may still exist), LUSA (Brazilian section), Maputo, 15 April 2003.
[22] “Malawians encroach on Mozambican land,” Agência de Informação de Moçambique (Mozambican Information Agency), Maputo, 8 October 2002.
[23] Interview with Zambian government delegates, intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Geneva, January 2002.
[24] Email from Col. Munongwa, Director of Zimbabwe Mine Action Center, 8 July 2003.
[25] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[26] UN Mine Action Investments database; see also individual Landmine Monitor country reports.
[27] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 112-113.
[28] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[29] Email from Josephine Hutton, Coordinator, Australian Agency for International Coordination, 30 April 2003.
[30] UN Mine Action Investments database; see also Austria report.
[31] UN Mine Action Investments database.
[32] See Denmark report.
[33] Email to ICBL (Sylvie Brigot) from Catherine Horeftari, European Commission, 23 May 2003.
[34] Emails from Olli Sotamaa, Unit for Humanitarian Assistance, Development Cooperation Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 21 January, 28 February, 19 March 2003; letter from Olli Sotmaa, 18 December 2002.
[35] Interview with Ambassador Chesnel, Geneva, 13 May 2003; email from Christine Lefort, HI, 15 April 2003.
[36] UN Mine Action Investments database.
[37] Ibid; see Germany report.
[38] See Italy report.
[39] See Netherlands report.
[40] See New Zealand report.
[41] Email from Janecke Wille, Norwegian People’s Aid, 16 April 2003.
[42] See Sweden report.
[43] UN Mine Action Investments database.
[44] US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” September 2002.
[45] “Governo de Moçambique admite que existam ainda 1.400 zonas minadas,” (Mozambique’s Government admits that 1,400 mined zones may still exist), LUSA, 15 April 2003.
[46] Luísa Ribeiro, “Moçambique: Instituto de Desminagem precisa de apoio para desminar 562.000 Km2,” (Mozambique needs support to demine 562,000 square kilometers), LUSA (Maputo), 22 July 2002.
[47] IND, “Landmines in Mozambique,” Leaflet, March 2002.
[48] UN Mine Action Service E-Mine Website, available at: http://www.mineaction.org/index.cfm.
[49] Interview with Renato Raimundo, President, Clube de Jovens da Huíla (Angola), Maputo, 3 June 2003.
[50] National Demining Institute, “The Five Year National Mine Action Plan 2002-2006,” 19 November 2001.
[51] Ibid.
[52] Statement by Gamiliel Mumguambe, Director, IND, to the Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention, 3 February 2003.
[53] Ibid.
[54] Ibid.
[55] UN Mine Action Service E-Mine Website.
[56] Luísa Ribeiro, “Moçambique: Instituto de Desminagem precisa de apoio para desminar 562.000 Km2” (Mozambique: National Demining Institute needs support to demine 562.000 sq km,” LUSA (Maputo), 22 July 2002.
[57] Interview with Adérito Ismael, Chief of Project, HI, Inhambane, 2 June 2003.
[58] “Moçambique: ONG vai desenvolver processo mecânico para desminar território” (Mozambique: NGO will develop a mechanical process to demine territory), LUSA (Maputo), 3 January 2003.
[59] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[60] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 355-356.
[61] Statement by Gamiliel Mumguambe, IND, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 5 February 2003.
[62] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[63] Ibid. Clearance data in parentheses were provided directly to Landmine Monitor by the mine action organization.
[64] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[65] UNDP/GICHD, “A Study of Socio-Economic Approaches to Mine Action,” March 2001, p. 154.
[66] Norwegian People's Aid Mozambique, “Mine Action Program,” March 2003; NPA, “Third Quarterly Report 2002: July-September 2002;” NPA, “First Quarterly Report 2003: January - March 2003;” NPA, “Annual Report 2002.”
[67] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by F. Chongo, ADP/PAD Mozambique, 9 May 2003.
[68] Dr. Hildegard Scheu, Pilot Study on Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Humanitarian Mine Action in Mozambique, UNIDIR, 2002, pp. 54-55.
[69] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by ADP/PAD Mozambique, 9 May 2003.
[70] UN Mine Action Service E-Mine Website.
[71] UNDP, “UN support to the Guinea Bissau National Humanitarian Mine Action Program,” Bissau, 1 May 2003.
[72] UN Mine Action Service E-Mine Website.
[73] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by ADP/PAD Mozambique, 9 May 2003; telephone interview with F. Chongo, ADP/PAD, 27 May 2003.
[74] Ibid.
[75] Unless otherwise noted, all information in this section was provided in response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Cameron Imber, Mozambique Program Manager, HALO Trust, 9 May 2003.
[76] This included: 129,785 square meters of land and 125 antipersonnel mines in Zambézia; 170,705 square meters of land and 19 antipersonnel in Nampula; 122,629 square meters of land and 52 antipersonnel mines in Niassa; and 263,138 square meters of land and 3,470 antipersonnel mines in Cabo Delgado.
[77] The 2003 figures include February 2003 stockpile destruction in response to a request from the Armed Forces of Mozambique.
[78] Email from Tim Porter, Southern Africa Desk Officer, HALO Trust, 21 May 2003.
[79] Telephone interview with Nico Bosman, EMD, Maputo, 27 May 2003.
[80] Interview with Hans Georg Kruessen, Chairman, MgM, Maputo, 27 May 2003; Email from Hans Georg Kruessen, MgM, 9 June 2003.
[81] Ibid.
[82] Ibid.
[83] MgM website, www.mgm.org.
[84] Information in this section comes from interview with Adérito Ismael, Chief of Project, HI, Inhambane, 2 June 2003.
[85] Financial charts provided by Manuel Gonzal, Demining Technical Coordinator, HI, 19 May 2003.
[86] RONCO website, www.roncoconsulting.com.
[87] “American Ambassador Visits Sena Line,” Agência de Informação de Moçambique, 8 February 2003.
[88] “Rehabilitation of Sena Line,” Agência de Informação de Moçambique, 8 February 2003.
[89] “117 moçambicanos envolvidos em desminagem em vários países” (117 Mozambican involved in demining in several countries), LUSA (Maputo), 22 May 2003.
[90] Email from JV Consultants (no name provided), JV Demining, 8 May 2003.
[91] Email from Surengue Assane, IND, 11 June 2003.
[92] Interview with Pascoal Isaías, Mozambique Mine Action, Maputo, 27 May 2003.
[93] See Spain report.
[94] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Thomas Seal, Deputy Director, PM/HDP, US Department of State, 1 August 2003.
[95] “117 moçambicanos envolvidos em desminagem em vários países,” LUSA, 22 May 2003.
[96] Statement by Artur Veríssimo, Director, IND, Fourth Meeting of the States Parties, Geneva, 16 September 2002.
[97] US Department of State, Media Note, “Lusophone African Humanitarian Deminers Management Training Course,” 11 June 2002.
[98] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[99] UNIDIR, "Participatory Monitoring of Humanitarian Mine Action: Giving Voice to Citizens of Nicaragua, Mozambique and Cambodia,” 2003, p. 46; see also Dr. Hildegard Scheu, “Pilot Study on Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Humanitarian Mine Action in Mozambique,” UNIDIR, 2002. PEPAM (Program of Education to Prevent Accidents with Mines) is the lusophone equivalent of Mine Risk Education.
[100] Article 7 Report, Form I, 2003.
[101] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[102] Ibid.
[103] Field Research by Landmine Monitor, 28 May-3 June 2003.
[104] Dr. Hildegard Scheu, “Pilot Study on Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Humanitarian Mine Action in Mozambique,” 2002, p. 62.
[105] World Rehabilitation Fund, “Mozambique Country Visit - Final Version,” November 2001, p. 9.
[106] Rioufoul Emmanuelle, HI Director Assistant, “Questionnaire Form on Landmine Victim Assistance,” Lyon, August 2002.  
[107] Interview with Gamiliel Mumguambe, Director, IND, Geneva, 14 May 2003.
[108] A breakdown of the number of casualties killed or injured was not reported. See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 358-359.
[109] Statement by Artur Veríssimo, IND, Fourth Meeting of States Parties, 16 September 2002.
[110] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 359.
[111] “Army Hopes to Destroy Stockpiles By Next Year,” IRIN/All Africa Global Media, 26 April 2002.
[112] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[113] IMSMA database, Victim Statistics, National Demining Institute, 8 July 2002.
[114] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by ADP/PAD Mozambique, 9 May 2003.
[115] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by HALO, 9 May 2003.
[116] Interview with Hans Georg Kruessen, Chairman, MgM - Menschen gegen Minen, Maputo, 27 May 2003; and email from Hans Georg Kruessen, 9 June 2003.
[117] Telephone interview with Nico Bosman, EMD representative, Maputo, 27 May 2003.
[118] “Mozambican peacekeeper loses hands in Lebanon mine-clearing accident,” Agence France Presse, Lebanon, 20 May 2002.
[119] Interview with Gamiliel Mumguambe, IND, 14 May 2003.
[120] “Minister says land mine situation in the country ‘serious’,” Radio Mozambique, 11 April 2003.
[121] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 118-119; see also Mozambique Landmine Impact Survey, accessed at http://www.sac-na.org/surveys_mozambique_executive_summary.html (17 July 2002).
[122] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 359.
[123] National Demining Institute, “The Five Year National Mine Action Plan 2002-2006,” 19 November 2001, p. 21; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 361.
[124] Article 7 Report 2003, Form J.
[125] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003.
[126] World Rehabilitation Fund, “Mozambique Country Visit - Final Version”, World Rehabilitation Fund supported by the UNDP, November 2001, p. 5.
[127] Handicap International, “Landmine Victim Assistance World Report 2002,” Lyon, December 2002, p. 115.
[128] For more details see Landmine Survivors Rehabilitation Database, available at www.lsndatabase.org; HI, “Landmine Victim Assistance World Report 2002,” p. 113.
[129] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 360.
[130] Jaipur Limb, “5 Year Strategic Plan for COJ,” Campaign News, Issue 9, December 2002, p. 7.
[131] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 360.
[132] Email from Karen Mollica, Program Coordinator, Africa and the Middle East, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Ottawa, 8 July 2003.
[133] Handicap International, “Review of Activities 2001-2002,” pp. 18-19.
[134] Interview with Eileen O’Dwyer, Country Director, POWER Mozambique, Maputo, 28 May 2003.
[135] Email from Sarah Hodge, Chief Executive, POWER, 6 May 2003.
[136] Email from Anne Hayes, Country Program Manager, Landmine Survivors Network, 8 May 2003.
[137] Interviews with Luis Wamusse, ADEMO, and Domingos Cambalane. ADEMIMO, participants in the Raising the Voices initiative, at the Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 16-20 September 2002.
[138] Article 7 Report 2003, Form J.
[139] For more details see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 360.
[140] Interview with Luis Wamusse, ADEMO, Maputo, 26 May 2003.
[141] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 361.
[142] Jaipur Limb, “Soikat Ghose and Hargovind Pachauri with COJ in Mozambique,” Campaign News, Issue 9, December 2002, p. 7.
[143] Interview with Luis Wamusse, ADEMO, and Domingos Cambalane, ADEMIMO, at the Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 20 September 2002.
[144] Interview with Luis Wamusse, ADEMO, Maputo, 26 May 2003.
[145] Interview with Eileen O’Dwyer, Country Director, POWER Mozambique, Maputo, 28 May 2003.