It is abundantly clear from the wealth of information in Landmine Monitor
Report 2004 that the Mine Ban Treaty and the ban movement more generally are
making tremendous strides in eradicating antipersonnel landmines and in saving
lives and limbs in every region of the world. However, daunting challenges
remain to universalize the treaty and strengthen the norm of banning
antipersonnel mines, to clear mines from the ground, to destroy stockpiled
antipersonnel mines, and to assist mine survivors. The ICBL believes that the
only real measure of the Mine Ban Treaty’s success will be the concrete
impact that it has on the global antipersonnel mine problem. As with the five
previous annual reports, Landmine Monitor Report 2004 provides a means of
measuring that impact.
The reporting period for Landmine Monitor Report 2004 is May 2003 to
May 2004. Editors have where possible added important information that arrived
between June and September 2004. Additionally, special emphasis in this edition
has been placed on the period since 1999, when the Mine Ban Treaty entered into
Key Indicators from the Past Five Years
152 countries have agreed to ban antipersonnel mines.
Sixty-two million stockpiled antipersonnel mines have been destroyed,
including 37.3 million by Mine Ban Treaty States Parties.
More than 1,100 square kilometers of land has been cleared since 1999,
destroying more than four million antipersonnel mines, nearly one million
antivehicle mines, and many more millions of pieces of unexploded ordnance
Donors provided more than $1.35 billion to mine action from 1999-2003, and
about $2.1 billion since 1992.
About 22.9 million people attended mine risk education sessions between 1999
From 1999 to September 2004, Landmine Monitor has recorded more than 42,500
new landmine and UXO casualties from incidents in at least 75 countries.
However, many casualties go unreported and the full number of casualties is
certainly much higher, probably in the range of 15,000 to 20,000 new casualties
The only governments that have used mines continuously in the 1999-2004
period are Russia and Myanmar (Burma).
There has been no publicly acknowledged, legal trade in antipersonnel
international rejection of antipersonnel mines
A total of 143 countries are States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty, and
another nine have signed but not yet ratified, constituting more than
three-quarters of the world’s nations. Since the last Landmine Monitor
report, nine countries joined the treaty including Burundi and Sudan, which are
both mine-affected, and Belarus, Greece, Serbia and Montenegro, and Turkey which
combined have over 10 million stockpiled antipersonnel mines to destroy. A
number of other governments took significant steps toward joining and were
poised to ratify or accede including Brunei, Latvia, Poland and Vanuatu.
The fact that only two nations joined the Mine Ban Treaty from November
2003-September 2004, despite increased universalization efforts on the part of
governments and NGOs in the lead-up to the Nairobi Summit, is disturbing.
Forty-two countries, with a combined stockpile of some 180-185 million
antipersonnel mines, remain outside of the Mine Ban Treaty. They include three
of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (China, Russia, and the
United States), most of the Middle East, most of the former Soviet republics,
and many Asian states. In February 2004, the United States abandoned its
long-held goal of eventually eliminating all antipersonnel mines. Finland
announced in September 2004 that it would not join the Mine Ban Treaty until
2012, six years later than its previously stated goal.
Fewer governments using antipersonnel
The marked drop in the use of antipersonnel mines around the globe since the
mid-1990s is without question one of the great achievements of the Mine Ban
Treaty and the movement to ban antipersonnel mines more generally. Landmine
Monitor has confirmed use of antipersonnel mines by 16 governments at some point
since 1999 and there is compelling evidence that another five have used them.
In looking at the trend, Landmine Monitor Report 1999 identified
confirmed or likely use by 15 governments in 1998/1999, while Landmine
Monitor Report 2004 identifies four governments that used antipersonnel
mines in 2003/2004.
Antipersonnel mine use by Mine Ban Treaty non-States
The only governments that have used mines continuously in the 1999-2004
period are Russia and Myanmar (Burma). In addition, Eritrea, India, Iraq,
Israel, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Uzbekistan, and Yugoslavia have
admitted to using antipersonnel mines during the period; Landmine Monitor also
finds that Georgia has laid antipersonnel mines on several occasions, but this
is denied by the government. Two of these countries have since become
States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty: Eritrea in February 2002 and Serbia and
Montenegro (formerly FR Yugoslavia) in March 2004.
Antipersonnel mine use by Mine Ban
Treaty States Parties and Signatories
Landmine Monitor has found no definitive evidence of use of antipersonnel
mines by any State Party, but there were serious and credible allegations
regarding Uganda in 2000. Angola, Ecuador, Ethiopia, and Venezuela have
acknowledged using antipersonnel mines after signing the treaty, but prior to
becoming States Parties. There have been serious allegations about use by three
other signatories—Burundi, Rwanda and Sudan—all of which are now
Non-State Actors using antipersonnel
Landmine Monitor has identified at least 70 armed non-state actors (NSAs)
that have used antipersonnel mines since 1999. NSAs have regularly used mines
in Burma, Burundi, Chechnya, Colombia, DR Congo, India, Nepal, Philippines,
Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda. Widespread rebel use in Sri Lanka and Angola
stopped with their cease-fire and peace agreements, respectively. Rebels and
other NSAs used antipersonnel mines in at least 16 countries in 2003 and 2004.
In this year’s report, NSA use is cited for the first time in Bolivia,
Bhutan, Iraq, and Peru.
Of the more than 50 states known to have produced antipersonnel mines, 36
states have formally renounced and ceased production. This includes three
countries that are not party to the Mine Ban Treaty: Finland, Israel, and
Poland. Since it began reporting in 1999, Landmine Monitor has removed Turkey
and Serbia and Montenegro from its list of producers. Egypt has unofficially
stated that it ceased production in 1988. The US has not produced antipersonnel
mines since 1997. South Korea has stated it has not produced any mines since
2000. An official from China stated in September 2003 that no production is
occurring there. Production of certain types of antipersonnel mines by Russia
has apparently stopped.
Landmine Monitor identifies 15 countries as producers of antipersonnel mines.
Nepal was added to the list in 2003, making it the first addition to the ranks
of the producers since Landmine Monitor reporting started in 1999. In some
cases it is unclear if production lines were active between 1999 and 2004. An
Iraqi diplomat stated that production continued in recent years, including
during the lead-up to the invasion in 2003, but that facilities were destroyed
in the war. India and Pakistan are actively engaged in the production of
antipersonnel mines, including new remotely delivered mine systems. Officials
in Singapore and Vietnam admit that the production of antipersonnel mines is
on-going. Burma, Cuba, and North Korea have made no public confirmation or
denial of production activity since 1999.
De facto global ban on trade in
A de facto global ban on the transfer or export of antipersonnel mines
has been in effect since 1996. The trade in antipersonnel mines has dwindled to
a very low level of illicit trafficking and unacknowledged trade. A significant
number of states outside the Mine Ban Treaty have enacted or extended export
moratoria in the past five years including China, India, Israel, Kazakhstan,
Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, and the United States. In
addition, representatives of Cuba, Egypt, and Vietnam have claimed not to export
antipersonnel mines, although no formal unilateral prohibition has been put into
Millions of stockpiled antipersonnel
At the time when the Mine Ban Treaty was
negotiated and entered into force, a staggering 131 states possessed stockpiles
estimated at more than 260 million antipersonnel mines. In this Landmine
Monitor reporting period, some four million stockpiled antipersonnel mines were
destroyed, bringing the global total to about 62 million antipersonnel mines
destroyed in recent years. Sixty-five States Parties have completed the
destruction of their stockpiles, collectively destroying more than 37.3 million
antipersonnel mines. Italy destroyed the most mines (7.1 million), followed by
Turkmenistan (6.6 million). Albania, France, Germany, Japan, Romania, Sweden,
Switzerland, and the United Kingdom have each destroyed more than one million
Millions of mines stockpiled by
The greatest numbers of antipersonnel mines, between 180 million and 185
million, are stockpiled by states not party to the Mine Ban Treaty. The
majority of these stockpiles belong to just three states: China (estimated 110
million), Russia (estimated 50 million) and the United States (10.4 million).
Other states with large stockpiles include Pakistan (estimated 6 million), India
(estimated 4-5 million), and South Korea (2 million). Other states not party to
the treaty believed to have large stockpiles are Burma, Egypt, Finland, Iran,
Iraq, Israel, North Korea, Syria, and Vietnam.
Failure to meet transparency reporting
While the compliance rate for States Parties submitting initial transparency
measures reports required by Article 7 of the Mine Ban Treaty is a very
admirable 91 percent, twelve States Parties are late in submitting their
reports: Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea,
Guyana, Liberia, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and
Principe, Serbia and Montenegro, Sudan, and Turkey. Equatorial Guinea (due date
28 August 1999), St. Lucia (29 March 2000), and Liberia (28 November 2000) can
only be considered grossly non-compliant in fulfilling the treaty’s
transparency obligation. All three have passed their deadlines for destroying
any stockpiled antipersonnel mines, but have not informed States Parties of
compliance with this core obligation.
Failure to reach understandings on the meaning of key treaty
Since the Mine Ban Treaty entered into force, the ICBL has consistently
raised questions about how States Parties interpret and implement certain
aspects of Articles 1, 2, and 3. In particular, the ICBL has expressed concerns
regarding the issues of joint military operations with non-States Parties, the
prohibition on “assist,” foreign stockpiling and transit of
antipersonnel mines, mines with sensitive fuzes and antihandling devices, and
the permissible number of mines retained for training and development purposes.
The ICBL has pointed out that some States Parties have diverged from the
predominant legal interpretation and predominant State practice on these
Increased mine action donations
Landmine Monitor has identified about US$2.07 billion in donor mine action
contributions from 1992-2003. Of that 12-year total, 65 percent ($1.35 billion)
was provided in the past five years (1999-2003), since the entry into force of
the Mine Ban Treaty. For 2003, Landmine Monitor has identified $339 million in
mine action funding by more than 24 donors. This is an increase of $25 million,
or 8 percent, from 2002, and an increase of $102 million, or 43 percent, from
2001. Major increases were registered for the European Commission and the
United States, as well as Canada and Sweden.
Donor decreases in mine action
In 2003, mine action funding fell significantly for several of the major
donors, including Japan, Austria, Italy, Australia, France, and the
Increases in funding received
Top recipients of mine action funding for the five-year review period
(1999-2003) were Afghanistan ($200 million), Iraq ($149 million), Cambodia ($114
million), Kosovo ($89 million), Angola ($84 million), Bosnia and Herzegovina
($82 million) and Mozambique ($73 million). In 2003, mine action funding for
Afghanistan continued to rise, to $75 million, making a two-year total of $141
million. Funds also poured into Iraq after the invasion and ouster of Saddam
Hussein, with some $55 million contributed in 2003. Sri Lanka and Sudan are
emerging as significant recipients.
More funding needed
An unusually large number of mine-affected countries experienced a decline in
donor contributions to mine action in 2003. Mine action funding fell most
severely in 2003 for Vietnam and Cambodia, but decreases were also seen for
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, Somaliland, Laos, and Ethiopia. Resources for
mine victim assistance have declined since 1999, even as the number of landmine
survivors requiring assistance has continued to grow every year.
Expanding mine action programs
Some form of mine clearance was reported to have taken place in 2003 and 2004
in a total of 65 countries and seven areas, including humanitarian mine
clearance that benefited the civilian population in 36 countries. In this
reporting period, humanitarian mine clearance operations started for the first
time in Armenia (May 2003), Chile (September 2003), Senegal (late 2003), and
Tajikistan (June 2004). A combined total of more than 149 million square meters
of land was cleared in 2003, destroying 174,167 antipersonnel mines, 9,330
antivehicle mines, and 2.6 million items of UXO.
Several States Parties have declared fulfillment of clearance
Countries that have declared completion of mine clearance since the
publication of Landmine Monitor Report 1999 include Bulgaria (October
1999), Moldova (August 2000), Costa Rica (December 2002), Czech Republic (April
2003), Djibouti (January 2004) and, most recently, Honduras (June 2004). In
June 2004, Namibia stated that while there was still a problem on the
country’s border with Angola, the country could be viewed as mine safe.
Still too many mine-affected countries
and not enough being done
Uncleared landmines and UXO affect millions of people living in 83 countries.
In 2003 and 2004, no clearance activities were recorded in 20 of those
countries, including Algeria, Bangladesh, Burundi, Republic of Congo, Cuba,
Denmark, France (Djibouti), Liberia, Malawi, Morocco, Niger, North Korea, Oman,
Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland, Syria, Tunisia, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela. In
2003 and 2004, no mine risk education activities were recorded in 23
mine-affected countries, including 13 States Parties.
Fewer new mine victims in some
The number of reported new casualties declined in 2003 from those reported in
2002 in the majority of mine-affected countries; in some cases significantly,
such as in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Lebanon, Senegal, and
Sri Lanka. However, civilians account for the vast majority of new landmine
casualties; 86 percent of reported casualties in 2004 were identified as
More mine victims needing
For 2003, Landmine Monitor identified over 8,065 new casualties, of which 23
percent were children, in 65 countries. Compared to last year’s Landmine
Monitor Report, there were four new countries with reported casualties from
mine-related incidents: Armenia, Bolivia, Cyprus, and Liberia. Landmine Monitor
has identified more than 230,000 mine survivors recorded in 97 countries and
nine areas; some are from incidents dating back to the end of the World War II,
but the vast majority of survivors are from the mid-1970s onwards. Given the
high number of casualties that likely have never been recorded, it is reasonable
to assume that there are somewhere between 300,000 and 400,000 mine survivors in
the world today.