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Table of Contents
Country Reports
Perú, Landmine Monitor Report 2004

Perú

Key developments since May 2003: Perú reported that humanitarian clearance in the departments of Piura and Tumbes was completed in December 2003. Perú hosted a regional mine action seminar in Lima in August 2003. In June and July 2003, the media reported that the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) had used landmines in various villages in the department of Ayacucho, Huanta province.

Key developments since 1999: Perú became a State Party on 1 March 1999. An inter-ministerial Working Group on Antipersonnel Mines was formalized in September 1999 to oversee implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. No specific implementation legislation has been enacted. In December 2001, Perú completed destruction of its 338,356 stockpiled antipersonnel mines, far in advance of its March 2003 deadline. It has reduced the number of mines initially retained for training from 9,526 to 4,024. Perú has played a leadership role in the Mine Ban Treaty intersessional work program. Perú served as co-rapporteur then co-chair of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance from May 1999 to September 2001, and as co-rapporteur then co-chair of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention from September 2001 to September 2003.

In May 2001, Perú and the Organization of American States signed an agreement to support integrated mine action in the country. On 13 December 2002, Perú officially created the Peruvian Center for Mine Action, “Contraminas,” responsible for mine action planning and policy-making. Perú reported that humanitarian clearance in the departments of Piura and Tumbes was completed in December 2003. In 2002, the Army completed mine clearance of the Zarumilla Canal, its source at La Palma, and the area leading to the international bridge at Aguas Verdes. Since 1999, there have been at least 55 mine/UXO casualties in Perú. In early 2003, the Association of Victims and Survivors of Landmines (AVISCAM) was created.

Mine Ban Policy

Perú signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified on 17 June 1998, and the treaty entered into force on 1 March 1999.

In July 1995, Perú declared its support for an immediate and comprehensive ban on antipersonnel mines as early as July 1995, and it was an active participant in the Ottawa Process. Perú has voted in favor of every annual pro-ban UN General Assembly resolution since 1996. Since entry into force in March 1999, Perú has played a leadership role in the Mine Ban Treaty intersessional work program, and in promotion of full implementation of the treaty. Perú served as co-rapporteur then co-chair of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance from May 1999 to September 2001, and as co-rapporteur then co-chair of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention from September 2001 to September 2003. It has actively participated in the Universalization, Article 7 and Resource Mobilization Contact Groups, as well as in the preparations for the 2004 Review Conference.

Perú hosted a regional mine action seminar in Lima in August 2003 with the support of Canada and the OAS and it has participated in other regional landmine meetings held in Colombia (November 2003), Argentina (November 2000) and México (January 1999).

There is no specific legislation in place to implement the Mine Ban Treaty. A number of provisions in Perú’s Criminal Code apply to possession and trade of weapons, such as antipersonnel landmines, and include criminal sanctions. As of September 2004, the Parliamentary Commission of Justice and the Review Commission of the Criminal Code were still working on a project started in 2002 to reform the Criminal Code, which would include an article on sanctions relating to landmines.[1] The draft is due to be considered by the National Congress after the Commission is finished with it. In 2002 the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) reported that the National Commission for the Study and Application of International Humanitarian Law (Spanish acronym, CONADIH) was preparing legislation.[2]

On 6 May 2004, Perú submitted its annual Article 7 report covering the period March 2003-March 2004. The report, which includes voluntary Form J on victim assistance, is the country’s fifth.[3]

Perú has made few formal statements on issues of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2 and 3, concerning joint military operations with non-States Parties, foreign stockpiling and transit of antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes and antihandling devices, and the permissible number of mines retained for training purposes. However, it has been generally sympathetic to ICBL views on these matters, and as co-chair of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, strove to encourage dialogue and common understandings. In May 2002, Perú made an intervention with respect to Article 2 of the Mine Ban Treaty on the issue of antivehicle mines with antihandling devices, in which it encouraged States Parties to evaluate their positions taking into account humanitarian aspects, and to make an “authentic interpretation” of the Mine Ban Treaty according to its spirit as well as its letter.[4]

Perú is a State Party to Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and it attended the Fifth Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II in November 2003. For the second consecutive year, Perú did not submit its national annual report under Article 13 of Amended Protocol II.

Production, Transfer and Use

Perú is a former producer of antipersonnel mines. The National Police (PNP, Policía Nacional del Perú) produced the “DEXA” mine until production facilities were closed in 1994, while the Navy (Marina de Guerra del Perú) produced the “CICITEC” MG-MAP-304 and the “CICITEC” MGP-30 mine until production facilities were closed in 1997.[5] A United Nations Assessment Mission to Perú reported that production of landmines in the country only ceased entirely in January 1999, according to Ministry of Defense officials.[6] Landmine Monitor has been told that Perú never exported antipersonnel mines.[7] In the past Perú imported mines from Belgium, Spain, the United States, the former Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia.

Perú has repeatedly maintained that it did not use mines along the border with Ecuador before, during or after the 1995 Cenepa conflict and that it does not possess maps or registries of mines in the mine-affected areas along the border with Ecuador.[8]

Perú used antipersonnel landmines to protect high-tension electrical towers and public infrastructure during and after the internal conflict of 1980-1992 with guerrillas of the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL) and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA). Electrical towers of the interconnected electrical energy transmission system in the departments of Ica, Huancavelica, Junín and Lima were mined between 1989 and 1993, as was public infrastructure in the departments of Cajamarca, Lima, Puno, and in the Constitutional province of El Callao (Lima’s port) between 1993 and 1996.[9]

In June and July 2003, media reported that the Shining Path had used landmines in various villages in the department of Ayacucho, Huanta province. These were the first reports of SL use of mines since Landmine Monitor was launched in 1998. In July 2003 it was reported that Shining Path killed a group of seven people by planting a landmine in Sivia district, but according to the military the device was a booby-trap.[10] In June 2003, media reported that hours after the Shining Path attacked a military patrol in Pampa Aurora, Ayacucho department, Huanta province, a government soldier was seriously injured after stepping on a landmine reportedly laid by the Shining Path in the same area.[11] The Peruvian Center for Mine Action, “Contraminas,” has requested information on the mine problem in the area from the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The Ministry of Internal Affairs responded that it did not have information and as of April 2004 Contraminas had not received a response from the Ministry of Defense.[12]

Landmine Monitor knows of no other use of landmines since July 2003, including by Shining Path, or along border areas with Colombia. In mid-January 2002, a US media article reported that guerrillas of the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) had been seen in Perú some 450 kilometers from the Colombian border, equipped with weapons including landmines.[13]

Stockpiling and Destruction

In December 2001, Perú completed destruction of its stockpiled antipersonnel mines, far in advance of its March 2003 deadline. Based on all of its Article 7 reports, which have contained changing and sometimes inconsistent information, it appears that from 1999 to December 2001, Perú destroyed a total of 338,356 antipersonnel mines. These mines were in the possession of the Navy, National Army and National Police. The Navy destroyed 3,916 stockpiled CICITEC mines in 1999.[14] Between March 2000 and March 2001, Perú reported that it destroyed 11,784 antipersonnel mines.[15] These two earlier destructions are sometimes not included in Perú’s destruction totals. Perú destroyed the bulk of its stockpile –321,730 mines–in a period of three and a half months between 30 May and 13 September 2001. That September date was declared as the completion date for Perú. However, another 926 antipersonnel mines were destroyed in December 2001 following a decision to reduce the number of mines retained for training purposes.[16]

Government officials, diplomats, and representatives of international and regional agencies attended an event marking official completion of the stockpile destruction at Quebrada Cruz del Hueso in Lurín, in the department of Lima on 13 September 2001.[17] The destruction was carried out by the national Army by open detonation in seven separate locations.

In May 2000, Perú reported that it planned to retain 9,526 antipersonnel mines for training. In May 2001 it decided to reduce the number to 5,578, and in May 2002, it reduced it further to 4,024. Perú reported that the same number of mines was retained in April 2003 and May 2004, indicating that none of the mines have been destroyed yet in training, research or development.[18]

Landmine Problem

Three parts of the country have been reported as mine affected:

  • Along the northern border with Ecuador in five departments where the 1995 Cenepa conflict took place: a) Tumbes[19] (in Puente Internacional-Hito Grau, Bocatoma La Palma-Papayal, Papayal-Los Limos, Los Limos-Quebrada Seca, and Quebrada Seca-Matapalo), b) Piura (Los Hornos-Sullana, Playa Norte-Hito Pampa Larga, and La Tina), c) Cajamarca, d) Amazonas (Chinchipe, Río Achuime-Comainas, Cénepa, and Río Santiago), and e) Loreto (Morona, Pastaza, Tigre, Curaray, Napo, and Aguarico);[20]
  • The internal territory in the Pacific coast and Andean highlands where the National Police used mines to protect high-tension electrical towers in the departments of Ica, Huancavelica, Junín and Lima; public infrastructure in the departments of Cajamarca, Lima, Puno; and in the Constitutional province of El Callao (Lima’s port), which was mined during and after the internal conflict of 1980-1992 with the Shining Path and the MRTA;
  • The southern border with Chile where Chile’s military government mined its side of the border with Perú in the 1970s and 1980s.

Border with Ecuador

In June 2004, Perú reported that humanitarian clearance in the departments of Piura and Tumbes had been completed in December 2003.[21] This left three mine-affected departments along the border with Ecuador: Cajamarca, Amazonas, and Loreto.

In May 2000 the Peruvian government estimated there were approximately 120,000 antipersonnel mines laid along the border with Ecuador.[22] According to the United Nations Mine Action Service, the most heavily-mined area is along the 78 kilometers in the foothills of the Cordillera del Cóndor mountain range.[23] In June 2004, Perú reported that there were 400,000 persons in the Cordillera del Cóndor region affected by more than 30,000 mines in the ground. The populations most at risk were the Huambisa and Aguaruna since they used jungle paths to reach their crop sites.[24] In the dense jungle areas of Amazonas department, Shuar and Ashuar indigenous people live on both sides of the border, and Aguaruna and Huambisa indigenous people on the Peruvian side of the border. According to UNMAS, these people were displaced by the border conflict and their ability to return to a traditional way of life was constrained by the landmine and UXO problem.[25] The OAS reports that the types of mines laid are PMD-6, PMD-6M, PRB/M-35, PRB/M409 and the Peruvian-manufactured MGP-30.[26]

High-tension Electrical Towers and Public Infrastructure

Perú reported that as of March 2004 only one electrical tower in Junín department affected by an estimated 40 antipersonnel mines remained to be cleared.[27] Landmine fuzes still remain, however and Divsecom, the Police demining team will remove these from 1,711 previously cleared zones around electrical towers in Callao, Junín, Lima, Huancavelica.[28] Divsecom also reported the completion of a humanitarian demining operation in a Police Base in Vitarte, Lima, where there were unexploded remnants of war. Fuzes have already been removed from around 53 high tension towers owned by EDEGEL SA and also in 20 percent of the demined area around a former police training ground in Ventanilla, Callao.[29]

Perú is now due to start clearance around mine-affected public infrastructure in Cajamarca, Puno, and El Callao, which is believed to be affected by a total of 9,911 CICITEC antipersonnel mines.[30] An estimated 927 CICITEC antipersonnel mines were laid around public infrastructure in El Callao in 1993. Penitentiary facilities are mine-affected. In 1996, an estimated 2,906 mines were laid around facilities in Puno; in 1994, 2,889 mines were laid around penitentiary facilities in Cajamarca; and in 1993, 3,189 mines laid were laid around facilities in Lima.[31]

In May 2000, Perú reported that it had laid 71,709 CICITEC and DEXA mines around 2,020 electrical towers belonging to the electricity company EDEGEL SA and the state company ETECEN S.A. (Empresa de Transmisión Eléctrica Centro Norte S.A).[32] In May 2001, it reported a revised figure of 54,579 antipersonnel mines laid around 1,663 electrical towers.[33] In 2002, the ICRC reported that approximately 350 communities lived in close proximity to mined towers in the departments of Huancavelica, Ica, and Junín; with mined towers located in the middle of some communities in parts of Huayucachi in Junín.[34] According to the ICRC, some fencing and warning signs had deteriorated due to weather and damage by the local population and in some places the mines were displaced and visible on the ground.[35]

Landmine Monitor previously reported that climatic factors such as El Niño, and heavy rainfall created the danger of mine displacement in all three mine-affected parts of the country. In the northern border, heavy rains led to the displacement of antipersonnel and antivehicle mines in the Zarumilla River area of Tumbes department.[36] The threat of displacement is greatest in the jungle regions of Amazonas department because of the heavy rains. In 2002 the ICRC reported on the displacement of mines from around electrical towers in the highland departments. In Perú’s southern border, Chilean mines may have been displaced into Peruvian territory by rain and erosion. In April 2001 Chilean marines set up an observation tower close to the border with Perú leading to demonstrations by Peruvians. Media reported that one of the main reasons the Chilean forces had established the observation tower was to safeguard the local population from landmines displaced by heavy rains in the Andean highlands.[37]

Survey and Assessment

In August 2003, the OAS called for a detailed impact survey in the severely contaminated department of Amazonas, noting that registries of mines are incomplete or inexact for the department. The Peruvian Army was scheduled to continue surveying heavily-populated areas at the source of the Achuime and Santiago rivers and at the source of the Cenepa River in Condorcanqui province, Amazonas.[38]

In 2003, the Army carried out surveys in Tumbes department (in Matapalo, Quebrada Cazaderos, Pueblo Nuevo, Lechugal, El Milagro, La Palma, Uña de Gato, Pocitos, Loma Saavedra, and Chacra Gonzáles) and in Sullana province in the department of Piura (in Huasimo, Caserío Teniente Astete, El Alamor, Pampa Larga, Playa Norte and La Tina).[39] In three locations in Tumbes, the survey did not reveal any mined areas.[40]

An assessment mission was conducted by the OAS in August 1999 in order to evaluate the landmine problem along the border with Ecuador and as a result of this mission the OAS submitted working documents for consideration by both governments containing a proposal to provide coordinated international assistance in integrated mine action along the border.[41] In August-September 1999 UNMAS conducted a multi-disciplinary and inter-agency assessment mission to both Ecuador and Perú.[42]

Mine Action Coordination and Planning

Perú officially created the Peruvian Center for Mine Action or “Contraminas” (Centro Peruano de Acción contra las Minas Antipersonales) on 13 December 2002.[43] Contraminas is the office responsible for planning and policy-making for mine action, including humanitarian demining.[44] It is housed in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is comprised of an Executive Committee and a Technical Secretariat. The Executive Committee was formally established on 13 April 2004.[45] The Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Defense, Education, Interior, Health and the National Commission to Integrate the Handicapped had to designate representatives to the Executive Committee of Contraminas.[46] In July 2004, the National Commission to Integrate the Handicapped (CONADIS) named its President as the representative to Contraminas. [47]

Contraminas has received donations of equipment, computers and software including the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) system from the US and the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD).[48] Contraminas maintains a registry of healthcare centers –updated to 1993– from the Ministry of Health, and also holds maps of mined high-tension electrical towers provided by the Ministry of Energy and Mines.

In 2003 informal meetings were held between Contraminas, representatives of the Police, ICRC, the Ministries of Education, Defense, and Internal Affairs, the OAS, and the National Commission for the Study and Application of International Humanitarian Law, to develop and discuss a national mine action plan, but the plan is still waiting to be approved.[49]

The OAS Mine Action Program opened an office in Lima in October 2001, following the conclusion of a framework agreement on mine action on 17 May 2001 between the Organization of American States and Perú.[50] In April 2003, the IADB established a permanent team of international monitors to support mine clearance in Perú and Ecuador based at the center in Zarumilla, Tumbes.[51] Five international supervisors: two Brazilians, two Nicaraguans and one Honduran form part of the newly created OAS Mission for Assistance in Demining in South America (MARMINAS, Misión de Asistencia a la Remoción de minas en América del Sur).[52] In September 2004 part of the personnel from this center was expected to move to Bagua, Bagua province in Amazonas department, to support demining operations in that department.[53] A team of military experts from the US trained 26 national supervisors and assisted with the establishment of a center for demining operations in Tumbes.[54]

Mine Clearance

Perú’s treaty-mandated deadline for clearance of all mined areas is 1 March 2009 and in April 2004, Contraminas told Landmine Monitor that Perú expects to meet that goal.[55] In 2002, the OAS estimated that it would take until 2010 to declare Perú “mine safe,” because of technical issues and extremely difficult conditions in most of the mine-affected areas in the country.[56] The same information, including completion by year 2010, was reported by the Peruvian Army and the OAS, and included in the August 2003 Portfolio of OAS AICMA projects for 2004.[57]

Border with Ecuador

Agreement to demine the border between Perú and Ecuador was included in the peace agreement signed by both countries on 26 October 1998 in Brasilia, Brazil. In Perú, mine clearance of the border with Ecuador is the responsibility of the national Army. As of June 2004, a total of 124 deminers in two units were working, with support provided by five supervisors from OAS MARMINAS.[58] The Army deminers have received training and support from Spain and the United States.

On 12 March 2004, Perú and Ecuador announced the completion of clearance operations in Tumbes department, and in the Ecuadorian province of El Oro.[59] At the Standing Committee meeting in June 2004, Perú reported that humanitarian clearance in the department of Piura as well as in the department of Tumbes had been completed in December 2003.[60] This is the only statement Perú has made on the end of operations in Piura.

In June 2002, Perú reported that it had completed demining the Zarumilla Canal, its source at La Palma and the area leading to the international bridge at Aguas Verdes.[61] From January to March 1999, demining allowed for the placement of border markers between the two countries, while deminers cleared a trail between October 1999 and March 2000 to join the Tiwinza memorial area located in Peruvian territory with Ecuador. [62]

Clearance efforts in 2004 will be tied to the impact surveys being carried out at the source of the Achuime and Santiago rivers in Amazonas, and at the source of the Cenepa River.[63] Clearance would begin at the source of the Achuime and proceed to the source of the Santiago.[64] In June 2004, Perú reported that the 51 Army deminers based in Tumbes would be transferred to Amazonas to work with 73 other deminers already operating in that department.[65]

High-tension Electrical Towers and Public Infrastructure

Mine clearance of the high-tension electrical towers in Lima, Huancavelica and Ica departments has been the responsibility of the electricity companies and carried out by a specialized unit of the National Police of Perú, DIVSECOM (División de Seguridad Contraminas), formerly known as JEFAMDEAP (Jefatura de Activación de Minas y Dispositivos de Autoprotección)[66] and also by deminers hired by the Industrial Services of the Navy (SIMA).

In February 2004, Perú reported the clearance of approximately 60,000 antipersonnel mines from 1,711 ETECEN electrical towers between December 2002 and February 2004 by the National Police and SIMA.[67] Perú reported that as of March 2004 only one electrical tower in Junín department affected by an estimated 40 antipersonnel mines remained to be cleared,[68] but unexploded landmine fuzes still needed to be cleared from around the towers.[69]

The clearance took place following the conclusion on 19 December 2002 of a cooperation agreement between National Police and SIMA to demine 338 high-tension towers. In the initial phase from 19 December 2002 to 5 February 2003, 4,319 mines were cleared and destroyed from around 174 high-tension towers on the transmission lines 201/202 Mantaro–Pomacocha and 218/219 Mantaro–Pachachaca.[70] Between 24 March to 24 May 2003, 5,167 mines were cleared and destroyed from 164 towers.[71] Between March 2003 and March 2004, “partial or complete” operations had destroyed a total of 43,600 antipersonnel mines (12,320 CICITEC mines and 31,280 DEXA mines) from ETECEN towers.[72]

Previously, between June and September 2002 the National Police cleared and destroyed 8,165 mines from around 350 electrical towers belonging to ETECEN.[73] The clearance operations began in San Juan de Miraflores (Lima) and continued towards Huancayo (Junín) and Huancavelica in the central Andean highlands. Clearance of the EDEGEL electrical towers, in Chosica near Lima, was completed by the National Police in February 2001.[74] In May 2000, Perú it reported it had cleared mines from electrical towers and public infrastructure in Ventanilla, Lima.[75]

In November 2003, Contraminas informed Landmine Monitor that demining of electrical towers was completed in Huancavelica department, but unexploded fuzes of DEXA mines were reportedly still littering areas that were supposed to be clear of mines. The National Police and SIMA were to begin new operations in 2004, funded by the electricity company ETECEN, to guarantee the quality of the demining process.[76] In June 2004 Perú reported that quality control of clearance around electrical towers would be done to “verify and certify that the work carried out guarantees the security and physical and psychological integrity of the population.”[77] Certification of those areas as free of antipersonnel mines is the responsibility of Contraminas.

Concerns have been raised about inadequate provision of equipment, training, and information for deminers clearing the electricity transmission system towers. In January 2003, a former police deminer who had participated in one SIMA clearance operation in Pisco, Ica department told Landmine Monitor that deminers wore old bullet-proof vests, used knives to demine, and did not have maps due to lack of cooperation from the police.[78] According to the May 2004 Article 7 Report, four deminers were injured between August and September 2003.[79] In early 2003 another four deminers were injured in mine explosions.[80] Following those earlier demining casualties an OAS AICMA mission to Perú in March 2003 inspected equipment used during Police and SIMA mine clearance activities, but the mission report had not been released as of August 2004.[81]

In 2003, RONCO Consulting trained National Police officers in humanitarian demining supervision.[82] In April and May 2002, the OAS carried out training activities with the support of OAS MARMINCA supervisors; 40 individuals were trained in mine clearance and another 30 in planning humanitarian demining operations.[83] In October 2001, 19 National Police participated in a training course on mine clearance.

Mine Clearanci in Chile on the Southern Border of Perú

On 3 August 2004, Chile began demining in its northern Region I bordering with Perú with a ceremony attended by Chilean Minister of Defense Michelle Bachelet, the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army General Juan Emilio Cheyre, diplomats, Landmine Monitor Chile and media.[84] The mine clearance is taking place in five minefields containing 4,494 antipersonnel mines and 2,032 antivehicle mines in the northern sector of Chacalluta Airport, Arica in a process that was expected to take eight months.

Mine Risk Education

In June 2004, Perú reported that an MRE project first carried out by the ICRC in cooperation with Contraminas and the OAS in areas affected by mined electrical towers would be replicated in the border regions with Ecuador, in Amazonas, specifically in the districts of Cenepa and Santiago targeting a total population of 19,187 Aguarunas and Huambisas indigenous peoples of the Jíbaro linguistic group.[85]

Between April and October 2003, Contraminas and the Ministry of Education carried out an MRE project in the mine-affected departments of Lima, Junín and Huancavelica.[86] A total 198 teachers and 102 community leaders were first provided with MRE training, then MRE campaigns were conducted reaching 2,441 people and finally the project was evaluated.[87] The 2003 MRE campaign was conducted with contributions provided by the ICRC ($23,400), OAS AICMA Perú ($20,000), and the Peruvian Ministry of Education ($4,500).[88] It followed MRE activities first conducted by the ICRC in 2002 in the departments of Huancavelica, Ica and Junín.[89] Eighteen presentations were provided in 17 communities between June and September 2002, in which approximately 7,040 people participated, and other activities included an explanatory talk, a puppet show, and a discussion in Quechua, for communities where this indigenous language is spoken.[90] The Unit of Peasant Communities of the Central Andes (UCSICEP, Unidad de Comunidades Campesinas de la Sierra Central del Perú) was instrumental in bringing the MRE teams to communities not accessible by car and in translating MRE messages into Quechua.[91]

The National Police provided mine risk education sessions for communities living near ETECEN electrical towers in Huancavelica and Junín in January and February 2002 using brochures, bulletins and illustrated calendars.[92] In 2001, the National Police carried out MRE activities in, Junín department (Huancayo) Ica department (Pisco), and in the department of Lima.[93]

In Perú, Army personnel have carried out bilingual mine risk education (MRE) activities along the northern border with Ecuador in schools and local communities.[94]

Mine Action Funding and Assistance

In May 2003, the OAS provided projected financial requirements for the period 2003-2007. For Perú, the total was $4.4 million: $600,000 for 2003; $800,000 for 2004; $1 million for 2005; $1 million for 2006; and $1 million for 2007, when OAS funding is due to end for Perú.[95] In August 2003, the OAS reported that the OAS AICMA Perú program required $835,741 for calendar year 2004 for the Army to carry out clearance operations and related activities such as surveys in the northern border region with Ecuador.[96]

In 2004, the Peruvian government reported to States Parties its national contributions to mine action in the country, totaling $3.38 million from 1999 to 2003: $150,669 in 1999, $36,120 in 2000, $47,240 in 2001, $462,925 in 2002, and $2,687,995 in 2003.[97]

The United States has been the biggest donor to mine action in Perú. It contributed $422,182 in its fiscal year 2003;[98] $925,000 in FY 2002;[99] and $1.66 million in FY 2001 (covering the costs of US Special Operations Forces “train the trainer” programs, as well as provision of vehicles and equipment for demining).[100] In 2001 Japan provided $594,000 to the OAS AICMA program for Perú and Ecuador. In 2000, the US and Canada provided $772,347. In 1999, Canada contributed $198,000.[101]

Contributions to the “Managua Challenge” which assisted stockpile destruction by Perú, Ecuador, and Honduras prior to the Third Meeting of States Parties in September 2001 totaled $487,533 ($448,616 from Canada and $38,917 from Australia).[102] In June 2000, Australia sent two experts to Perú who held two seminars and demonstrations on destruction of mine stockpiles for ten Peruvian Army instructors and 90 members of the National Police.[103]

In March 2003 an OAS contribution of $100,000 was to be used to insure demining personnel, equipment, food, and lodging for National Police personnel carrying out demining of the electrical towers in the interior of the country.[104] In May 2002, ETECEN and the National Police signed a $371,000 agreement for mine clearance around the 350 electrical towers.[105] According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ETECEN is providing $1,991,500 for clearance around an additional 1,350 high-tension towers by the National Police and SIMA.[106]

In November 2003, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and Perú signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Perú’s contributions to UN peacekeeping operations. Ten members of the country’s Humanitarian Demining Special Platoon and another ten from the Engineering Squad of Humanitarian Demining will form part of UN standby forces that may participate in peacekeeping operations.[107]

Landmine Casualties

In 2003, at least 13 people were injured in reported mine and UXO incidents in Perú, including six deminers and four children aged between ten and 14 years.[108] In addition, there were reports of seven people killed and one injured as result of mine use by Shining Path guerrillas in 2003.[109] Reported casualties in 2003 include a mine incident on 18 December 2003 when a 10-year-old child suffered eye and throat injuries, and amputation of fingers, while herding sheep near electrical towers in Pachahuasi-Tayacaja, Huancavelica department.[110] Media reported that the incident occurred in an area of Tayacaja province that had been reported to be mine-free.[111]

On 21 March 2003, a 37-year-old Peruvian male lost his leg in a mine explosion after illegally entering a marked minefield in Chilean territory, at Quebrada de Escritos.[112]

No new landmine casualties were reported in Perú in the first half of 2004.

Between 1999 and 2002, there have been at least 42 mine/UXO casualties reported in Perú: 19 injured in 2002; two 13-year-olds injured in 2001; one killed and six injured in 2000; two killed and 12 injured in 1999. In addition, one Peruvian was killed in a landmine explosion on Ecuadorian territory in 2002, and one Peruvian was killed and two injured in separate mine incidents on Chilean territory in 2001.[113]

The total number of mine casualties in Perú is not known as mine incidents occur in remote areas and there have been no official surveys on the number of casualties in Perú. Statistics on mine casualties are believed to be underreported.[114] Perú reported 252 antipersonnel mine casualties as of March 2004.[115] The ICRC registered 138 landmine casualties (18 killed, 48 amputations, and 72 badly injured) between 1992 and 2003; half were children.[116] Other sources indicate that between 1995 and 1999, 179 landmine casualties were recorded, including 62 soldiers, 67 police, and 50 civilians.[117]

In June 2004, Contraminas reported that it was developing a unified registry that would provide accurate figures on the number of persons affected by antipersonnel mines.[118]

Survivor Assistance and Disability Policy and Practice

All public health centers in the country reportedly have the capacity to provide first aid, and state hospitals have the capacity to deal with trauma cases and provide psychological services.[119] The Army and the National Police provide medical assistance, physical rehabilitation and prostheses for their personnel injured by landmines. In March 2003 a police official reported that most cases of deminers injured in 2002 and 2003 received medical treatment at the Police Hospital in Lima.[120] In 2002 ETECEN covered the medical costs of seven mine/UXO casualties including one male civilian survivor, four children, and two officers who were injured during electrical tower maintenance operations.[121]

Assistance to civilians is much more limited particularly in rural areas close to the border with Ecuador and in the Andean highlands. In 2002, Landmine Monitor reported that most mine and UXO survivors are children from extremely poor rural areas, who face problems with social, economic and educational reintegration following medical care and physical rehabilitation. In general their relatives do not have the economic resources available for transportation or to accompany the child for medical treatment and their capacity to provide psychological support to a person in need of additional attention in the home is limited. Huancavelica, which is one of the most heavily mine-affected areas, is also the poorest department in the country.[122] In June 2004, Landmine Monitor visited the departments of Junín and Huancavelica and met with landmine survivors and their families, and found the situation remained unchanged from 2002.

Contraminas is reportedly coordinating with the Ministries of Defense, Interior and Health to make the services that are available to the police and army also available to civilian mine survivors in order to improve coverage.[123] In February 2004, Contraminas reported that with the support of OAS AICMA Perú and the ICRC it had started a pilot project to provide integrated assistance to 20 landmine survivors.[124]

The National Rehabilitation Institute (INR, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación) offers integrated services including physical rehabilitation, psychological support, and vocational training. However, INR services are not free and are based in Lima, a limiting factor for mine survivors who live far from the capital. With the assistance of the ICRC, the INR produces around 1,400 prostheses a year at a cost of $300 per unit for the cheapest prosthesis, below the market value but still inaccessible to the poor.[125]

The state Integrated Health Insurance (SIS, Seguro Integral de Salud) provides broad health coverage to young people and others in extreme poverty; however it does not cover physical or psychological rehabilitation, or prostheses.[126] According to ICRC the treatment of a child severely injured in May 2003 was partially supported through the SIS.[127]

Since 1999, the ICRC has made representations to the authorities on behalf of mine survivors who could not afford the cost of medical treatment and rehabilitation, and directly supported survivors if necessary. No new mine survivors were assisted in 2003, but the ICRC continued to assist with the cost of prostheses for those supported in previous years. In 2002, the ICRC provided prostheses for two mine survivors, and covered the medical expenses of six mine/UXO survivors in 2001.[128]

The National Council for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities (CONADIS) is responsible for the Center for Technical and Occupational Training (CEFODI, Centro de Formación Técnica y Ocupacional) which provides training for persons with disabilities in fields such as carpentry, shoe and bread making. CEFODI is based in El Callao (Lima’s port). In 2002 it provided 20 training courses for 450 persons and in 2001 ten training courses.[129]

In early 2003, the Association of Victims and Survivors of Landmines (AVISCAM) was created by a group of former National Police members injured during mine clearance or mine laying activities.[130] In 2003, the director of AVISCAM worked with Contraminas and the ICRC on the mine risk education campaign in Huancavelica and Junín departments.[131]

Perú has legislation and measures to protect the rights of persons with disabilities, including mine survivors; however, a lack of resources limits their effectiveness. Legislation includes Law 26511 of 1995 which supports disabled veterans of the Cenepa conflict; the 1999 General Law 27050 provides for the care and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities and the creation of CONADIS; Law 27124 of May 1999 extended the benefits available to disabled veterans of the Cenepa conflict; and Resolution RP 004-2000-P/CONADIS aimed to set up a national registry of persons with disabilities. CONADIS is the inter-ministerial body responsible for the protection of the rights of persons with disabilities.[132]

Perú has submitted the voluntary Form J with its annual Article 7 report each year since 2001, to report on mine casualties and victim assistance activities.[133]


[1] Interview with Alcides Chamorro, former President of the Commission of Justice and President of the Review Commission, Lima, 9 March 2004.
[2] ICRC, “Programa de Sensibilización de los Peligros de las Minas Antipersonal,” Lima, 2002, p. 9.
[3] Article 7 reports were submitted: April 2003 (for the period March 2002–March 2003), 16 May 2002 (for the period March 2001–March 2002), 4 May 2001 (for the period March 2000–March 2001), and 2 May 2000 (for the period up to March 2000). The initial report had been due in September 1999.
[4] Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention, 31 May 2002. Notes taken by Landmine Monitor (MAC).
[5] Article 7 Report, Form H, 6 May 2004; Article 7 Report, Forms E and H, April 2003; ICRC, “Programa de Sensibilización de los Peligros de las Minas Antipersonal,” Lima, 2002, p. 7.
[6] UNMAS, “Mine Action Assessment Mission Report: Perú,” 3 December 1999, p. 21.
[7] Telephone interview with General Raúl O’Connor, Director, Information Office, Ministry of Defense, 19 April 2000.
[8] Article 7 Report, Form C, 6 May 2004.
[9] Ibid; Article 7 Report, Form C, April 2003.
[10] Javier Ascue Sarmiento. “Pobladores de Sivia piden desactivar las minas dejadas por los senderistas,” El Comercio (Lima), 15 July 2003.
[11] Ibid; “Emboscada en Sivia fue preparada con anticipación,” El Comercio, 13 July 2003; “Los caídos,” Caretas (Lima), 17 July 2003; Hugo Ned Alarcón, “Shining Path guerrillas kill one soldier in Peruvian jungle ambush,” Associated Press (Ayacucho), 25 June 2003. Other media articles reported that a soldier had his left leg amputated as a result of weapons fire during the ambush. See “Senderistas roban medicinas,” El Comercio, 27 June 2003; “Matan a soldado en emboscada senderista,” La República (Lima), 26 June 2003.
[12] Interview with Wilyam Lucar Aliaga, Coordinator, Contraminas, 15 April 2004.
[13] Sharon Stevenson, “The FARC’s Fifth Column,” Newsweek (USA), 15-21 January 2002.
[14] Article 7 Report, Form G, 2 May 2000.
[15] Article 7 report, Form G, 4 May 2001.
[16] Article 7 Report, Form G, 16 May 2002; Article 7 Report, Form B, 4 May 2001. The stockpiled mines included A/R MGP CICITEC (Perú); CICITEC mines without cap or fuse (Perú); CICITEC MGP-30; PMA-3 mines (Yugoslavia); POMZ-2M (Soviet Union); PMB-6N mines (Soviet Union); PMB-6 mines (Soviet Union); EXPAL mines without fuse (Spain); EXPAL P4 A1 (Spain); M-35C/ESP M5 mines (Belgium); M-35C/ESP BS-BG mines (Belgium); M-409 mines (Belgium); M-16 mines (USA); M18A1 Claymore mines (USA); 60510-MN mines (unknown); and “multiuse magnetic” mines (unknown).
[17] “Record of Destruction of Antipersonnel Landmines.” Document certifying the destruction, dated 13 September 2002.
[18] The mines consist of: PMD-6 (500), CICITEC (775), M18-A1 Claymore (600), M35 C/ESP M5 (100), M-409 (525), PMA-3 (500), PMD-6M (500), and POMZ-2M (500), all retained by the Army; and CICITEC mines (24) retained by the National Police. Article 7 Report, Form B and D, 6 May 2004; Article 7 Report, Form B and Form D, Table 1, April 2003; Article 7 Report, Form B and D, 16 May 2002.
[19] In April 2003, Perú provided information on suspected mine-affected areas including Sector La Coja, Pueblo Nuevo, Lechugal, and Tiwinza in the department of Tumbes. The department in which these areas are located was not specified in the Article 7 report, but a document provided to Landmine Monitor by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs indicates that the areas are in the department of Tumbes. See Article 7 Report, Form C, Table 2, April 2003; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Aide Memoire, “Tratamiento dispensado por el Perú al tema de las minas antipersonal,” Lima, March 2003.
[20] Article 7 Report, Form C, Table 2, 16 May 2002.
[21] Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, 22 June 2004. In May 2003, Perú had stated that completion of clearance in Tumbes and Piura was expected by September 2003. Statement by Amb. Maritza Puertas de Rodríguez, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, 14 May 2003.
[22] Article 7 Report, Form C, 2 May 2000.
[23] UNMAS, “Mine Action Assessment Mission Report: Perú,” 3 December 1999, p. 10.
[24] Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004.
[25] UNMAS, “Assessment Mission Report,” 3 December 1999, p. 3, 13.
[26] OEA, AICMA, Portafolio 2003-2004, August 2003, p. 54.
[27] Article 7 Report, Form C, Table 1.1, 6 May 2004.
[28] Informe N° 093-2004-DIRSEPUB PNP/DIVSECOM.EPO 12 August 2004.
[29] Ibid.
[30] Article 7 Report, Form C, Table 1, 6 May 2004.
[31] Ibid.
[32] Article 7 Report, Form C, 2 May 2000.
[33] Article 7 Report, Form C, Table 1.1 and Table 1.2, 4 May 2001. The report notes “due to an error in the first Article 7 Report the mined towers of one electrical tower were counted twice.”
[34] ICRC, “Programa de Sensibilización de los Peligros de las Minas Antipersonales,” Lima, 2002, pp. 6, 26.
[35] Ibid, pp. 6, 8.
[36] CCW Article 13 annual report, Form F, 7 November 2000; “Cancillerías necesitan ponerse de acuerdo para el desminado,” El Comercio, 31 May 2001; “En la frontera temen remoción de minas,” El Tiempo (Piura), 23 March 2001.
[37] “Cancillería comunica a Chile su extrañeza y preocupación,” El Comercio, 5 April 2001; “Armada retiró vigilancia,” La Estrella de Arica (Arica, Chile), 6 April 2001; “Chilenos invaden territorio peruano,” La República, 3 April 2001; “Chile usurpa más de 24 mil metros cuadrados de territorio peruano. Gobierno chileno, en tanto, ordena retiro de tropa militar,” El Expreso, 6 April 2001.
[38] OEA, AICMA, Portafolio 2003-2004, August 2003, pp. 56, 61.
[39] Ibid, p. 57.
[40] Ibid, p. 55.
[41] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, Appendix, Report of the OAS Mine Action Program, 2000.
[42] UNMAS, “Assessment Mission Report,” 3 December 1999.
[43] Supreme Decree N°113-2002-RE. “Normas Legales,” El Peruano (Official Government Gazette), 13 December 2002, pp. 235027-235028.
[44] Interview with Wilyam Lúcar Aliaga, Coordinator, Contraminas, Geneva, 16 May 2003; Article 7 Report, Form A, April 2003.
[45] Ministerial Resolution No. 185-2004-RE of 12 March 2004 designated representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Executive Council of Contraminas. Article 7 Report, Form A, 6 May 2004.
[46] By Ministerial Resolution 088-2003-ED (21-01-03). Article 7 Report, Form A, April 2003.
[47] Interview with Wilyam Lúcar Aliaga, Contraminas, 15 April 2004.
[48] Statement by Perú, Standing Committee on General Status and Operations, Geneva, 3 February 2003.
[49] Interview with Wilyam Lúcar Aliaga, Contraminas, 15 April 2004.
[50] OAS News, “Destroying Landmines in Ecuador, Perú,” May-June 2001.
[51] OAS, Update on Regional Mine Action Efforts, May 2003.
[52] OEA AICMA, Portafolio 2003-2004, August 2003, p. 57.
[53] Interview with Wilyam Lúcar Aliaga, Contraminas, 15 April 2004.
[54] OAS, Update on Regional Mine Action Efforts, May 2003.
[55] Interview with Wilyam Lúcar Aliaga, Contraminas, 15 April 2004.
[56] OAS, “Landmines Removal in Perú,” Project document located on the UN Mine Action “E-mine” website, updated 30 November 2002. In June 2004, Perú again described the difficult situation for mine clearance in the Cordillera del Cóndor: the rough jungle terrain, climate, difficult access, and the way mines were sown in that area. Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004.
[57] OEA, AICMA, Portafolio 2003-2004, August 2003, p. 58.
[58] Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004.
[59] Boletín de Prensa No. 109, “Conclusión del desminado humanitario en la frontera ecuatoriana-peruana: El Oro y Tumbes,” 12 March 2004; “Perú y Ecuador terminan deminado humanitario en zona fronteriza,” El Comercio, 12 March 2004.
[60] Notes taken by Landmine Monitor (MAC), and Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004. In May 2003, Perú had stated that completion of clearance in Tumbes and Piura was expected by September 2003. Statement by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 14 May 2003.
[61] Milagros Rodríguez, “Culminan desminado humanitario en 18 kilometros de la frontera norte,” El Comercio, 15 June 2002; Ministry of Foreign Affairs Press Release 91-02, “Ejército Peruano entregará desminado del canal de Zarumilla;” Ministry of Defense Press Release, “Annual Report,” 30 December 2002, p. 2.
[62] Statement by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 9 May 2001; Telephone interview with Manuel Talavera, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 7 June 2002; CCW Article 13 Report, 10 December 2001, p. 6; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Ejército Peruano;” Ministry of Defense, “Annual Report,” 30 December 2002, p. 2.
[63] OEA, AICMA, Portafolio 2003-2004, August 2003, p. 56.
[64] Ibid, p. 61.
[65] Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004.
[66] JEFAMDEAP was formerly known as DIVSAM-DEXA (División de Seguridad de Activación de Minas – Dispositivos Explosivos de Autoprotección).
[67] Ministra Elvira Velásquez Rivas-Plata, Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 11 February 2004.
[68] Article 7 Report, Form C, Table 1.1, 6 May 2004.
[69] Telephone interview with Willyam Lucar, and Cfr. 12 August 2004 Informe N° 93-2004-DIRSEPUB PNP/DIVSECOM.EPO.
[70] According to Ministerial Resolution No. 2232-2002-IN-PNP of 18 December 2002. See Document 036-2003-DIRSEGPU PNP/JEFAMDEAP.APO, 28 March 2003.
[71] Interview with Jaime Toso, OAS AICMA Perú, Lima, 29 May 2003. According to the OAS, the second phase of clearance operations ended on 21 May 2003.
[72] Article 7 Report, Form G, Table 2, 6 May 2004.
[73] Document 036-2003-DIRSEGPU PNP/JEFAMDEAP.APO, 28 March 2003, provided to Landmine Monitor (Perú) by the PNP. The number of mines reported cleared from June 2002 to February 2003 totals 12,848. This figure differs from the 12,544 mines reported cleared to March 2003 in the Article 7 Report. Article 7 Report, Form C, Table 1.2, Form G, April 2003.
[74] Interview with Pilar Campana, EDEGEL SA, Lima, 22 February 2001.
[75] Article 7 Report, Form E, 2 May 2000.
[76] Interview with Willyam Lúcar Aliaga, Contraminas, 15 April 2004.
[77] Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004.
[78] Interview with former police deminer, Lima, January 2003.
[79] Article 7 Report, Form J, “Relación nominal de personas civiles víctimas de las minas antipersonales de zonas minadas,” 6 May 2004.
[80] Statistics compiled by Landmine Monitor from Perú’s Article 7 Report, Form J, April 2003, and media reports including Buenos Días Perú, Channel 5 television, 30 May 2003; “Explosión de mina deja sin manos a niño” Perú21 (Lima), 30 May 2003, p. 19.
[81] The inspections took place at the Navy Base in Lima on 6-7 March 2002. Interview with Wilyam Lúcar Aliaga, Contraminas, 10 March 2003. Honduran Lt. Edgardo Velásquez of the OAS IADB verified and supervised the equipment, uniforms and procedures of JEFAMDEAP. PNP Document, 28 March 2003.
[82] Informe N° 93, DIVSECOM, 12 August 2004.
[83] Letter to Landmine Monitor (Perú) from Colonel Miranda, DIVSAM-DEXA PNP, 17 May 2002.
[84] See Chilean Ministry of Defense Press Release, “Ministra de Defensa Nacional encabeza operación de levantamiento de campos minados en zonas fronterizas,” Santiago, 31 July 2004, available at www.defensa.cl .
[85] Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004.
[86] Ibid; Article 7 Report, Form I, 6 May 2004. See also Aide memoire “Taller Educación sobre el riesgo de minas antipersonal Sierra 2003”, December 2003, provided to Landmine Monitor by Contraminas on 23 April 2004.
[87] Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004; Article 7 Report, Form I, 6 May 2004; Intervention by Perú, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 11 February 2004.
[88] Interview with Jaime Toso, Coordinator, OAS AICMA Perú, Lima, 29 May 2003; Interview with Wilyam Lúcar Aliaga, Contraminas, 30 May 2003.
[89] ICRC, “Programa de Sensibilización de los Peligros de las Minas Antipersonal,” Lima, 2002, p. 10.
[90] Four in Lima, four in Junín and ten in Huancavelica. Ibid, pp. 5 and 16.
[91] Ibid, p. 2. The UCSICEP personnel were provided with food and in some cases received compensation for the loss of a day’s work on their land.
[92] Document 036-2003-DIRSEGPU PNP/JEFAMDEAP.APO, 28 March 2003, provided to Landmine Monitor (Perú) by the PNP.
[93] Letter to Landmine Monitor (Perú) from Colonel Alfonso Miranda and Major Víctor Patiño, DIVSAM-DEXA PNP, 27 May 2002.
[94] See Article 7 Report, Form I, 16 May 2002; and Article 7 Report, Form I, 4 May 2001.
[95] See OAS, “Mine Action Program: Making the Western Hemisphere landmine-safe,” Resource Mobilization: Projection of Financial Resources/Requirements 2003-2007, p.6. Presented at the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 12 May 2003.
[96] OEA, AICMA, Portafolio 2003-2004, August 2003, p. 57.
[97] Resource Mobilization Contact Group, “A review of resources to achieve the Convention's aims,” table 2, p. 7, presented by Norway at the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 25 June 2004. In February 2003 Perú noted that through financial loans by public companies, Perú had allocated US$371,000 to mine clearance in 2002 and almost US$2 million for mine clearance in 2003. Statement by Perú, Standing Committee on General Status, 3 February 2003.
[98] See United States entry in this Landmine Monitor Report 2004.
[99] US Department of State (DOS), To Walk the Earth in Safety: The United States Commitment to Humanitarian Demining September 2002. This included $225,000 from DOS and an estimated $700,000 from the Defense Department. US military personnel have trained Peruvian Army personnel in demining techniques, and have also provided assistance in the areas of mine awareness and mine action management procedures.
[100] US DOS, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” November 2001, p. 38.
[101] OAS Mine Action Program: Statement of Contributions Received by December 2001, 1992-2001, Non-official table provided by email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Carl Case, OAS AICMA, 18 June 2002.
[102] Col. William McDonough, “Report of the OAS Mine Action Program to the Committee on Hemispheric Security,” 14 March 2002.
[103] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form E, 7 November 2000.
[104] Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Aide Memoire, “Tratamiento dispensado por el Perú al tema de las minas antipersonal,” Lima, March 2003.
[105] Interview with Manuel Talavera and Hugo Contreras, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Lima, 10 May 2002; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Aide Memoire, provided to Landmine Monitor (Perú) on 10 May 2002; letter from Colonel Alfredo Miranda, 17 May 2002.
[106] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Aide Memoire, March 2003.
[107] “Kofi Annan statement in Lima”, UN Press Release SG/SM/9001, 13 November 2003.
[108] Statistics compiled by Landmine Monitor from Perú’s Article 7 Report, Form J, “Relación nominal de personas civiles víctimas de las minas antipersonal en zonas minadas,” 6 May 2004, p. 18 and Article 7 Report Form J, April 2003, and media reports including Buenos Días Perú, Channel 5 television, 30 May 2003; “Explosión de mina deja sin manos a niño,” Perú.21 (Lima), 30 May 2003, p. 19.
[109] See Production, Transfer and Use section in this report for details.
[110] Article 7 Report, Form J, “Relación nominal de personas civiles víctimas de las minas antipersonal en zonas minadas,” 6 May 2004, p. 18.
[111] Rosario Rodríguez, “Mine mutila a pastorcito,” Ojo (Lima), 21 December 2003.
[112] “Peruano herido por mina,” La Estrella de Iquique (Iquique, Chile), 22 March 2003; “Ejército logra rescate en zona minada,” El Mercurio (Santiago, Chile), 22 March 2003.
[113] For details see Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 394-395; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 406; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 384; Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 302-303.
[114] ICRC, “Programa de Sensibilización,” pp. 7-8.
[115] Article 7, Form J, 6 May 2004.
[116] ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2003,” Geneva, August 2004, p. 46.
[117] US DOS, “To Walk the Earth,” November 2001, p. 38.
[118] Presentation by Perú, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 23 June 2004.
[119] Presentation by Perú, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 10 February 2004.
[120] Interview with Col. José Paz, Chief, JEFAMDEAP PNP, Lima, 28 March 2003.
[121] Article 7 Report, Form J (Table 2), 16 May 2002; Article 7 Report, Form J, April 2003; information provided to Landmine Monitor by Fanny Díaz, Medical Assistance Program, ICRC, 30 May 2003.
[122] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 407.
[123] Presentation by Perú, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.
[124] Presentation by Perú, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 10 February 2004.
[125] Ibid, and 23 June 2004.
[126] Presentation by Perú, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 10 February 2004.
[127] Interview with Fanny Díaz, ICRC, Lima, 30 May 2003.
[128] ICRC Special Reports, “Mine Action 2003,” Geneva, August 2004, p. 46; “Mine Action 2002,” July 2003, p. 38; “Mine Action 2001,” July 2002, p. 29.
[129] Presentation by Perú, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.
[130] Email to ICBL from Carlos Estrada, President, Association of Victims and Survivors of Landmines, 20 May 2003.
[131] Aide memoire, “Taller Educación sobre el riesgo de minas antipersonal Sierra 2003,” December 2003, provided to Landmine Monitor by Contraminas on 23 April 2004.
[132] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 303; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 385.
[133] See Form J in Article 7 reports submitted on 6 May 2004, April 2003, 16 May 2002, and 4 May 2001.