+   *    +     +     
About Us 
The Issues 
Our Research Products 
Order Publications 
Multimedia 
Press Room 
Resources for Monitor Researchers 
Donate now
Stay informed
 
Table of Contents
Country Reports
Chechnya, Landmine Monitor Report 2006

Chechnya

Key developments since May 2005: In June 2006, Russian officials confirmed that Russian forces continued to use antipersonnel mines in Chechnya. Chechen forces have continued to use improvised explosive devices extensively. Clearance teams cleared 5,000 items of explosive ordnance in Chechnya and Ingushetia, including 32 landmines cleared from railway lines. National NGOs supported by UNICEF, ICRC and Danish Demining Group/Danish Refugee Council provided mine risk education in Chechnya and to displaced people in the northern Caucasus. UNICEF recorded 24 new landmine/UXO casualties, continuing the reduction in casualties in recent years. To make casualty data more accurate, changes were made to the data collection and recording system. UNICEF conducted the first training on trauma counselling for 22 child psychologists from Chechnya. ICRC secured treatment for Chechen refugees in Azerbaijan.

Mine Ban Policy

Chechnya is not an internationally recognized sovereign state, and therefore cannot accede to the Mine Ban Treaty. Landmine Monitor is not aware of any statements on landmine policy by Chechen officials since January 2000, when a military official said, “The question of banning the use of antipersonnel mines, which we put to some field commanders ... caused unconcealed indignation. The main conclusion made by our representatives is that mines will not be discarded from general military strategy by either the Russian Army or the Chechen detachments.”[1]

Both Russian Federation forces and Chechen forces have used mines extensively during the conflict from December 1994 to August 1996 and from 1999 to the present. The UN has recorded over 3,000 civilian casualties due to mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) in Chechnya since 1995. (See Landmine/UXO Casualties section).

Production, Transfer, and Stockpiling

A Chechen official told Landmine Monitor in 2001 that the “Chechen Republic has no factories for making mines.”[2] There have been no reports of mass production of landmines in Chechnya. A Chechen military officer told Landmine Monitor that all rebel mines were either obtained from the Russian military or were left over from the first war in Chechnya.[3] Chechen rebels continued to make, store and use large numbers of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Often, media reports and other sources use the terms IED, mine, bomb and explosive interchangeably, and rarely distinguish between antipersonnel and antivehicle devices.

Russian forces discovered numerous Chechen weapons caches in 2005 and 2006 with mines, IEDs and materials used in the construction of IEDs, such as plastic explosives, detonators and artillery shells. The Interior Ministry reported that in 2005, Chechen rebel weapon caches containing 513 landmines, 175 IEDs and more than two tons of explosives were discovered.[4]

Some examples of seizures which included landmines in 2006 follow. Seven landmines were found in a bunker reportedly belonging to “Ichkeria RepublicVice-President warlord Doko Umarov” in the village of Asinovskaya in May.[5] A weapons cache containing two mines was found in Grozny in May,[6] another containing mines was found in Nozhai-Yurt district in April,[7] and another with two mines was found in Grozny in March.[8] Five arms caches found over a 24-hour period in February 2006 in various Chechen districts contained nine landmines.[9] In addition, three antivehicle mines were found during construction work in Grozny.[10]

Some examples of other seizures in 2006 follow.[11] On 16 June 2006, police seized a cache with three makeshift explosive devices (including a 12-liter bucket filled with plastic explosives and metal fragments), seven 152mm shells, a “land mine,” and other munitions near the highway leading to Grozny.[12] On 9 June, a weapons cache was discovered in Achkhoy-Martanovskiy district containing five artillery shells used to make IEDs, plastic explosive, TNT, detonators and fuzes, as well as other munitions.[13] On 20-21 May 2006, a series of raids by law enforcement agencies yielded some 1,500 shells and other parts for IEDs outside Grozny; fuzes, detonators, plastic explosives and TNT in Staryye Atagi; parts for IEDs in Nozhay-Yurtovskiy district; and two 122mm artillery shells, fuzes and a detonator in Kashkar, Vedenskiy district.[14]

Use by Chechen Rebels

Chechen rebels continued to use explosive devices extensively. Given the lack of precision in terminology and reporting noted above, it is difficult to ascertain the degree to which victim-activated antipersonnel mines or IEDs are being used. It appears that, in most instances, the rebels have used command-detonated IEDs targeting vehicles.

In January 2006, a senior Russian Interior Ministry official, Lieutenant-General Vladimir Ryabinin, stated that Chechen rebels have resorted to a landmine war because they “have neither forces nor means to conduct active military action.” He alleged that rebels recruit mostly teenagers to plant landmines.[15]

According to the Interior Ministry, as of early 2006, Russian combat engineers had neutralized more than 4,500 landmines—including 700 radio-controlled and 1,200 wire-controlled—since the beginning of the conflict in Chechnya. Russian combat engineers reportedly destroyed 182 landmines, including 17 radio-controlled devices, in 2005.[16]

Based on information compiled by Landmine Monitor from reports by various news agencies, including RIA-Novosti and Itar-Tass, there were about 90 incidents of mine and IED explosions from August 2005 to March 2006, killing at least 96 and wounding at least 120 soldiers and police. IEDs and radio-controlled mines were employed in the majority of incidents.

Most mine and IED incidents attributed to Chechen rebels occured on roads and were targeted against military vehicles carrying Russian forces or pro-Russian police.[17] Russia also blames Chechen rebels for mine attacks on Russian engineer reconnaissance teams and sappers, mainly carried out during demining operations.[18] According to a Russian military spokesperson, as of January 2006, 123 military engineers had died and 232 had been wounded in Chechnya.[19]

Landmine Monitor has noted in the past that rebels also targeted civilians by planting blast mines next to a bus stop, the central mosque of Grozny, a school and agricultural fields.[20]

Use by Russian Forces

In June 2006, Russian officials confirmed to Landmine Monitor that Russian forces continue to use antipersonnel mines in Chechnya, both newly emplaced mines and existing defensive minefields, noting, “Antipersonnel mines are used to protect facilities of high importance.” They insisted that all use of antipersonnel mines “complies with Amended Protocol II,” that “all necessary documentation for minefields is retained,” and that all minefields “are fenced and the civilian population informed.” They indicated mines are used by forces of the Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Interior, and Border Guards. They said Russian forces “do not use antivehicle mines” in Chechnya because the rebels “have no vehicles.”[21]

Russian forces employed both hand-emplaced and remotely-delivered antipersonnel mines extensively with the resumption and intensification of war in 1999 and 2000. In recent years, as the conflict evolved into more classic guerrilla warfare, there has been great reduction in the use of remotely-delivered and hand-emplaced landmines.[22] In January 2006, Colonel Igor Konashenkov, an aide to the commander of the Russian ground troops, stated that over 800 rebel fighters had been killed by landmines since Russian forces reentered Chechnya in 1999.[23]

Landmine and ERW Problem

Chechnya is heavily contaminated with landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) due to continued combat.[24] As of April 2006, according to the UNICEF-managed Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database, some 3,054 civilians (including 737 children) had been killed or injured by mines and ERW since 1995.[25]

According to the UN, the presence of mines and UXO in Chechnya also aggravates the socioeconomic vulnerability of civilians and restricts their access to natural resources. Adverse conditions force some of them to engage in risky activities, such as collecting food or firewood in the forests or collecting scrap metal from UXO. Internally displaced people and returnees are also exposed to the risks as they move through or resettle in mine-affected areas.[26]

Mine Action

There is no civilian mine action program in the Russian Federation. Mine clearance remains the responsibility of three governmental bodies: the Engineer Forces of the Ministry of Defense, demining brigades of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and the Russian National Corps of Emergency Humanitarian Operations of the Ministry of Civil Defense, Emergencies and Disaster Resources. The main responsibility for mine clearance lies with the Engineer Forces. The Russian National Corps deals mainly with unexploded aircraft bombs.[27] According to the UN, at the end of 2005, there was no government-led body responsible for the coordination of mine action in Chechnya.[28]

According to the Head of the Engineering Forces of the North Caucasian Military District, Engineering Forces’ demining teams in Chechnya and Ingushetia checked more than 138,000 kilometers of roads and column routes, disposing of 5,500 items of explosive ordnance (including 32 landmines) in 2005.[29]

A “short” humanitarian demining mission (the first recorded in Chechnya since the resumption of conflict in late 1999) was organized by the Russian Federation’s Ministry of Civil Defense, Emergencies and of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM) in March-April 2005. However, information about the locations cleared and the scope of the operations has not been released by either the republican or the federal authorities and no plans for more systematic clearing operations have been announced.[30]

In March 2006, UNICEF conducted a monitoring mission to Chechnya during which a meeting was held with Akhmed Zeirkhanov, the Deputy Minister of EMERCOM. He is said to have confirmed that the federal level of EMERCOM “should soon deploy a special group of deminers from Rostov-on-Don, with the aim of building the capacity of local EMERCOM specialists in mine/UXO clearance.”[31]

It was reported in August 2005 that the Ministry of Defense had a device to identify explosive devices on railroads under development. General Grigory Kogatko, the commander of the Russian railroad troops, stated that mine detectors often fail to identify explosives on rails, because the railroad groundwork contains metal. He claimed that 16,000 kilometers of rails were cleared during operations in Chechnya in 2004, with 13 deminers killed in the process.[32]

Mine Risk Education

Mine risk education (MRE) remains a vital means of reducing the impact of mines and UXO on the civilian population, according to UNICEF: “The effectiveness of the MRE efforts that have been undertaken by UNICEF, ICRC and DDG over the past five years seems to be confirmed by the gradual decrease in the number of incidents and casualties (from 812 in 2000 to 204 in 2003 and 88 in 2004).”[33]

UNICEF, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Danish Demining Group/Danish Refugee Council (DDG/DRC) worked in cooperation with local NGOs Voice of the Mountains and Let’s Save the Generation, as well as with governmental entities. The Ministry of Emergencies does not provide MRE.[34] Off-the-record reports from operators suggest that the Chechen resistance does not cooperate in MRE activities.

UNICEF has acted as the coordination focal point for mine action in the North Caucasus since 2002, in “the absence of a national mine action authority, and in a situation marked by the government’s reluctance to take direct responsibility for providing assistance to the civilian population in Chechnya....”[35] UNICEF is responsible for ensuring that all activities implemented by UN agencies, ICRC and NGOs in Chechnya and neighboring republics are complementary. During 2005, organizations conducting MRE in Chechnya focused on ensuring the future sustainability of their programs through the direct involvement of local communities and administrations.[36]

The beneficiary population consists of about 450,000 people living in mine/UXO-affected areas, about 160,000 internally displaced people, 25,000 internally displaced people in Ingushetia and up to 10,000 in Dagestan. Children are targeted for MRE as they have often become casualties due to the absence of safe play-areas, while displaced people are also especially vulnerable. [37] As in previous years, in 2005, MRE was conducted in Chechnya by means of mass-media campaigns, community-based and school-based programs.[38]

Chechen television twice broadcast a game in which university students competed on MRE-related topics; the game was organized by Let’s Save the Generation with UNICEF support. Local television channels showed meetings where community leaders discussed the mine/ERW problem. ICRC and DDG/DRC also engaged in mass media campaigns.[39]

Community-based MRE was continued by UNICEF in partnership with Voice of the Mountains, targeting both the adult and child population. Focus groups were established by UNICEF in 2005 in 10 mine-affected districts, and new MRE posters and leaflets were distributed. In 2006, it planned to establish an additional eight focus groups in other affected districts. The groups use different methods to provide MRE to the population, for example using religious leaders to disseminate MRE messages among the male adult population which is the most difficult group to reach.[40]

The joint DDG/DRC MRE program continued providing direct presentations mainly to Chechen adults, but also addressing children and youth, and displaced Chechens in temporary settlements in Ingushetia. In 2005, 44,956 people received MRE.[41] Three mobile teams of DDG/DRC instructors carry out community-based MRE workshops in all cultural and public services, educational, financial and children’s institutions. Each group is assessed before and after MRE sessions. Materials and tools such as posters, booklets, leaflets, radio and television clips containing MRE messages are also distributed to refresh the population’s awareness and vigilance. One-day MRE trainings for 182 school librarians were conducted in seven districts.[42]

DDG/DRC created 20 safe play-areas in six districts in 2005, and conducted MRE with community members. DDG/DRC also conducted children’s festivals with an MRE component in Nozhai-Yurtovsky, Urus-Martanovsky and Shalinsky districts.[43]

ICRC continued MRE activities targeting children through television programs, newspapers and puppet theaters. For 2006 it planned to produce an information bulletin for journalists; to support MRE media initiatives and to relay messages via mobile phones.[44] ICRC supported the construction of 15 safe play-areas; a further 20 were scheduled for construction in 2006.[45] UNICEF helped to establish 23 leisure centers which children attend; these provide a safe play and learning environment to some 920 children every day. An additional eight centers are in the process of being opened.[46]

School-based MRE activities were conducted by UNICEF in cooperation with the Chechen Ministry of Education. MRE has been included in the curriculum of secondary schools since 2002. In 2006, UNICEF planned to train 250 secondary school teachers. From January 2005 to May 2006, DDG/DRC provided training of trainer workshops for 214 schoolteachers and imams.[47]

UNICEF targeted some 75,000 children through the Chechen State Drama Theater, Voice of the Mountains and the Chechen State Youth Committee. At least nine theater performances were given in 2005, each reaching about 250 children, and received positive feedback from the children and teachers involved, according to UNICEF.[48]

Following efforts to improve data collection, Voice of the Mountains created Quick Response MRE teams in 2005, to intensify MRE presentations in a region following a mine incident.[49]

UNICEF and the UN Department for Safety and Security in the Russian Federation continued to organize two-day mine/UXO safety trainings, developed by UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS). Local and international staff, primarily from UN agencies based in the northern Caucasus attended the seminars; attendance is obligatory.[50]

Funding and Assistance

In 2005, three countries reported providing US$982,124 for mine action in Chechnya and surrounding regions, an increase from 2004 ($804,066 from three countries and the European Commission).[51] Donors reporting funding for 2005 were:

  • Denmark: DKK2,600,000 ($433,673) to DDG for MRE;[52]
  • Finland: €180,000 ($224,082) to Finnish Red Cross/ICRC for victim assistance and MRE in the Grozny area;[53]
  • Germany: €260,558 ($324,369) to UNICEF for MRE and victim assistance.[54]

UNICEF received funding of $1,039,788 for mine action in Chechnya and surrounding regions through the Portfolio of Mine Action Projects for 2005.[55] A similar amount was received by UNICEF in 2004 ($1,035,145).[56]

The $1,039,788 received by UNICEF in 2005 included:

  • Victim assistance funding of $653,313 from Canada ($71,867), Germany ($334,009), US ($100,000), the Dutch National Committee ($47,183) and the UK National Committee ($100,254);[57]
  • MRE funding of $386,475 from the EC ($236,093), the Dutch National Committee ($46,035) and the UK National Committee ($104,347).

Landmine/UXO Casualties

UNICEF recorded 24 landmine/UXO casualties in 2005; 13 were killed (five children) and 11 were injured (five children).[58] This is a significant decrease compared to 94 casualties in 2004 and 209 casualties in 2003.[59] However, with no nationwide data collection system, this cannot be assumed to accurately represent the situation. The total number of landmine casualties in Chechnya is not known.

Examples of incidents reported in Chechnya by the UNICEF/Voice of the Mountains letter-box system of local data-collectors in 2005 included a man killed by an antivehicle mine near the former Sheripova petroleum refinery on 30 May. One boy was killed and another injured by a mine incident in Assinovskay village, Sunzhenskiy district.[60]

Casualties continued to be reported in 2006, with 17 (13 killed and four injured) as of May 2006.[61] On 5 April 2006, a Russian soldier was injured by an antipersonnel mine in Itoum-Kale district.[62]

The number of new mine/UXO casualties appears to be declining in Chechnya. Between 1995 and April 2006, UNICEF recorded 3,054 civilian landmine/UXO casualties: 17 casualties in 2006, 24 in 2005, 94 in 2004, 209 in 2003, 446 in 2002, 643 in 2001, 720 in 2000, 373 in 1999, and 528 from 1995-1998.[63] The Chechen Center of Catastrophe Medicine also reported a significant decrease in the number of civilian casualties caused by mines, booby-traps, UXO and IEDs since 2002.[64]

Data Collection: During 2005, UNICEF and local NGOs continued efforts to improve the data collection system for mine/ERW incidents and casualties, to improve the targeting of MRE and victim assistance and to plan marking and clearance activities. The incident/casualty database is maintained on the IMSMA database by Voice of the Mountains in Grozny. It carried out a two-day training on injury surveillance for 15 people to collect data at the local level; these people are referred to as ‘letter-boxes’ and operate in all districts of Chechnya. Seven monitors from Voice of the Mountains and DDG and three nurses from Urus-Martanovsky hospital, Shalinsky hospital and Grozny hospital no. 9 were also trained.[65]

UNICEF and ICRC signed an agreement in 2005 to share casualty data. In 2006, UNICEF completed verification of the data shared by ICRC, which continued to register new mine/UXO casualties through the ICRC-supported health structures, while UNICEF and Voice of the Mountains continued to collect information through the 15 letter-boxes. Also in 2006, 20 people were trained in data collection and analysis, and an analysis module of the Epi.Info system was applied to produce the quarterly mine incident report disseminated among mine action stakeholders in the region.[66]

Survivor Assistance, Disability Policy and Practice

Surgical and general health facilities in Chechnya were devastated by war. Lack of resources and the security situation also hamper the delivery of adequate assistance.[67] NGOs and international agencies have worked to strengthen the health infrastructure in Chechnya and neighboring republics. As of December 2005, 16 humanitarian organizations were engaged in the health sector in Chechnya, 14 of which also implemented psychosocial projects.[68] The ICRC’s operations in Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia continued to suffer constraints in 2005-2006 due to the highly volatile security environment; however, ICRC access to Chechnya improved, with expatriate delegates making regular visits to the republic.[69]

ICRC supported 10 hospitals in Chechnya and two referral hospitals in Ingushetia and Dagestan in 2005 with surgical supplies, medicines and equipment. ICRC-supported hospitals assisted 707 conflict casualties, including mine casualties, in 2005. ICRC also facilitated specialized war surgery training for 23 surgeons from the northern Caucasus in Moscow and Nalchik, and 46 other doctors (including Chechens) attended specialized courses. ICRC signed an agreement with a medical equipment maintenance company in Nalchik for regular maintenance and staff training for donated equipment.[70]

In December 2005, Médecins Sans Frontières-Netherlands conducted a one-week training for 15 nurses from neurosurgery, surgery and trauma departments of hospitals in Chechnya.[71]

In early 2006, German doctors provided surgical care for 120 Chechen children injured by mines or with genetic deformities.[72]

The Federal Agency for Health and Social Development in the Russian Federation is responsible for physical rehabilitation services. Although the number of disabled people requiring physical rehabilitation services in Chechnya is not known, ICRC estimated between 5,000 and 6,000 amputees need such services.[73]

ICRC provided capacity building support to the Ministry of Health and Social Development-run orthopedic center in Grozny; the local authorities allocated sufficient funds for operating and material costs. In 2005, the center assisted 953 people, produced 268 prostheses (201 for mine/UXO survivors) and 55 orthoses, and distributed 12 pairs of crutches. About 2,000 people, mostly amputees, are registered at the center, which can deal with more patients since the return of eight newly trained technicians at the end of 2004. However, there are too few prosthetic and orthotic professionals to meet the demand, so ICRC sponsored six newly recruited prosthetic and orthotic technicians who began training in prosthetics and orthotics at the St. Petersburg Social College in 2005. Eight prosthetic technicians from Chechnya graduated from a two-year, ICRC-funded training program at Sochi Orthopedic Center (in southern Russia), which ICRC supported until the end of 2005.[74]

The ICRC and International Federation of the Red Cross and the National Society agreed to strengthen the 13 Red Cross branches in southern Russia and the northern Caucasus based on an in-depth assessment of capacities, and to implement a long-term development plan. The newly re-established Red Cross branch in Chechnya assumed responsibility for joint ICRC and National Society programs. ICRC undertook a vulnerability needs assessment in Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia, which led to assistance for over 50 households (approximately 350 beneficiaries) through micro-economic projects.[75]

UNICEF in cooperation with NGO partners and World Health Organization (WHO) continued survivor assistance as part of its Mine Action Program in the northern Caucasus, focusing on mine-injured children and women from Chechnya. The program includes physical rehabilitation, the fitting of prostheses, psychosocial counseling and vocational training. In 2005, UNICEF supported the production of 78 prostheses, provided 111 wheelchairs, 300 walking sticks, 300 crutches, and five multi-functional beds for distribution to women and children with disabilities through the Ministry of Health and local NGOs. UNICEF also supported the Republican Clinical Hospital in Grozny with essential medical equipment and the provision of physical rehabilitation for child mine/UXO survivors. In 2005, 187 child survivors were assisted with physical rehabilitation at the hospital.[76] In mid-December 2005, UNICEF conducted the first training on trauma counseling for 22 child psychologists from Chechnya; this was facilitated by the Israel Trauma Coalition/Herzog Hospital, which has extensive experience in trauma counseling.

In 2005, Handicap International (HI) funded participation of eight rehabilitation specialists from Chechnya for certified training at Kislovodsk Technical College.[77] From May 2005 to April 2006, HI-supported centers provided rehabilitation services to 5,501 people, provided 501 people with mobility devices and 257 people were visited to provide information on community services, including mine survivors. HI ceased provision of equipment to trauma and orthopedic departments in 2006.[78]

The NGO Minga and the Zaschita Russian Center of Disaster Medicine also provide medical and rehabilitation support.[79] The Landmine Café in Grozny, established by landmine survivors and supported by ICRC and Minga, aims to support the social reintegration of people with disabilities.[80]

In Grozny, the International Rescue Committee conducted psychosocial counseling in closed and open group sessions to 114 children, and held information meetings for parents and teachers to address psychosocial needs of children; 38 parents and eight teachers attended these meetings.[81]

Let’s Save the Generation, with support from UNICEF and WHO, provides both peer and professional psychosocial support for disabled children and their families. In 2005, the center assisted 129 children; all were mine/UXO survivors.[82] With support from HI, 80 students received computer training. In April 2006, 20 children from Shali received psychosocial treatment through individual and group counseling, music, game and art therapies.[83]

Voice of the Mountains, with support from UNICEF, operated vocational training courses in English and information technologies (IT) for mine/UXO-affected adolescents at Grozny Technical College. UNICEF also supported a vocational training program run by the People in Need Foundation in Ingushetia, and a program in Chechnya run by the Association for the Disabled. In 2005, 220 vulnerable young people, including mine/UXO survivors, completed their training courses.[84]

The Chechen branch of the All-Russian Society of the Disabled and UNICEF started a vocational training course in sewing for girls. In 2005, about 70 girls received training, including mine survivors.[85]

From 26 November to 4 December 2005, the Laman Az football team of child mine survivors, supported by UNICEF and Voice of the Mountains, participated in the national football championship for people with disabilities.[86]

In 2005, in Azerbaijan, the ICRC office and the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection reached an agreement that Chechen mine survivors would receive free assistance at rehabilitation centers in Azerbaijan; 18 Chechens refugees who made applications received free assistance through ICRC support in 2005.[87]

The Federal Fund of Obligatory Medical Insurance and a Russian Federation Ministry of Health decree are intended to ensure that medical care for the Chechen population is available in other republics. Small pensions are available for people with disabilities; however, the pensions are reportedly inadequate to cover basic living costs.[88]


[1] Interviews with Kh. Israpilov, Commander-in Chief, Armed Forces of the Chechen Republic Ichkeria, Grozny, 2-3 January 2000.
[2] Letter from Lyoma Usamov, US Representative of the Chechen Republic Ichkeria, 19 June 2001.
[3] Interview with Col. M. Arsaliev, Engineer, Krasny Molot plant, Grozny, December 1999.
[4] “Chechen Police Killed 140 Militants in 2005,” Interfax (Grozny), 17 January 2006.
[5] “Policemen get ready to read Doku Umarov’s diary: The bunker of Ichkeria Republic Vice-President Warlord Doku Umarov is found,” WPS: Defense and Security, 17 May 2006.
[6] “Two large arms caches found in Chechnya,” BBC, 19 May 2006.
[7] “Officer, two soldiers wounded in Chechnya,” Associated Press (Rostov-on-Don, Russia), 5 April 2006.
[8] “Large arms cache found in Chechnya,” RIA-Novosti (Grozny), 26 March 2006.
[9] “Three rebel suspects, policemen arrested in Chechnya,” BBC, 7 February 2006.
[10] “Anti-aircraft system among weekend’s arms finds in Chechnya,” BBC, 22 May 2006.
[11] See also “Two Suspected of Making Mines for Rebels Arrested in Chechnya,” BBC, 5 January 2006; “Russian Forces in Chechnya Arrest Suspected Rebels in Security Sweeps,” Associated Press, 15 January 2006; “Cache with 11 Kilograms of Plastic Explosives Discovered,” Ros Business Consulting, 17 January 2006; “Large Base of Rebels Destroyed in Mountains of Southern Chechnya,” Chechnya.Ru, 13 February 2006; “Terrorist Base Destroyed in Chechnya,” Chechnya.Ru, 15 February 2006; “Series of Terror Attacks Prevented in Chechnya,” RIA-Novosti, 23 February 2006; “Policeman robbed in Chechnya,” Interfax News Agency, 23 March 2006; “Suspected Militants Arrested in Chechnya, Penza Region,” Russia and CIS General Newswire, 16 April 2006.
[12] Ilyas Asuyev, “Chechen police avert terror acts by seizing large cache,” Itar-Tass World Service (Grozny), 16 June 2006.
[13] “Russian agencies report shooting, arrest in North Caucasus,” BBC, 9 June 2006.
[14] “Anti-aircraft system among weekend’s arms finds in Chechnya,” BBC, 22 May 2006.
[15] “Sappers Defuse Thousands of Landmines during Chechnya Campaign,” Itar-Tass, 20 January 2006.
[16] Ibid; “North Caucasus Security Watch,” RIA-Novosti, 20 January 2006.
[17] See for example, “Four Russian Soldiers, Two Police Killed in Chechnya,” Agence France-Presse, 5 August 2005; “An explosion in Chechnya: One Killed, Four Wounded,” Chechnya.Ru, 4 September 2005; “Nine Die in Chechen Fighting,” Daily Telegraph (Sydney, Australia), 19 October 2005; “Pre-election Explosions in Chechnya,” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 21 November 2005; “Five Russian Soldiers Killed in Chechnya,” Agence France-Presse, 4 December 2005; “Four Wounded in Chechnya,” Caucasian Knot, 16 January 2006; “Rebel Website Says Three Russian Troops Killed in Chechnya,” BBC, 17 February 2006; “Rebels Report Killing 13 Troops in Clashes in Southern Chechnya,” BBC, 15 March 2006; “Two Russian Soldiers Killed, Five Wounded in Chechnya Clash,” Agence France-Presse, 16 April 2006.
[18] See for example, “Chechen Protesters Demand Compensation for Destroyed Homes,” Agence France-Presse, 11 August 2005; “Three Servicemen Wounded in Explosion near Chechen Village,” Itar-Tass, 10 September 2005; “Seven Russian Soldiers Dead in Chechnya Fighting,” Agence France-Presse, 3 October 2005; “Four Russian Soldiers, Two Police Dead in Chechnya Fighting,” Agence France-Presse, 7 November 2005; “Russian Officer Killed by Mine Blast in Chechnya,” BBC, 20 December 2005; “Seven Russian Soldiers Killed in Chechnya,” Agence France-Presse, 10 January 2006; “Five Soldiers and One Policeman Killed in Chechnya,” KavkazCenter.com, 4 February 2006.
[19] “Over 800 Rebels Killed by Russian Landmines Since 1999,” BBC, 20 January 2006.
[20] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 941.
[21] Interview with Russian delegation to the fourteenth session of the CCW Group of Government Experts, Geneva, 23 June 2006; translation provided by the Russian delegation and notes by HRW.
[22] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 1186-1187.
[23] Col. Konashenkov stated, “Fighting back the rebel forces, which invaded Dagestan in August 1999, and carrying out the antiterrorist operation in Chechnya, the military engineers set up over 200 kilometers of minefields which killed over 800 rebels.” “Over 800 Rebels Killed by Russian Landmines Since 1999,” BBC, 20 January 2006; “Three Suspected Militants Detained in Russian Region Bordering Chechnya,” Associated Press, 20 January 2006.
[24] Under Protocol V of the Convention on Conventional Weapons, explosive remnants of war are defined as unexploded ordnance and abandoned explosive ordnance. Mines are explicitly excluded from the definition.
[25] UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), “Inter-Agency Transitional Workplan for the North Caucasus, Russian Federation, 2006,” undated, p. 34; UNICEF, “Humanitarian Action: North Caucasus donor update,” 13 March 2006; UNICEF, “Mine Incident Monitor, Chechnya, Russian Federation Quarterly Report,” Moscow, May 2006, p. 2.
[26] UN, “Country Profile: Russian Federation (Chechnya),” 3 January 2006, www.mineaction.org, accessed 20 January 2006.
[27] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 858.
[28] UNICEF, “Summary Report 2005, IO’s and NGO’s Activities in the Russian Federation,” 2006, p. 2, citing UN, “Humanitarian Appeal 2005: Mid-Year review, Chechnya and Neighbouring Republics (North Caucasus–Russian Federation),” www.ocha.ru.
[29] “Major-General Alexander Krasnikov, Head of the Engineering Troops of the North Caucasian Military District, Hero of Russia, About the Activities of his Subordinates,” WPS Russian Media Monitoring Agency, 6 March 2006, www.wps.ru/en.
[30] UNOCHA, “Inter-Agency Transitional Workplan for the North Caucasus, Russian Federation, 2006,” undated, p. 34; see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 859.
[31] UNOCHA, “OCHA Humanitarian action in Chechnya and Neighbouring Republics (Russian Federation),” 31 March 2006, www.reliefweb.int, 1 June 2006.
[32] “The Russian Defense Ministry is developing a new gadget to identify explosive devices on railroads,” RIA-Novosti, Zagoryanka Village (Moscow region), 3 August 2005.
[33] UNICEF Programme in the North Caucasus, Activity Report No. 101 (September 2005), www.ocha.ru, accessed 15 June 2006.
[34] Email from Eliza Murtazaeva, Assistant Project Officer, Child Protection Section, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 5 May 2006; UNICEF, “Humanitarian Action: North Caucasus donor update,” 13 March 2006.
[35] UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS), “Russian Federation (Chechnya),” Fact sheet, updated 4 May 2006, www.mineaction.org, accessed 15 June 2006.
[36] UNOCHA, “Humanitarian Appeal 2005: Mid-Year review, Chechnya and Neighbouring Republics (North Caucasus–Russian Federation).”
[37] UN, “2006 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, p. 454; email from Aida Ailarova, Assistant Project Officer, Mine Action, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 28 April 2005.
[38] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 943-946 for details of ongoing programs.
[39] UNOCHA, “2006 Inter-Agency Transitional Workplan for the North Caucasus,” p. 82; email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 5 May 2006; UNICEF Programme in the North Caucasus, Activity Reports No. 98, June 2005 and No. 102, October 2005.
[40] UNICEF Programme in the North Caucasus, Activity Reports No. 104, December 2005-January 2006, and No. 107, April 2006; email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 5 May 2006.
[41] Information obtained from monthly reports by DRC/DDG and OCHA, www.reliefweb.int.
[42] Email from Paul Mackintosh, Head, DDG, 19 July 2006.
[43] Ibid.
[44] ICRC, “Plan of Action 2006, Russian Federation,” p. 14.
[45] ICRC, “Special Report-Mine Action 2005,” May 2006, pp. 13, 16.
[46] UNOCHA, “Humanitarian action in Chechnya and Neighbouring Republics (Russian Federation) Feb 2006;”
UNICEF Programme in the North Caucasus, Activity Report No. 107, April 2006.
[47] Email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 5 May 2006; UNICEF, “Humanitarian Action: North Caucasus donor update,” 13 March 2006; see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 945.
[48] UNICEF Programme in the North Caucasus, Activity Report No. 97, May 2005.
[49] UNICEF Programme in the North Caucasus, Activity Report No. 101, September 2005.
[50] Email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 5 May 2006.
[51] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 946.
[52] Mine Action Investments database; email from Rita Helmich-Olesen, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 31 March 2006. Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1 = DKK 5.9953. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
[53] Mine Action Investments database; email from Paula Sirkiä, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 16 March 2006. Average exchange rate for 2005: €1 = US$1.2449, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
[54] Germany Article 7 Report, Form J, 27 April 2006; Mine Action Investments database.
[55] UN, “2004 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, pp. 408-409; UNMAS, “Final End-Year Review 2005,” p. 2. UNICEF reported receiving funds totaling $1,035,145 in 2004; see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 946.
[56] “Revised End of year Update,” (2005) received by email from Katrine Hoyer, Associate Expert, UNMAS, 11 July 2006. See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 946.
[57] “Revised End of year Update,” (2005) received by email from Katrine Hoyer, UNMAS, 11 July 2006.
[58] Email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 29 June 2006; data provided by Zaur Tsitsaev, Programme Assistant, Child Protection/Mine Action, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 29 June 2006.
[59] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 946-947.
[60] UNICEF Programme in the North Caucasus, Activity Report No. 101, September 2005.
[61] Email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 29 June 2006; data provided by Zaur Tsitsaev, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 29 June 2006.
[62]“ Un militaire engagé a été blessé lors d’une explosion accidentelle dans le district d’Itoum-Kale” (“Soldier injured in an accidental explosion in Itoum-Kale district”), Itar-Tas (Grozny), 5 April 2006. 
[63] UNICEF, “Mine Incident Monitor, Chechnya, Russian Federation Quarterly Report,” Moscow, May 2006, p. 2.
[64] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 947.
[65] UNICEF Programme in the North Caucasus, Activity Report No. 101, September 2005; UNICEF, “Mine Incident Monitor–Quarterly Report May 2006,” 30 April 2006, p. 2; email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 29 June 2006; see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 946.
[66] UNICEF Programme in the North Caucasus, Activity Report No. 101, September 2005; UNICEF, “Mine Incident Monitor–Quarterly Report, Activity Report No. 104, December 2005-January 2006; email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 29 June 2006. The database is continually being updated as both new and less recent mine incidents are identified.
[67] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 947-948.
[68] UNOCHA, “Humanitarian action in Chechnya and Neighbouring Republics (Russian Federation),” 31 December 2005.
[69] ICRC, “Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, June 2006, pp. 19, 211.
[70] Ibid, pp. 245, 247.
[71] UNOCHA, “Humanitarian action in Chechnya and Neighbouring Republics (Russian Federation),” 31 December 2005.
[72] “German doctors to operate on 120 Chechen children,” Agence France-Presse (Grozny), 4 April 2006.
[73] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Program, “Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, draft received 19 May 2006, p. 31.
[74] ICRC, “Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, June 2006, pp. 245, 247; ICRC, “Special Report-Mine Action,” Geneva, May 2006, p. 23; ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Program, “Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, draft received 19 May 2006, p. 31.
[75] ICRC, “Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, June 2006, pp. 211, 244-248.
[76] Email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 29 June 2006.
[77] Emails from Violaine Gagnet, Regional Coordinator, HI North Caucasus, 19 and 29 June 2006; WHO, “Health Action in the North Caucasus,” Newsletter on Emergency Preparedness and Response, October-December 2005. For details of HI’s program in Chechnya, see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 949.
[78] Emails from Violaine Gagnet, HI North Caucasus, 19 and 29 June 2006.
[79] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1197.
[80] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 950.
[81] UNOCHA, “Humanitarian action in Chechnya and Neighbouring Republics (Russian Federation),” 31 December 2005.
[82] Email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 29 June 2006.
[83] UNOCHA, “Humanitarian action in Chechnya and Neighbouring Republics (Russian Federation),” April 2006.
[84] Email from Eliza Murtazaeva, UNICEF Northern Caucasus, 29 June 2006.
[85] Ibid.
[86] UNICEF Humanitarian Programme in the North Caucasus, Activity Report No. 101, September 2005.
[87] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Program, “Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, draft received 19 May 2006, p. 28; ICRC, “Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, June 2006, p. 222. See report on Azerbaijan in this edition of Landmine Monitor.
[88] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1198.