IND reported that 838 deminers were involved in operations in 2005; more than half were employed by HALO. Mozambique had 14 machines and a mine detection dog capacity of 34 dogs, in addition to 12 rats. HALO, NPA and HI all used manual and mechanical techniques, and NPA and HI also used mine detection dogs. RONCO used manual and dog techniques. HALO stopped using dogs in January 2005, having concluded that they were unreliable.
NPA reduced its human resource capacity in the second half of 2005, as part of its exit strategy, from 122 to 45 staff and transferred its dog capacity and mine resistant vehicles.
IND reported having conducted 79 quality assurance (QA) visits in 2005. Some operators reported that a lesser number of visits were made. HALO said that only 10 visits were made on their minefield tasks, in contrast to the 22 claimed by IND. IND has three QA teams, based in each of the branches. IND reported that, overall, national demining standards were respected by the operators; some aspects could be improved, particularly communication between teams, personal protective equipment and the “modalities” of deminers’ insurance. A study of insurance policies was planned by IND for 2006. Humanitarian operators also have their own internal quality control procedures.
Humanitarian operators also conducted EOD in 2005. NPA conducted 27 EOD spot tasks in Sofala and Manica provinces, while conducting surveys, destroying 177 UXO, two mines and 148 pieces of small arms ammunition. HALO reported that it destroyed 97 antipersonnel mines, one antivehicle mine and 218 UXO during EOD operations.
After clearance operations are completed, land is normally handed over through a formal ceremony with the participation of the local government authority, community leaders and IND officials. UNDP reports that on rare occasions, no ceremony took place and the end-users began to use the land; no casualties were reported following the use of these areas.
Deminer Safety: Three accidents involving five deminers occurred in 2005; four worked for HALO (two killed, two injured) and the fifth, who worked for NPA, was injured. HALO and IND conducted investigations, and extensive refresher training was implemented, but no changes were made to operating procedures. NPA and IND investigated the third accident, revealing that the deminer was in breach of NPA’s standing operating procedures; refresher training was held.
The GICHD review reported that high rates of long-term illnesses among demining teams have given cause for concern. A significant percentage of the staff of some operators were unable to work because of illnesses often associated with HIV/AIDS; GICHD cited NPA and ADP as having lost approximately eight percent of operational capacity due to AIDS-related diseases in 2003. The review concluded that, “there is every reason to fear that deminers serve as a vector of transmission, both to communities in mine-affected areas and to their wives or sexual partners at home.” In 2004, the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) review encouraged IND, in close collaboration with all operators and the UN, to develop standard HIV/AIDS policies for all operators. NPA and HALO have an HIV/AIDS personnel policy in place; RONCO does not. HI reported that an HIV/AIDS policy at the program level was to be implemented shortly.
In July 2005, the Ministry of Labor rejected an appeal by RONCO against a fine imposed for violating Mozambique’s ban on compulsory HIV tests. RONCO appealed again; as of April 2006, no developments had been reported. A similar case was brought against ArmorGroup/MMA for allegedly hiring deminers to work in Cyprus based on HIV results. In May 2006, ArmorGroup/MMA reported that the case was being considered by its legal advisors.
Research and Development
APOPO is a Belgian organization that has developed technology to detect landmines through the use of trained rats. Although the research, training of animals and analysis of results takes place in Tanzania, field trials and operations were conducted in Mozambique where APOPO worked in collaboration with HI. As of March 2006, APOPO had 200 rats in training and employed approximately 100 people. In 2005, APOPO had an annual budget for both the Tanzanian program and the Mozambican program of €1,559,170 ($1,941,011).
APOPO was registered in Mozambique as an NGO and accredited by IND on 10 September 2003, and again on 10 December 2005. APOPO rats passed official licensing tests according to IMAS standards, under IND and GICHD supervision. Until June 2005, APOPO conducted operations with ADP in Vilanculos (Inhambane province). Since then, APOPO has worked with HI. Field operations were expected to start in May 2006 on demining tasks conducted in Inhambane.
In its Article 7 report for 2005 and in the IND’s 2005 report, Mozambique stressed the importance of mine risk education (MRE). MRE was identified as one of the principal activities in the National Mine Action Plan 2002-2006; it was referred to as “civic education about the danger of landmines.” However, little MRE took place in 2005 and in 2006 through to May.
During 2005, “basic MRE” was provided by IND to “a little over 7,800 people” in the districts of Gorongosa and Chibabava (Sofala province), to “a little over 4,000 people” in Cahora Bassa, Magoé and Chifunda districts (Tete province), and to 310 people including teachers, students and others in Manica district (Manica province). IND appealed to provincial and district authorities to take responsibility for informing the population on the risk of mines. In December 2005, IND received $20,000 from South Korea, part of which was used to enable quality assurance teams in Gaza and Maputo provinces to also deliver MRE.
IND had five MRE staff, two based in the Maputo headquarters, two in the Beira branch office and one in the Nampula office. During 2005, IND’s MRE staff trained 49 deminers from HI and 81 governmental civic education officers from two districts, Manica (Manica province) and Chibabava (Sofala province). Training covered delivering MRE and also data collection on mines/UXO and survivors. HI printed a new series of MRE materials in 2005-2006.
No substantial follow-up was reported on the MRE training of schoolteachers in Inhambane reported in last year’s Landmine Monitor report.
There are different views on the need for MRE in Mozambique. At the Standing Committee meetings in May 2006, as well as in its Article 7 report and the IND reports for 2005 and 2006, Mozambique stresses the need for MRE, especially in view of the number of casualties. However, the GICHD review in 2005 reported that, “Given the great progress in reducing landmine accidents and victims, stand-alone MRE projects seem no longer warranted, ... [but demining] operators should continue to provide MRE sessions to local residents when they move to a new vicinity.” UNDP stated that stand-alone MRE is of limited value, unless marking or clearance/EOD will help the community to deal with the threat, but demining operators in Mozambique have done very limited, if any, MRE or community liaison. UNDP emphasizes that there has to be MRE where there is mine clearance.
Landmine Monitor identified total mine action funding for Mozambique of some $12.6 million in 2005, including government funds reported by IND. Twelve donor countries reported contributing a total of some $10 million to mine action in Mozambique in 2005. This was a substantial decrease from some $12 million donated by 14 countries and the European Commission (EC) in 2004. Donor countries in 2005 were:
In addition, Adopt-a-Minefield reported providing $258,273 to the Accelerated Demining Program for mine clearance, $35,001 to Landmine Survivors Network for survivor assistance and $50,003 to Mozambique Red Cross Society for survivor assistance.
IND reported that the Mozambican government contributed 52.9 billion Meticais ($2,299,860) to mine action in 2005. IND has reported wide fluctuations in government financial support to mine action from 2003-2005: 178 billion Meticais ($7.9 million) in 2004, and 18 billion Meticais ($818,181) in 2003. The government contribution in 2005 was allocated to the process of closing ADP, paying customs excises on demining equipment and operating costs of IND.
IND reported that 10 governments, the EC, UNDP, Association for Aid and Relief Japan/Tokyo Broadcasting System and HI contributed some $11.8 million in 2005. This was a lesser amount than the $14.3 million reported for 2004. Dispersed funding as reported by IND declined in both 2004 and 2005.
In 2005, IND reported 57 new mine/UXO casualties in 20 incidents and three demining accidents. Twenty-one civilians were killed and 31 injured, including 13 women and 15 children. Five deminers were involved in three accidents (two killed, three injured). This is a significant increase both in casualties and incidents from 2004, when there were 30 new mine/UXO casualties (three killed, 27 injured) in 13 incidents/accidents. Compared with 2003, there were four times more casualties in 2005. The 2005 casualty level is close to that of 1999, when 60 casualties were recorded.
IND recorded casualties in the following provinces: Tete (19; four killed, 15 injured, including nine women and one child; six incidents); Sofala (17; eight killed, nine injured, including two women and 11 children; five incidents and one demining accident); Niassa (six; three killed, three injured, including three children; three incidents and one demining accident); Maputo (five; one killed, four injured; three incidents); Manica (four killed, including two women and one child; one incident); Cabo Delgado (three; two killed, one injured; one demining accident); Zambézia (two children killed in one incident); and Nampula (one man injured in one incident). IND recorded 70 percent of casualties in 56.6 percent of the incidents/accidents in the central part of the country. Women and children made up more than 50 percent of the civilian casualties (women 25 percent, children nearly 29 percent). Reportedly, the limited availability of MRE programs is reflected in the high number of children involved in landmine incidents.
Casualties continued to be reported in 2006. As of 23 May 2006, IND recorded 14 new mine/UXO casualties in seven incidents/accidents. Six people were killed and eight injured; at least nine were children. Two deminers were injured while conducting clearance operations in Cabo Delgado. Most incidents occurred during agricultural activities, but many of the incidents with children were caused while playing with explosive devices.
The number of reported casualties likely does not represent the total number of people killed or injured in mine incidents, as the ability to collect and record data is limited. Data is collected by the police, Mozambique Red Cross Society, hospitals, IND and others. The government reported that it has made a greater effort to collect data on mine incidents to assist in the provision of healthcare, and to ensure survivor’s social and economic reintegration.
The total number of mine casualties in Mozambique is not known; however, estimates are as high as 30,000. Between 1996 and 23 May 2006, 751 mine casualties were recorded. It is acknowledged that this figure does not represent the true situation in the country. The most comprehensive collection of casualty data remains the nationwide Landmine Impact Survey, concluded in August 2001; it recorded 2,145 mine/UXO casualties.
At the First Review Conference, Mozambique was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors, and with “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of survivors. Mozambique prepared its 2005-2009 objectives for the Sixth Meeting of State Parties in November-December 2005. The objectives included: expand rehabilitation services to all provinces and improve staff capacity, infrastructure, supplies, the information and referral system, transportation and coordination by 2009; enhance counseling services, disabled people’s organizations and inclusive education; and identify economic opportunities including income-generating activities. Objectives concerning data collection and emergency and ongoing medical care were not included.
In June 2005, Mozambique participated in the workshop on advancing landmine victim assistance in Africa, which was hosted by the co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, to assist States Parties in developing a plan of action to meet the aims of the Nairobi Action Plan in relation to mine victim assistance.
At the Standing Committee meetings in May 2006, Mozambique did not make a statement on the progress made in achieving its 2005-2009 objectives.
Mozambique submitted voluntary Form J, providing information on victim assistance activities, with its annual Article 7 report on 27 April 2006, and reiterated that victim assistance is the “weakest component” of its mine action program due to limited financial resources.
The National Mine Action Plan 2002-2006 affirmed IND’s coordinating role in mine victim assistance. However, IND’s role in victim assistance “appears to be limited to donor liaison and reporting for purposes of the Convention,” according to the GICHD review in 2005.
Assistance programs for mine survivors face major difficulties due to lack of financial resources; the needs of survivors greatly exceed available assistance. Responsibility for mine survivor assistance is shared by the Ministry of Health (Ministério da Saúde, MINSAU) and the Ministry for Women and Social Action ((Ministério da Mulher e da Acção Social, MMAS). MINSAU assisted 12 mine survivors in the provinces of Niassa, Cabo Delgado, Nampula and Zambézia in 2005. MMAS supports various initiatives, including community-based rehabilitation activities.
Mozambique’s healthcare infrastructure was severely damaged during almost 30 years of armed conflict, and in the floods of 2000. There is a lack of immediate first aid treatment as local health centers can only provide limited assistance and need to refer to rural and district hospitals for emergency and surgical care, whereas specialized care is only available at the provincial and central hospitals. Health services are also provided in private clinics and by international NGOs, bilateral cooperation and religious organizations. Traditional healers reportedly provide services to nearly 60 percent of the population. In rural areas, 72 percent of people live more than an hour from the nearest health center. Mine casualties are usually assisted by relatives or other members of the community, and transported by bicycles, donkeys or other means to the nearest hospital; the average journey takes about eight hours. There are 10 hospitals capable of providing assistance to mine casualties, one in each province; however, trained surgeons, medical equipment and drugs are in short supply partly due to a lack of planning.
Since 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided technical support to the Ministry of Health (MINSAU) and MMAS to strengthen capacities to respond to victims of violence and traumatic injuries, including landmine casualties. In 2005, a WHO-conducted situation assessment made recommendations for the development of a pre-hospital care system, improvement of emergency care services in Maputo and greater capacity for medical rehabilitation. WHO also contributed to the development of the National Plan of Action on Disability within the framework of the African Decade. WHO plans to concentrate on strengthening the injury surveillance system, improving the capacity of rehabilitation services and resource mobilization.
In 2005, hospitals in Mozambique treated 1,038 people registered as disabled: 397 disabled people were newly registered, 106 had been registered before and 535 were outpatients.
Reportedly, “rehabilitation services are available at all central, general, provincial and rural hospitals and health clinics with surgical facilities.” However, at the national level there has been a lack of coordination between the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Women and Social Action and IND, and landmine survivors and their families have not been involved in policy-making and planning. Mozambique has 10 orthopedic centers, 60 physiotherapy centers and 10 transit centers specifically designated to host people with disabilities undergoing treatment. The government, through MINSAU, operates nine orthopedic centers. All the government-run orthopedic centers are located in the provincial capitals, far from the mine-affected areas, making access difficult for people from rural areas. The Mozambique Red Cross Society runs the orthopedic center in Gaza. There is no orthopedic center in the province of Manica. According to the MINSAU Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Program-Strategy 2005-2009, two new orthopedic centers will be opened in Xai-Xai and Chimoio, in Manica Province in the medium term, but a date is not specified. In August 2005, the Vilankulo Orthopedic Center, in Inhambane province, was officially re-opened with support from the Rotary Club of Pretoria East, South Africa, in partnership with other Mozambican and South African organizations. The center was built after the conflict ended to assist disabled ex-combatants and civilian mine survivors. All the centers provide services free of charge for war-injured, including mine survivors, funded by the state. However, access is limited because survivors are not well aware of the services available, face difficulties getting referrals, and cannot afford transport and accommodation. Devices are made by national technicians, including 19 prosthetic/orthotic technicians and 30 assistants, with the more experienced technicians providing on-the-job training to the less experienced ones. There are 140 physiotherapists and physiotherapy assistants. According to MINSAU’s rehabilitation strategy, there are 86 technical personnel in the nine government-run centers and in the medium term this will be increased to 89. In the long-term, technical staff will be increased to 104 and research into new techniques will be conducted. Most of the equipment is reportedly obsolete and not functioning. There are regular shortages of raw materials and, due to a lack of trained staff, there are long waiting lists for services. MINSAU estimates the annual cost of rehabilitation services at the nine orthopedic centers as approximately $500,000; it has launched tenders for upgrading equipment.
In 2005, the nine government orthopedic centers produced 409 prostheses, 722 orthoses, 84 wheelchairs, 3,061 assistive devices, 351 orthopedic shoes, and 422 other mobility accessories for people with disabilities. The centers also repaired 522 prostheses, 96 orthoses, 261 wheelchairs, and 119 orthopedic shoes. 
The Mozambique Red Cross Society operates the Jaipur Orthopedic Center in Gaza province, which produces and repairs prostheses and other mobility devices. A Jaipur Mobile Orthopedic Unit also operates free of charge throughout Gaza province. Referrals are made through the network of Red Cross volunteers, and by provincial and district departments of health and coordination of social action. In 2005, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Special Fund for the Disabled (SFD) started to support the center with orthopedic components, polypropylene materials and a training workshop. The center has the capacity to assist about 240 people a year. In 2005, it assisted 210 people, including 81 landmine survivors, and produced 59 prostheses, 47 pairs of crutches and 104 other assistive devices. It was unable to assist more people due to the lack of orthopedic material, equipment and wheelchairs in Mozambique, and faced challenges improving the quality of prostheses and orthoses produced. In the first quarter of 2006, the center assisted 80 people with disabilities, including 25 mine survivors. Two technicians took training courses at centers in other countries. The Red Cross also facilitated transport to the orthopedic centers and supported socioeconomic reintegration activities in the provinces of Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Zambézia and Tete. In 2004, a pilot program was introduced to provide vocational training, disability awareness and social support; in 2005, training was provided in management of small projects; income-generating activities included agriculture and animal production, and families received local material for the construction of houses. Approximately 22 people have directly benefited from the project since 2004. From January to March 2006, four beneficiaries received fishing material and nine mine survivors (including four women) benefited from receiving goats. The project was sponsored by the Jaipur Limb Campaign until October 2005, and by Adopt-a-Minefield from October 2005 to April 2006. The socioeconomic reintegration program has a waiting list due to a lack of funding, and activities were slowed down further by the high poverty and illiteracy level of the participants. The Jaipur Orthopedic Center also advocated and organized workshops for disabled people. Its annual budget is $150,000. In 2005, funding was provided by the German and Portuguese Red Cross Societies, Adopt-a-Minefield, Disability and Development Partners, and ICRC-SFD.
In 2005, Handicap International implemented a project to support and coordinate sports activities for people with disabilities in Beira city and Sofala province. The project was supported by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Approximately 20 people were trained in sports for the disabled and each headed a sports group. The project concluded in February 2006. HI has provided support to organizations working with people with disabilities, such as by donating used computers or by providing organizational assistance. In 2006, HI planned to recruit a disability officer to liaise with partners at the national level and reinforce HI’s activities in the field of disability.
The Ministry for Women and Social Action coordinates psychosocial and socioeconomic reintegration activities, including the ABC program. In Maputo Central Hospital and Beira Central Hospital, one staff member is trained in psychosocial support. The Ministry shares responsibility for providing orthopedic and physiotherapy services with MINSAU. Within that framework, it manages transit centers located near MINSAU orthopedic workshops in Maputo, Inhambane and Sofala. In the transit centers, survivors receive accommodation during their rehabilitation, and there are social welfare technicians to provide psychosocial support. The technicians have not received formal training in psychosocial support; some of them are people with disabilities. Additionally, the ministry provides income-generating activities. It organizes information sessions at the district level to create awareness, and guarantees free transportation for disabled people from their homes to the orthopedic center.
Independent groups and the Association of People with Disabilities also provide peer-to-peer counseling. Inclusive education for children with disabilities is available, but there is a shortage of trained teachers.
The government acknowledges that financial constraints limit the availability of programs to assist mine survivors and that more facilities are needed to promote their socioeconomic reintegration, particularly in rural areas. Limited activities are being undertaken and there are plans to provide food for work, to encourage the public and private sector to employ people with a disability, and to provide those who are unable to generate an income with a monthly allowance. The government reported that in 2005, in coordination with partners, it assisted 320 landmine survivors, providing housing, medical assistance and vocational training. The Institute of Labor and Professional Training promotes the inclusion of people with disabilities in special training courses at its eight vocational training centers. It also runs the Center for Training and Professional Rehabilitation of People with Disabilities in Chimoio in Manica province.
Until the end of 2005, Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) was active in Zambézia province. LSN’s community-based outreach workers, who were amputees, worked with individual survivors to assess their needs, offer psychological and social support, and educate families about the effects of limb loss. LSN assisted survivors in accessing health, rehabilitation, and vocational training services, and offered material support if necessary. Advocacy work in the province raised awareness of the rights of people with disabilities. LSN provided grants to help mine survivors and other people with disabilities undertake small-scale commercial activities, and linked with programs of other NGOs to raise animals and establish self-help groups. The program had some shortcomings, such as lack of sustainability of the small businesses due to a lack of management capacity. In 2006, LSN decided to expand its work through partnerships with local and international actors in other provinces, because it “found that working as a stand-alone organization, although allowed high quality work, was too costly in financial and managerial point of view to be replicable.” New provinces were to be determined based on a study conducted from March to May 2006.
The UK-based NGO POWER worked closely with Forum of Mozambican Disabled Persons Associations (FAMOD), the umbrella organization of disability associations and 13 other organizations for people with disabilities, to empower disabled people to take a fuller part in the life of the community and enjoy the same rights as others. In May 2004, POWER and its national partners designed and implemented a four-year program to raise awareness of disability issues through a network of radio clubs, especially in rural villages.
In 2005, the Mine Victim Assistance Network (Rede para Assistencia a Victimas de Minas, RAVIM) was established to develop economic reintegration projects and advocate on rights of people with disabilities, with advisory support from IND and LSN. Of several Mozambican disability organizations working on advocacy, two in particular, the Association of Disabled Mozambicans (ADEMO) and Association of Military and Paramilitary Disabled Servicemen of Mozambique (ADEMIMO), work to support the rights of landmine survivors.
The Mozambican Federation of Disabled Sports was created in 2005, under the responsibility of the Ministry of Youth and Sports.
In June 1999, parliament enacted a national disability law, and the cabinet approved the first national policy on people with disabilities (Resolution no. 20/99).
In 2005, FAMOD and other associations of people with disabilities lobbied parliament to approve a new draft law on the rights of the disabled. FAMOD also advocated for the inclusion of specific actions in favor of people with disabilities in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Program 2006-2009, PARPA II, which was approved in March 2006. PARPA II aims to provide assistance to 400,000 people with disabilities at risk of social exclusion by 2009, and includes a budget to respond to the needs of targeted groups, through transit centers, public education and training. Specific objectives include: creating 22 community-based rehabilitation centers, developing income-generating projects for 12,500 people between 2006 and 2009, providing assistive devices to 15,000 people with disabilities in 2006, increasing production of mobility devices each year to reach 30,000 by 2009, building schools and stimulating inclusive education, creating awareness raising programs, and providing professional training to integrate people with disabilities into the labor market.
In 2005, the government recorded a total of 7,081 people with disabilities.
Mozambique was chosen as a pilot country for the African Decade for the Disabled. A National Plan of Action on Disability focusing on five priority areas (education, health, labor, self-sufficiency, and preventing and fighting HIV/AIDS) will be designed as well as an administrative structure. The Ministry for Women and Social Action will take leadership in the review and approval of this national action plan.
 Interview with Mik Isabel Massango, Head of International Relations Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Geneva, 11 May 2006; Article 7 Report, Form A, 27 April 2006, states that, “the proposed law on this matter has been submitted to the Parliament for appraisal.”
 Email from Atle Karlsen, NPA Mozambique, 26 May 2006.
 Email from Tim Turner, HALO Mozambique, 1 March 2006. HALO’s clearance total includes 1,937,862 square meters cleared manually (destroying 35,389 antipersonnel mines and 68 UXO) and 40,395 square meters cleared mechanically (destroying 1,008 antipersonnel mines); an additional 97 antipersonnel mines and 218 UXO were destroyed through explosive ordnance disposal spot tasks. HALO considers some of the commercial area clearance figures in the IND report to be too high in relation to the assets of the companies performing the clearance tasks. Email from Tim Turner, HALO Mozambique, 7 July 2006.
 Email from Steve Brown, RONCO Mozambique, 24 February 2006.
 Email from Gilles Delcourt, HI Mozambique, 24 April 2006. HI’s clearance total includes 95,210 square meters cleared manually, 100,048 square meters cleared using dogs and 135,941 square meters cleared mechanically.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, p. 20.
 Email from Tim Turner, HALO Mozambique, 1 March 2006, and telephone interview, 14 March 2006; email from Gilles Delcourt, HI Mozambique, 24 April 2006; NPA, “Progress Report 2005,” 11 January 2006, p. 5; email from Steve Brown, RONCO Mozambique, 28 April 2006.
 NPA, “Progress Report 2005,” 11 January 2006, p. 8; email from Atle Karlsen, NPA Mozambique, 26 May 2006.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, p. 18.
 Email from Tim Turner, HALO Mozambique, to HALO’s donors, 1 March 2006; IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, p. 18.
 GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” October 2005, p. 41; email from Noel Cook, Technical Advisor, EU, Maputo, 24 February 2006.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, p. 18.
 Email from Lutful Kabir, UNDP Mozambique, 25 May 2006.
 Email from Tim Turner, HALO Mozambique, 1 March 2006; email from Atle Karlsen, NPA Mozambique, 26 May 2006.
 NPA, “Progress Report 2005,” 11 January 2006, p. 5.
 Email from Tim Turner, HALO Mozambique, 1 March 2006.
 Email from Lutful Kabir, UNDP Mozambique, 25 May 2006.
 Email from Tim Turner, HALO Mozambique, to HALO’s donors, 11 December 2005, and email, 28 April 2006.
 “Mine accident information to the wider mine action community,” NPA Mozambique, 10 May 2005.
 Email from Tim Turner, HALO Mozambique, 28 April 2006.
 Email from Steve Brown, RONCO Mozambique, 28 April 2006.
 Email from Lutful Kabir, UNDP Mozambique, 28 April 2006.
 GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” October 2005, p. 25.
 DANIDA, “Support to Humanitarian Mine Action Mozambique,” April 2004, p. iii.
 Email from Tim Tuner, HALO Mozambique, 28 April 2006; email from Atle Karlsen, NPA Mozambique, 26 May 2006; email from Steve Brown, RONCO Mozambique, 28 April 2006.
 Email from Gilles Delcourt, HI Mozambique, 24 April 2006.
 See Landmine Monitor 2005, p. 443.
 Emails from Steve Brown, RONCO Mozambique, 28 April and 4 May 2006.
 “Mozambican sappers illegally recruited to Cyprus,” Agencia de informacão de Moçambique, 20 October 2005; email from Rob Hallam, ArmorGroup/MMA, 6 May 2006.
 Email from Rob Hallam, ArmorGroup/MMA, 6 May 2006.
 The Mozambican part of the program has been solely funded by the Flanders government, which contributed €905,960 ($1,127,830) to APOPO for 2005-2007. For 2003-2007, its funding to APOPO totaled €1,296,432 ($1,613,928), including €150,000 ($186,735) for 2004 not previously reported by Landmine Monitor. “Cooperation between Flanders and Mozambique,” (in Flemish) p. 2, Flanders Official website, http://docs.vlaanderen.be, accessed 3 June 2006.
 Interview with Frank Weetjens, APOPO, 12 January 2006, and email, 22 March 2006.
 Article 7 Report, Form I, 27 April 2006; IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, pp. 12-13.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Executive Summary, Maputo, March 2006. See also IND, “Plan of Demining Priorities for 2006,” Maputo, March 2006, p. 4.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, p. 13.
 Interview with Lutful Kabir, UNDP Mozambique, Maputo, 7 March 2006, and email, 26 May 2006.
 Email from Surengue Assane, MRE Coordinator, IND, 27 April 2006.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, pp. 12-13; email from Gilles Delcourt, HI Mozambique, 1 June 2006.
 Email from Surengue Assane, IND, 27 April 2006.
 Email from Gilles Delcourt, HI Mozambique, 1 June 2006.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 444.
 Statement by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 10 May 2006; IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, p. 13; Article 7 Report, Form I, 27 April 2006.
 GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” October 2005, p. iv, 21.
 Interview with Lutful Kabir, UNDP Mozambique, Maputo, 7 March 2006, and telephone interview, 25 May 2006.
 See Landmine Monitor 2005, pp. 444-445.
 Austria Article 7 Report, Form J, 27 April 2006; email from Alexander Kmentt, Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 27 April 2006.
 Mine Action Investments database; email from Carly Volkes, DFAIT, 7 June 2006. Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1 = C$1.2115. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
 France Article 7 Report, Form J, 26 April 2006; CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form E, 6 October 2005. Average exchange rate for 2005: €1 = US$1.2449, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
 Germany Article 7 Report, Form J, 27 April 2006; Mine Action Investments database.
 Emails from Manfredo Capozza, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, March 2006.
 Emails from Kitagawa Yasu, Japan Campaign to Ban Landmines (JCBL), March-May 2006, with translated information received by JCBL from Multilateral Cooperation Department, 11 May 2005 and Non-proliferation and Science Department, 11 April 2006. Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1= ¥110.11. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
 UNDP, “Mine Action Contributions to UNDP’s Thematic Trust Fund for Crisis Prevention and Recovery,” 20 April 2006; response to Landmine Monitor from the Permanent Mission of the ROK to the UN in New York, 9 May 2006.
 Email from Ellen Schut, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 7 April 2006; email from Brechtje Paardekooper, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 18 April 2006.
 Email from Annette A. Landell-Mills, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 21 June 2006. Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1 = NOK6.4412. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
 Email from Helen Fawthorpe, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 6 June 2006; email from Megan McCoy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 6 June 2006. Average exchange rate for 2005: NZ$1 = US$0.7049. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
 Email from Rémy Friedmann, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 28 April 2006. Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1 = CHF1.2459. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
 USG Historical Chart containing data for FY 2005, by email from Angela L. Jeffries, Financial Management Specialist, US Department of State, 8 June 2006; US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” 6th Edition June 2006, p 14; email from H. Murphey McCloy Jr., US Department of State, 7 July 2006.
 Email from Zach Hudson, Program Manager, Adopt-A-Minefield, 2 June 2006.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, p. 21. Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1 = MZM23001.40466, used throughout this report. Landmine Monitor estimate based on www.oanda.com.
 See Landmine Monitor 2005, pp. 444-446.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, p. 21. The government is reported to have disbursed $1.1 million in redundancy payments to ADP staff in 2005. Intervention by Gamiliel Munguambe, IND/UNDP/donors/operators meeting, Maputo, 15 December 2005.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, pp. 21-22. IND reported funding in 2005 not reported to Landmine Monitor by donors: $475,960 from Belgium to ADP; $216,244 from Denmark to IND; $204,697 from the EU to IND; $646,186 from Ireland ($292,218 to IND; and $353,968 to HALO). HALO Mozambique reported Ireland as one of its primary donors in 2005. Email from Tim Turner, HALO Mozambique, 7 July 2006. Ireland did not report funding to Mozambique in 2005. Emails from Therese Healy, Department of Foreign Affairs, May 2006; CCW Article 13 Report, Annex 1, 14 October 2005. IND also reported, for the first time, funding by investors in commercial demining, $2,277,114 in 2005, bringing the total dispersed funds in 2005 to some $14.5 million. These amounts are not included in the Landmine Monitor total for 2005.
 See Landmine Monitor 2005, pp. 444-446. Previously, IND has cautioned that in its reporting the “amounts disbursed cannot be accurately confirmed.” See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 591.
 See Landmine Monitor 2005, pp. 444-446.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, pp. 14-15.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 446; Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 592.
 Landmine Monitor analysis of “Accidentes de 96 a 2005” (“Accidents between 96 and 2005”), as of 5 June 2006, provided to Landmine Monitor by Surengue Assane, IND, 2 June 2006.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, pp. 13-15.
 Email from Lutful Kabir, UNDP Mozambique , Maputo, 2 June 2006; IND, “Accidentes com Minas e UXOs em 2006 (Accidents with mines and UXOs in 2006),” provided to Landmine Monitor by Surengue Assane, IND, Maputo, 2 June 2006.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 446.
 IND, “Annual Report 2005,” Maputo, March 2006, p. 14.
 Landmine Monitor analysis of “Accidents between 96 and 2005,” and “Accidentes com Minas e UXOs em 2006 (Accidents with Mines and UXO in 2006),” as of 5 June 2006, provided to Landmine Monitor by Surengue Assane, IND, Maputo, 2 June 2006.
 For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 593.
 UN, “Final Report, First Review Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction,” Nairobi, 29 November-3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 33.
 “Final Report of the Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, “Victim Assistance objectives of the States Parties that have the responsibility for significant number of landmine survivors,” Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 167-171.
 Article 7 Report, Form J, 27 April 2006.
 GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” October 2005, p. 22.
 For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 596; Article 7 Report, Form J, 27 April 2006; interview with Aurelio Faduc, Head, Department of Study, Planning and Information, IND, Maputo, 20 February 2006.
 Article 7 Report, Form J, 27 April 2006.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 447.
 WHO, “Health in Action Crisis: Mozambique,” September 2005.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 448; Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 593.
 WHO, “Injuries, violence and disabilities, Biennium 2004-2005,” Geneva, 2006, p. 59.
 Letter from Américo Assan, Head, Health Assistance Department, National Directorate of Health, Ministry of Health, 12 April 2006.
 “Final Report of the Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 168-169.
 Ibid, pp. 169-170.
 Ministry of Health, “Programa de Medicina Física e Reabilitação-Estrategia 2005-2009 (Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Program-Strategy 2005-2009),” Maputo, 2005, p. 4.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 448-449.
 “Final Report of the Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 168-170.
 Ministry of Health, “Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Program-Strategy 2005-2009,” Maputo, 2005, p. 3.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 448.
 Letter from Américo Assan, Ministry of Health, 12 April 2006.
 ICRC, “Special Fund for the Disabled Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, 10 March 2006, p. 17.
 Response to Landmine Monitor VA questionnaire by Felipe Pedro Ussiva, Project Coordinator, Mozambique Red Cross Society, Maputo, 23 February 2006.
 Mozambique Red Cross Society, “Jaipur Orthopedic Center Social Program, Quarterly Report,” Manjacaze, April 2006, p. 3.
 Response to Landmine Monitor VA questionnaire by Felipe Pedro Ussiva, Mozambique Red Cross Society, Maputo, 23 February 2006.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 449.
 Interview with Gilles Delcourt, HI Mozambique, Maputo, 21 March 2006.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 449.
 Interview with Francisco Tembe, Head, Disability Department, Ministry of Women and Social Action, Maputo, 2 February 2006.
 “Final Report of the Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, p. 171.
 Interview with Francisco Tembe, Ministry of Women and Social Action, Maputo, 2 February 2006.
 “Final Report of the Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, p. 170.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 449.
 Government of Mozambique, “Balanco do Plano Economico e Social de 2005 (Evaluation of the Social and Economic Plan),” undated, p. 126.
 “Três centros para formação profissional (Three centers for vocational training),” Notícia (Maputo), 17 August 2005.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 449; Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 595.
 Email from Becky Jordan, Regional Coordinator for Africa, LSN, Maputo, 7 July 2006.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 450.
 Interview with Luis Wamusse, President of the Advisory Board, Mine Victim Assistance Network, Maputo, 1 March 2006.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 450.
 Interview with Francisco Tembe, Ministry of Women and Social Action, Maputo, 2 February 2006; “Desporto para deficientes terá federacao nacional (Sport for the disabled will have a national federation),” Notícia (Maputo), 10 September 2005.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 450.
 Government of Mozambique, “PARPA II,” Maputo, 2 May 2006, pp. 9-10.
 Government of Mozambique, “Balanco de Plano Economico e Social de 2005 (Evaluation of the Social and Economic Plan 2005,” undated, p. 59.
 Interview with Francisco Tembe, Ministry of Women and Social Action, Maputo, 2 February 2006; African Decade of People with Disabilities, “Country Profile: Mozambique,” www.africandecade.org, accessed 28 February 2006.