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Table of Contents
Country Reports
Yemen, Landmine Monitor Report 2006

Yemen

Key developments since May 2005: Yemen elaborated its views on key matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1 and 2 of the Mine Ban Treaty, taking strong positions mirroring those of the ICBL and many other States Parties. Area reduction through technical survey released more than 100 square kilometers of mine-affected and suspected land in 2005. Clearance operations released another 1.8 square kilometers. One deminer was killed during clearance operations. In March 2006, a socioeconomic and livelihood study was started to assess the socioeconomic returns from mine clearance. Mine risk education reached 191,262 people in 92 communities during 2005. Casualties doubled in 2005, compared to 2004. Several survivor assistance and disability organizations withdrew from Yemen in 2005-2006, and national organizations faced funding difficulties.

Mine Ban Policy

The Republic of Yemen signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997, ratified it on 1 September 1998, and it entered into force on 1 March 1999. On 16 December 2004, the Yemeni Parliament endorsed national implementation legislation and on 20 April 2005, Presidential Law No. 25 was issued to bring the ten-article law into force.[1]

Yemen submitted its eighth Article 7 transparency report on 3 May 2006, covering 30 March 2005 to 30 March 2006.[2]

Minister of State Kassim al-Aggam, Chairperson of the National Mine Action Committee, led Yemen’s delegation to the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in Zagreb, Croatia in November-December 2005. Yemen made statements during the General Exchange of Views and the session on victim assistance. Yemen also attended the meetings of the intersessional Standing Committees in Geneva in June 2005 and May 2006, making presentations on mine clearance and victim assistance.

Yemen elaborated its views on key matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1 and 2 in a letter to Landmine Monitor in April 2006, and again during the intersessional meetings in May 2006. It articulated strong positions mirroring those of the ICBL and many other States Parties.

Regarding the issue of joint military operations with non-States Parties as it relates to the prohibition to “assist” in Article 1, Yemen stated that, “one cannot participate in any activity related to the use of antipersonnel mines and should reject any rules of engagement permitting use of antipersonnel mines and refuse orders to use them, and reject participation in any joint operation if their military forces derive any military benefit from use of antipersonnel mines, and should not provide security or transportation for AP mines.” It also supported the view that the Mine Ban Treaty prohibits the transit “of antipersonnel mines across, or the foreign stockpiling of anti-personnel mines on, territory under jurisdiction or control of a State Party.”[3]

Regarding the definition of antipersonnel mine in Article 2, Yemen stated that it supports the view that, “any mine even if it is called an antivehicle mine equipped with a sensitive fuse or sensitive antihandling device that causes the mine to explode from an unintentional act of a person is considered to be an antipersonnel mine and therefore prohibited.”[4] It also informed States Parties that it does not currently and did not in the past possess any antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes.[5]

Yemen is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Production, Use, Stockpiling and Transfer

Yemen has stated that it has never produced antipersonnel mines. The last reported mine use by government forces was in 1994. Yemen completed destruction of its stockpile of 74,000 antipersonnel mines on 27 April 2002. The Army does not possess Claymore-type mines.[6]

In November 2000, Yemen announced its intent to retain 4,000 antipersonnel mines for training and research purposes under Article 3 of the treaty. Each year since 2003, Yemen has reported that it has used 240 of the retained mines for the training of mine detecting dogs, but it has not subtracted this from the total number reported in its Article 7 report, indicating that the mines are not consumed (exploded) during the training.[7] Yemen’s view on Article 3 is that, “the number of mines retained for research and training should vary from country to country depending on the level of landmine contamination. We suggest that it should be between 4,000 to 10,000 mines but should not be greater than 10,000 mines under no circumstances.”[8]

Yemen has not reported in any detail on the intended purposes and actual uses of its retained mines―a step agreed by States Parties in the Nairobi Action Plan that emerged from the First Review Conference in December 2004. It did not use the new expanded Form D for reporting on retained mines that States Parties agreed to at the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in December 2005.

Yemen has stated that it has never exported antipersonnel mines. However, an October 2005 report to the UN Security Council by the UN arms embargo monitoring group for Somalia asserted that, “a well-placed source with intimate knowledge of the affairs of the [Transitional Federal Government] confirmed that [Somali] President Yusuf and the Chief of Staff, General Naji, had negotiated a deal with the Government of Yemen for the delivery of large numbers of arms and a variety of ammunition, including...mines and hand grenades....”[9] The material was apparently transferred between 2 and 10 July 2005 by an aircraft of the Yemeni Air Force.[10] The report does not specify if the mines were antipersonnel or antivehicle. A reply from Yemen to the UN monitoring group acknowledged the transfer of “5,000 personal weapons” and other equipment such as uniforms and food supplies, but did not mention landmines.[11] In a letter to Landmine Monitor, the government of Yemen denied that it had provided any antipersonnel mines to Somalia and gave assurances of its strong commitment to the Mine Ban Treaty.[12]

A May 2006 report by the monitoring group said that in August 2005, traders at the Bakaraaha arms market in Somalia reportedly purchased mines and other arms from a Yemen arms trading network.[13]

Previously, a 2003 report by a UN panel of experts said that landmines had been shipped from Yemen (and Ethiopia) to Somalia.[14] After a request from Landmine Monitor for clarification of this matter, Yemen responded: “We absolutely deny that our government, or any official representation in it, has a hand in sending any land mines to Somalia.”[15]

Mine and UXO Problem

Yemen is contaminated with mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO), as a result of several conflicts, including the 1962-1975 war in the north between republicans and royalists, the 1963-1967 war of independence in the south, the 1970-1983 war against left-wing guerrillas, and the 1994 separatist war. Most of the mines were laid in border areas between northern and southern Yemen and in the southern governorates.[16]

According to the Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) conducted in 2000, a total of 592 villages in 19 of the country’s 20 governorates were mine/UXO-affected.[17] As of April 2006, as a result of survey and clearance operations, 12 high-impact communities, 62 medium-impact communities and 107 low-impact communities had been declared free from the threat of mines and UXO, and were released to the communities. The LIS identified that approximately 828,000 Yemenis (six percent of the population) were affected by mines.[18] In its Article 7 reports, Yemen noted that between 2000 and 2004, several new mine/UXO-affected areas were discovered.[19]

The landmine and UXO problem is said to have had an impact on infrastructure development (such as roads, schools and hospitals), denying people access to economic opportunities. Also, access to critical resources including water, grazing land and arable land (which is only 2.6 percent of the country) has been reduced by the presence of mines and UXO. As a result, the government is reportedly unable to implement social development projects within these affected communities.[20] In 2005, most mine/UXO incidents occurred in the governorates of Ibb, al-Dale, al-Bayda and Lahij.[21]

Mine Action Program

National Mine Action Authority: The National Mine Action Committee (NMAC), established in 1998, is chaired by the Minister of State and includes the deputies of the ministries of defense, interior, health, information, education, and planning, as well as the prime minister’s office. NMAC established mine awareness and victim assistance committees, as well as working groups on the same topics to assist with planning and evaluation.[22] NMAC is said to have met four times in 2005; however, no major decisions were taken.[23]

There is no specific mine action law in Yemen. NMAC and the Yemen Executive Mine Action Center (YEMAC) were created by decree in 1998. During 2005, national mine action standards, adapted from International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) were adopted by YEMAC and approved by NMAC.[24]

National Mine Action Center: The Yemen Executive Mine Action Center is in charge of implementing plans and policies approved by NMAC. YEMAC headquarters are in Sana’a with regional branches in Aden and al-Mukalla (Hadramawt).[25]

Yemen’s mine action program has been supported by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) since 1999. The UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS) executed the first phase of the project (1999-2003), while the second phase (since October 2003) aimed to strengthen national capacity for mine action.[26] The second phase was due to be completed at the end of 2006, followed by a third phase from 2007 to 2009.[27] UNDP supports YEMAC with one chief technical advisor and three national staff.

Strategic Planning and Progress

Mine action plans are drafted by YEMAC, in consultation with UNDP and NMAC. The National Mine Action Strategic Plan for 2001-2005, based on the LIS results, was extended in June 2004 to cover the period 2004-2009.[28] The revised strategic plan aimed to eliminate the impact from landmines and UXO by the end of March 2009.[29] The 2004-2009 program was budgeted at around US$13 million in addition to an estimated $3 million per year required from the Yemeni government.[30] From 1 April 2009 onward, the government committed to using only national human and financial resources to eradicate the remaining mine and UXO problem.[31]

The 2004 revised strategic plan called for the clearance of all communities classified as high- and medium-impact and 27 percent of the most critical low-impact areas (147 square kilometers) by March 2009.[32] In May 2006, Yemen stated that the goal by 2009 was to “clear, fence or mark all hazard areas that present a threat to people, economic and social livelihood of communities.”[33] According to the mine action plan, Yemen would release 83 square kilometers in 2005, 93 square kilometers in 2006, 95 square kilometers in 2007, 97 square kilometers in 2008 and 98 square kilometers in 2009.[34]

YEMAC has adopted a “cluster clearance approach” to deal with impacted areas, focusing not only on high-impact communities, but also on medium- and low-impact communities clustered close to each other. This has allowed for a greater reduction of risk among communities from the same cluster, but with different levels of impact.[35]

Clearance tasks in Yemen are principally centered on small minefields, where due to terrain conditions (hillsides and gullies) full clearance units (54 deminers) cannot be deployed simultaneously. However, shortage of explosives and lack of destruction facilities remained problematic in 2005 and through 2006.[36]

To achieve its objectives, YEMAC planned to increase the number of technical survey teams from seven to 14; establish additional quality assurance teams to follow-up and support clearance operations; restructure four clearance units into smaller, independent platoons by providing equipment and medical support; and introduce one-person/one-lane clearance procedures to allow more flexibility and increase clearance output and safety.[37]

The restructuring was planned to start in 2004; however, due to a lack of funds, it was rescheduled for the following year.[38] In 2005, YEMAC trained five technical survey teams that became operational in February 2006, bringing to 12 the total number of technical survey teams available in 2006. In 2005, of the four clearance units that YEMAC had planned to restructure, only two units had been restructured into six logistically independent platoons.[39] In 2005, the US Department of State supported the restructuring of the demining units by donating demining equipment and vehicles worth $720,000 to YEMAC. Also, eight additional dogs (to replace older dogs) were trained in 2005 and became operational at the beginning of 2006; corresponding dog handlers, set leaders, a veterinarian and instructors were also trained during the year.[40]

In 2006, YEMAC planned to train two more technical survey teams and to restructure two more demining units into six logistically independent platoons. YEMAC planned the release of 93 square kilometers in 2006 through survey and clearance operations. If financial requirements and expansion plans are met, Yemen believed that by the end of 2006, YEMAC’s maximum capacity will be in place.[41]

A revision of the mine action strategy is planned for March 2007. The revision will be based on the results of a “surveillance system” that YEMAC started implementing in May 2006. One survey team composed of five surveyors has been conducting impact and technical survey in the remaining medium- and low-impact communities, in order to reassess and re-evaluate data from the LIS. Using this technique, YEMAC hopes to reduce the size of suspected mined areas. Based on the results of the updated survey data and the size of the mine suspected and affected land, Yemen’s strategic mine action plan will be revised.[42]

YEMAC houses the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA). In 2005, the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) found that maps produced from IMSMA had too poor a resolution for safe and efficient use in mine action; it recommended they be replaced with a countrywide set of digitized maps of higher resolution.[43] Installation of version 4 of IMSMA, which includes a full-feature Geographic Information System, was scheduled for the end of 2006.[44]

A YEMAC internal review in 2004 found that, “the cooperation between the IMSMA and Operation Departments is poor and needs to be improved and strengthened. The result of this is that the reports generated are inconsistent and not useful either for planning or for monitoring/evaluation.”[45] YEMAC reported in May 2006 that coordination between the Operation Departments and IMSMA had been improved by establishing systematic reporting between both departments.[46]

Evaluations of Mine Action

An evaluation of Phase 2 of UNDP support to the mine action program in Yemen was conducted in April 2005 by GICHD. The report concluded, “that significant progress had been achieved in mine action and that the YEMAC has an organizational structure capable of addressing all components of a mine action program.” The evaluation also highlighted several gaps, such as the lack of training of YEMAC staff, the lack of munitions destruction facilities and the need to enhance post-clearance community rehabilitation.[47]

YEMAC reported in 2006 that it had initiated a socioeconomic and livelihood study to assess the overall socioeconomic returns from mine clearance investment through a livelihood analysis of 50 landmine impacted communities now cleared from mines and UXO. The study also aims to enhance the capacity of YEMAC to conduct future assessments of socioeconomic benefits from mine action. YEMAC is conducting the study in conjunction with GICHD and the Natural Resource Institute of London.[48]

In December 2005, five staff from YEMAC attended the Mine Action Middle Manager’s course in Amman, Jordan. Another 20 YEMAC staff enrolled in English language classes in 2005 and 2006. YEMAC’s head of information management was due to attend the Senior Mine Action Manager’s Course at James Madison University in the US in May-June 2006.[49]

Summary of Efforts to Comply with Article 5

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Yemen is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but no later than 1 March 2009.

The goal of Yemen’s 2005-2009 strategy is to ensure “all communities classified as high and medium impact, and 27 percent of the most critical low-impacted areas (147 square kilometers) are cleared by the end of March 2009.” This is not in full compliance with the requirements of the Mine Ban Treaty. However, depending on the results of the surveillance system undertaken in 2006, YEMAC’s director expressed cautious hope that the strategy could be revised so as to comply fully with Yemen’s Article 5 obligations.[50] Fencing of mined and mine-suspected areas, as has been done in Yemen, is only an interim step towards the destruction of all antipersonnel mines in mined areas, as required by Article 5.

Demining

Mine clearance in Yemen is undertaken by the Engineering Department of the Ministry of Defense with staff seconded to YEMAC.[51] In 2005, before the extra capacity added in 2006, there were eight mine clearance units, seven technical survey teams, 19 mine detecting dog teams (each with two dogs and one handler), three quality assurance teams, and one monitoring and evaluation team. Each of the eight clearance units was composed of 27 pairs of deminers.[52]

Identification of Mined Areas: Surveys and Assessments

The 2000 LIS identified 1,078 mined areas covering a surface area of 923 square kilometers, mainly in the center and the south of the country. The LIS had initially identified 14 high-impact communities, 84 medium and 494 low-impact communities.[53] In 2002, two additional mine-affected communities were identified, bringing the total of medium-impact communities to 86 and the total number of affected communities to 594.[54]

During 2005, technical survey covered almost twice as much as in 2004, amounting to 103,535,656 square meters of suspected areas. As a result, 1,798,958 square meters were marked to await clearance, and 101,736,698 square meters were released to the population.[55] In 2004, technical survey was conducted on 69,341,351 square meters of suspected land, resulting in the cancellation of 66,729,660 square meters, marking of 2,593,407 square meters, and the reduction of another 18,284 square meters .[56]

Technical survey is carried out using manual and mine detecting dog methods.[57] The technical survey bases itself on information provided by the LIS. Once a survey team has been tasked to survey a known or suspected mined area, the technical survey team starts gathering detailed information from landmine survivors, former military personnel and the local population to determine the exact area that the local population believed was mined and thus reduce the size of the area. According to YEMAC, this phase has helped to reduce the size of the suspected areas by a significant amount in most cases, from 50 up to 90 percent. There were, however, also some cases where the actual suspected area is larger than the LIS estimate.[58]

In the second stage, the survey teams reduce further and verify the actual size of the suspected mined area by “quickly” checking and searching the area with dogs to determine the exact boundaries of the minefield. The dogs are said to be very fast in area reduction and verification. Once the minefield boundaries have been marked and mapped, small minefields (that is, those smaller than 10,000 square meters) are cleared by the survey teams while larger minefields are handed over to clearance units for further clearance.[59]

Marking and Fencing

In 2005, YEMAC marked minefields that could not be cleared with the current technology. As a result of shifting sand in some desert locations, landmines have sunk further below the surface, in some cases up to two meters in depth. High mineral levels and large numbers of metal fragments make metal detectors ineffective. Such areas could not be cleared with existing technology and therefore have been marked by laying red painted stones and planting mine signs along the perimeter. Mechanical clearance equipment was tested in Yemen in 2005, in the areas where clearance operations had to be suspended, but the tests did not achieve positive results.

Other demining techniques were to be tested during 2006, according to YEMAC’s director, and based on the results, YEMAC will start marking more permanently or fencing those areas.[60] In 2005, two high-impact and two low-impact areas were marked off, covering a total area of 290,212 square meters.[61] At least one area was marked off with metal poles and rope placed around it, while the remainder were marked with red and white stones around the perimeter.[62]

Mine and UXO Clearance

In 2005, the mine action program cleared 1,629,888 square meters of mined areas, destroying in the process 75 antipersonnel mines and 30 antivehicle mines. A total of 5,797 items of UXO were cleared, but only 5,092 were destroyed, due to lack of explosives.[63] YEMAC explained that the shortage of explosives and the lack of demolition stores noted in previous years had been partially overcome by using explosives donated for trial by a Swiss company.[64] In addition, while training YEMAC staff in 2005, the US Army destroyed some 3,900 UXO left from clearance operations in previous years.[65]

In 2004, the program had cleared 2,743,437 square meters of mined areas, including 464 antipersonnel mines, 203 antivehicle mines and 10,594 UXO.[66] Thus, productivity for 2005 represented a decrease of 1.11 square kilometers. YEMAC explained that clearance teams had moved to more difficult clearance sites such as mountainous or desert areas (where sands and dunes shift) or sites where the use of metal detectors is harder. Also, operations were suspended for one month while clearance teams received refresher training in April 2005.[67] In its Article 7 report of April 2006, Yemen noted that the number of mines cleared is low because demining units are re-clearing according to humanitarian standards areas previously cleared by army personnel.[68]

However, combined clearance and survey operations in 2005 released more than 103 square kilometers of mine-affected and suspected land, 20 square kilometers more than YEMAC’s plans for the year. In 2005, clearance and technical survey operations were conducted in Ibb, al-Dale, Sana’a, Lahij, Abyan, Hadramawt and Dhamar.[69]

According to YEMAC, from the program’s start in 1999 to May 2006, 315 square kilometers out of the total of 922 square kilometers of contaminated land were surveyed and cleared. As a result, 607 square kilometers of suspected land remained to be surveyed and cleared.[70] At the Standing Committee meetings in May 2006, Yemen stated that at the end of 2005, “all high, 59 medium and 73 low impacted communities are freed.”[71] However, Yemen considers impacted communities where clearance has had to be suspended as “freed.”

Landmine Monitor, based on Yemen’s April 2006 Article 7 report, calculated that 12 high-impact communities have been completed (demining operations were undertaken in 11 communities, and one community was cancelled as being not affected). Demining in the two remaining high-impact communities in al-Dale governorate was suspended because of inadequate technology to conduct clearance in those areas.

A total of 62 medium-impact communities have been released (survey and clearance operations demined areas affecting 50 communities, and areas affecting another 12 communities were cancelled as being not affected). In 2006, demining work was ongoing in five medium-impact communities.

Also from 1999 to May 2006, 107 low-impact communities were released (52 following clearance and survey and 55 were cancelled as being not affected). Demining in 11 low-impact communities was ongoing as of April 2006 and clearance in two low-impact communities in al-Dale and Aden governorates was suspended because of a lack of adequate technology.[72]

LIS impacted communities’ status at 30 March 2006[73]

Community
Status
Cleared/
surveyed
Cancelled
Suspended and fenced
Ongoing
Left
Total
High
11
1
2
0
0
14
Medium
50
12
0
5
19
86
Low
52
55
2
11
374
494
Total
113
68
4
16
393
594

Aden and al-Hudaydah governorates were declared free of mines in 2004, and Hajjah and Sana’a governorates should soon be declared free of mines as well. Areas cleared are mostly roads and lands used for agriculture and pasture.

In 2005, five quality assurance teams sampled 10 percent of demined areas before handover to local authorities. There is also a YEMAC two-person monitoring and inspection team that visits field sites once a month to check compliance with national standards and standing operating procedures, including MRE.[74]

Mine detecting dogs and manual clearance are used during clearance, technical survey and quality assurance.[75] Cleared land is handed over through small celebrations attended by local authorities, and YEMAC hands them a certificate. YEMAC believes that the land is used after clearance, but does not have any concrete data. The socioeconomic and livelihood study that was initiated mid-March 2006 will give more indications on the use of cleared land by the communities.[76]

Monitoring or re-evaluation of the remaining communities identified as contaminated by the LIS through YEMAC’s surveillance system started in May 2006 in Hadramawt governorate, which contains 343 of the remaining 607 square kilometers of mine-suspected areas.[77]

A deminer was killed in October 2005. Investigation by YEMAC resulted in the strengthening of standing operating procedures.[78] NMAC pays compensation to injured deminers and to the families of deminers killed.[79]

Mine Risk Education

As in previous years, organizations involved in mine risk education (MRE) in 2005 were YEMAC and the NGO, Yemen Mine Awareness Association (YMAA).[80]

In 2005, YEMAC had 19 MRE staff. YEMAC’s MRE team was originally trained by US Army MRE specialists. Ten newly recruited MRE staff were trained during 2005, eight of them women, in order to be able to better target women and girls. They were trained by existing YMAA trainers and by YEMAC’s MRE department. YMAA reported 15 staff members.[81]

In 2005, YEMAC continued to provide MRE ahead of demining operations in mine-affected villages in Sa’ada, Ibb, al-Dale, Ta’izz, Abyan and Lahij. A total of 191,262 people were reached in 92 villages in eight governorates. From the start of the MRE program in 1997 to December 2005, 358 villages received MRE and 640,583 people were exposed to some form of basic MRE message.[82] Reduction in civilian casualties by 80 percent since the LIS was completed in 2000 has been attributed to MRE.[83] However, in 2005, there was a substantial increase in the number of casualties.

YMAA received 10 reports from communities during the reporting period; two were on mine/UXO accidents and eight on mine/UXO finds in villages. YMAA forwarded the reports to the regional YEMAC in Aden. The reports led to clearance and to registering the victims in order to provide for assistance.[84]

YEMAC has a two-person monitoring team that visits field sites once a month to check compliance with national standards and standing operating procedures, including MRE.[85] During 2005, national mine action standards excluding MRE were adopted by YEMAC; it was planned to develop standards for MRE in 2006.[86]

YMAA’s MRE activities in four governorates (Ibb, al-Dale, Lahij and Hadramawt) continued until the end of June 2005 with funding from Japan.[87] YMAA worked in close coordination with YEMAC following its national plan based on LIS data and updates from previous years. YMAA targeted influential community leaders such as sheiks, imams and local council members. It also focused on groups considered at risk, including farmers, shepherds and children. Fifty-eight villages were provided with MRE in 2005, thus surpassing the original target of 44 villages. YMAA submitted detailed reports to YEMAC.[88]

In May 2005, YMAA produced and printed 20,000 copies of a new MRE poster concerning unsafe behavior.[89] During the reporting period, YMAA also produced three newsletters highlighting national, regional and international events, and providing mine/UXO survivors with a voice to air their concerns. The material was developed by YMAA’s designing team in cooperation with YEMAC’s regional center in Aden.[90] Draft material was field tested in targeted mine-affected communities and schools during MRE sessions.[91]

By June 2006, YMAA had not received new funding to continue its MRE-activities in support of YEMAC. However, it received a grant of $3,000 from Mines Action Canada for a Youth Empowerment Project to carry out MRE in two governorates.[92]

One female member of YMAA participated in the Engaging the Youth workshop in Beirut from 16-20 January 2006, supported by Mines Action Canada. The main focus of the NGO training workshop was how to encourage youth involvement in humanitarian mine action activities.[93]

Funding and Assistance

Six governments reported contributing approximately $2,458,864 to mine action in Yemen in 2005, a small decrease from 2004 when Yemen received $2,641,075 from eight donors.[94] Donors reporting contributions in 2005 were:

  • Canada: C$373,910 ($308,634), consisting of C$140,020 ($115,576) to UNDP for demining, and C$233,890 ($193,058) to UNDP for technical survey assistance;[95]
  • France: €250,000 ($311,225) to UNDP for YEMAC;[96]
  • Germany: €284,196 ($353,796) to UNDP for running costs of the YEMAC mine detecting dog program;[97]
  • Italy: €140,000 ($174,286) to UNDP for mine action;[98]
  • Japan: ¥61,322,770 ($556,923), consisting of ¥55,673,170 ($505,614) to YEMAC for mine clearance, and ¥5,649,600 ($51,309) to the Yemen Association for Landmine and UXO Survivors (YALS) for equipment;[99]
  • US: $754,000, consisting of $750,000 from the Department of State for YEMAC equipment and supplies, and $4,000 from the Department of Defense.[100]

By May 2006, Yemen had received mine action funding contributions and pledges from six countries and UNDP totaling over $2 million for 2006. However, UNDP reported a critical funding shortfall for the Yemen Association for Landmine Survivors’ survivor reintegration project, which had not received any contributions or pledges for 2006.[101]

Landmine Casualties

In 2005, there were at least 35 new mine/UXO casualties in Yemen. After years of a relatively constant casualty rate, this is a significant increase compared to 17 casualties (nine killed and eight injured), including 15 children, in 2004.[102] In 2005, YEMAC recorded 23 mine/UXO casualties; including six people killed and 17 injured in eight antipersonnel mine, one antivehicle mine and four UXO incidents in Aden, al-Bayda, al-Dale, Ibb, Lahij and Sana’a governorates. Twelve of those involved in incidents were children under 18 (six girls and six boys); 11 were adults (one woman and 10 men).[103] Two casualties were military and 21 civilian.[104] Landmine Monitor recorded three more incidents killing three people and injuring nine, including three Britons.[105]

Reported casualties in 2005 included a 20-year-old man injured by an antipersonnel mine in Rida (al-Bayda) on 16 March. On 28 March, a UXO incident killed two adults and injured one 14-year-old. In April, a British major was killed, and two British officers and two Yemenis were injured when a landmine exploded in a rugged area north of Aden.[106] YEMAC said this incident report was incorrect as Aden had been declared mine-free in 2004.[107] On 8 April, five girls were injured while herding their sheep, when an antipersonnel mine exploded in Damt (al-Dale).[108] The area was marked with white signs, which the girls thought meant it was safe.[109] However, according to YEMAC, white signs mean that survey teams had marked the area for demining.[110] YEMAC added that (to March 2006) no mine incidents had been reported in cleared land in al-Dale.[111] On 1 July 2005, one man was injured by an antipersonnel mine in al-Had (Lahij). On 14 July, two people were killed and three others injured in an antipersonnel mine explosion in al-Shuaib (al-Dale). On 26 July, a 22-year-old YEMAC deminer was injured during clearance operations in Bani Bahlol (Sana’a).[112] On 13 August, a YEMAC deminer was killed in a landmine accident in Jabal Hurwah on the outskirts of Sana’a.[113] On 30 October, an antipersonnel mine explosion in al-Dale killed one man, and injured one woman and four men.[114]

Casualties continued to be reported in 2006, with at least 15 casualties as of 29 May 2006. YEMAC recorded two killed and seven injured in one antivehicle mine and four UXO incidents. All the casualties were male and none of them were children.[115] Landmine Monitor recorded one additional incident leading to six casualties. On 14 January, one person died and five, including two women, were injured when two landmines exploded in al-Shuaib (al-Dale).[116]

It is possible, however, that not all mine casualties are reported, especially if people are killed or injured in remote areas. YEMAC has stated that, “landmine casualties are nearly always reported on a regular basis from various sources such as local clinics/hospitals, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPHP), Ministry of Local Administration (MLA), and security personnel, though there is no formal nation-wide surveillance system in place.” YEMAC plans to expand its surveillance system to make it nationwide in 2006.[117]

YEMAC maintains casualty data in its IMSMA database. Between 2000 and 2005, YEMAC has recorded 264 new mine/UXO casualties, including 89 herders, 37 farmers, 20 house workers and 118 others; this category contains mainly child casualties.[118] However, it is estimated that there are approximately 2,900 mine/UXO survivors in Yemen.[119] Women and children are most vulnerable during their daily chores (herding, collecting wood and fetching water), even if they are aware of the risks.[120]

Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) recorded 16 mine survivors, including one woman and 15 men, in 2005 via its community-based work; none of these were recent casualties.[121]

As of January 2006, 1,357 of 1,779 survivors identified by the LIS in 480 villages had been interviewed as part of the Yemen victim assistance program.[122]

Survivor Assistance

At the First Review Conference in Nairobi, Kenya, Yemen was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors and “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing adequate services for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of survivors.[123] As part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action Plan, Yemen prepared its 2005-2009 objectives for the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in Zagreb. The objectives included: developing a nationwide landmine surveillance system (2006); providing and financing emergency and ongoing medical care, as well as physical rehabilitation, for 2,000 survivors by 2009; evaluating and finding ways to improve health infrastructure, rehabilitation services and coordination, starting in 2006; determining what counseling services are needed and can be established; establishing six new vocational training centers and economically reintegrate 500 survivors by 2009; and implementing the strategic plan for people with disabilities.[124]

At the Standing Committee for Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration in May 2006, Yemen presented progress in fulfilling its 2005-2009 objectives, but the delegation did not include a victim assistance expert. Yemen stated that survivors’ needs and requirements will be integrated in the strategies of the relevant ministries, and that victim assistance is well integrated and coordinated with some ministries, but less so with others.[125]

Yemen provided information on mine victim assistance activities in its Article 7 report for 30 March 2005-30 March 2006.[126]

The final report of the GICHD evaluation mission to Yemen in April 2005 concluded that, “The Yemen Landmine/UXO Victim Assistance Programme ... is probably one of the most advanced in the world. Success can be attributed to a combination of high-level Government support, qualified and dedicated staff, a well-defined strategic approach, and strong support by the YEMAC Programme Manager.”[127] As a follow-up measure to the GICHD recommendations, in 2006 YEMAC started a socioeconomic study of communities that have benefited from clearance and victim assistance activities, in cooperation with GICHD and the Natural Resource Institute of London.[128]

However, a field visit by Landmine Monitor in April-May 2005 found a lack of coordination, exclusion of mine survivors from some services, employment difficulties and insufficient transport.[129]

The revised and extended Mine Action Strategic Plan for 2004-2009 defines survivor assistance as one of the priorities.[130] The mine action program covers all medical and rehabilitation costs of landmine survivors, including artificial limbs, and has developed a limited economic reintegration capacity through vocational training and assistance in establishing small businesses; however, survivor assistance is the smallest component of the mine action program.[131] Within the mine action program, landmine victim assistance is coordinated and implemented by YEMAC through the Victim Assistance Department and monitored by NMAC. In some cases, the centralized YEMAC management reportedly makes obtaining independent funding for disability-related projects more difficult for some NGOs.[132] As of 2006, YEMAC did not work together with or provide financial support to victim assistance NGOs.[133]

The Victim Assistance Advisory Committee (VAAC), comprised of various ministries and NGOs, was established to assist with the planning and evaluation of victim assistance activities. However, the committee was called upon “only when needed” and had no decision- or policy-making capacity.[134]

The Yemen Landmine Victim Assistance Program includes four phases: visits to all mine survivors, medical and physical examination to determine needs and treatment, providing medical care and rehabilitation, and socioeconomic reintegration. As of January 2006, files had been opened on 1,357 landmine survivors. In 2005, 42 people were visited, 429 people were examined by doctors and specialists, including 69 women, under phase three of the program, and 458 survivors received medical and rehabilitative support; 71 survivors received prostheses, 35 received physiotherapy treatment, 31 received hearing aids, 76 received eye glasses, 26 received wheelchairs and 42 underwent surgery (including eye surgery). The program continued in 2006.[135]

In 2005, the government provided approximately $108,000 to the Yemen Landmine Victim Assistance Program. Japan donated $181,000 in September 2004 of which $150,000 was used for the socioeconomic reintegration phase. The UN provided additional funding. This resulted in an earmarked (and spent) victim assistance budget of approximately $260,000 or 11 percent of the total budget allocated via the UN ($2,420,366).[136]

Health facilities are limited in most regions in Yemen, especially in rural areas where there are health clinics, but adequately trained staff, essential medicines, transport and other necessary facilities are sometimes lacking. The healthcare system is very centralized and specialized services are only available in the main cities. Services are further hampered by structural problems, a lack of coordination and low salaries for medical staff. The World Bank was reported to be working with the government to improve management capacity at the Ministry of Public Health and Population and with service providers.[137]

The Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPHP) was scheduled to evaluate the health infrastructure, equipment and resources in 2006, and identify means to improve these as well as coordination functions. Sana’a and other major cities such as Aden and Ta’izz have hospitals with surgical units capable of handling landmine injuries including amputations. Through the work of the Victim Assistance Department, all mine/UXO casualties reportedly have access to first aid, with the average evacuation time to reach a first aid clinic around 30 minutes. Transport is also provided to the nearest major hospital where surgery and other advanced facilities are available within one to two hours.[138] However, many mine survivors live in remote mountainous villages and face difficulties in accessing services.[139] MoPHP provides free medical and rehabilitation treatment for mine casualties; the department covers the costs of medicine and mobility devices.[140]

The General Hospital in Aden receives some survivors sent by YEMAC and has a physiotherapy unit for outpatients. The unit, with four physiotherapists, was not functioning to its full capacity in 2006, since the withdrawal of the expatriate advisor, previously provided by Movimondo and Handicap International (HI). Between 13 and 29 March 2006, 60 mine/UXO survivors from Aden governorate received medical check-ups at the hospital, and nine underwent surgery, 11 received prostheses, five received crutches, 19 received glasses, four were given hearing aids and 12 received wheelchairs.[141] Since 11 May 2006, 51 survivors from Alimalah district in Lahij with eye and amputation problems were referred to al-Gomhurriya hospital for check-ups, as Aden General Hospital is closed for renovation. Three patients were referred for prostheses.[142]

When necessary, mine survivors requiring specialized treatment are sent abroad. In 2004 and 2005, two mine/UXO survivors—a 16-year-old boy and a 13-year-old girl—received specialized treatment in Italy; a third 10-year-old survivor was scheduled to leave in May 2006 after being on the waiting list for almost two years.[143] Other landmine survivors have also received treatment abroad in the past, through NGOs or bilateral aid.[144]

Landmine survivors nearly always have access to rehabilitative care, provided by the major hospitals and the MoPHP prosthetic centers in Sana’a, Aden, Ta’izz, al-Hudaydah and al-Mukalla. However, there are few rehabilitation workers in mine-affected areas, as it is felt that there is no need for such expertise at the community level. Efforts have been coordinated up to a certain level between government actors; the MoPHP has planned to undertake a needs assessment in 2006.[145]

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) assists MoPHP’s National Artificial Limbs and Physiotherapy Center in Sana’a and al-Mukalla center in the remote Hadramawt governorate, with technical advice and the supply of raw materials, components, equipment and on-the-job training for prosthetic/orthotic technicians. In 2005, more than 7,000 people received physical rehabilitation services (1,025 through ICRC assistance) in the two centers (5,000 in Sana’a and 2,000 in al-Mukalla). The center in Sana’a fitted 198 prostheses (18 for mine survivors) and 724 orthoses (none for mine survivors). In al-Mukalla, 69 prostheses (two for mine survivors) and 550 orthoses were provided. In 2005, ICRC also subsidized the training of four prosthetic/orthotic technicians at Mobility India in Bangalore, in addition to the two who started training in 2004.[146] It was scheduled that four more would start the same 30- to 36-month course in July 2006. In 2004, women were discouraged from attending al-Mukalla center, but this issue was solved in 2005. People assisted at the centers pay a nominal sum, never exceeding $20, but 50 percent of people are treated free of charge.[147] Patients pay $2 for five physiotherapy sessions.[148] In 2005, the MoPHP approached ICRC with a request for support for the centers in Ta’izz and Aden (previously run with support of Handicap International, starting in 2006; the request was under consideration as of May 2006.[149]

Handicap International supported two physical rehabilitation centers in Ta’izz and Aden in cooperation with the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA) and MoPHP. The Ta’izz center was completely nationalized in January 2005 and functions without ad hoc support from HI; the Aden center was handed over on 31 December 2005. The centers charge a fee determined by the social workers.

In 2005 and 2006, the Aden center assisted on average 700 people per month.[150] In 2005, the workshop produced 1,018 devices, including 105 prostheses, 646 orthoses, 238 crutches and 29 walking aids. Mobile teams regularly visited health services in Aden governorate to facilitate access to orthopedic devices for people in remote areas.[151] In April and May 2006, YEMAC referred seven mine survivors to the center for prostheses.[152] The final evaluation of the Aden center concluded that the technicians “have all the necessary competencies” and that they will be able to maintain quality services under the supervision of the national coordinator.[153] In order to ensure the financial sustainability of the center, a cost-recovery system was launched in January 2005, but because most patients pay nominal fees, it is hoped that YEMAC and international organizations will cover the costs of the patients they refer.

MoPHP and MoLSA declined to take on the responsibility of running the Aden center, and as a result the center is managed by the Vocational Rehabilitation Center for People with Special Needs with financial support from the Social Fund for Development. The center will apply Yemeni salary scales and provide incentives only when the funding situation allows; this will likely lead to a “high risk that staff will leave as soon as a better opportunity arises.”[154] The center’s supply of raw materials was scheduled to run out by June 2006 and no financial support for the provision of materials had been identified. At YR10,000 ($57), the price of a prosthetic limb in Aden is reportedly lower than those in other centers: Ta’izz YR 20,000 ($114), al-Mukalla YR28,000 ($160) and Sana’a YR 40,000 ($228).[155]

In 2005, the greatest achievement of the Ta’izz center was to remain sustainable. However it was not able to operate to its full capacity since the withdrawal of HI, and suffered from managerial and financial difficulties, as MoPHP only covers the salaries of the staff and raw materials, but not other running costs. The staff suffer from a lack of motivation, as government salaries are no longer supplemented with incentives. In 2005, 2,217 people were assisted, including 30 mine survivors: 42 prostheses, 253 crutches and 1,049 orthoses and other mobility devices were produced.[156] In 2005, HI also trained physiotherapists in al-Kharaz refugee camp, between Aden and Ta’izz. This has been taken over by the CBR[157] Lahij Association in 2006.[158]

Until July 2005, the Italian NGO Movimondo’s program provided training for Yemeni physiotherapists and nurses, with the support of the Italian government in coordination with MoPHP, in two health institutes in Sana’a and Aden. In Aden the project has been handed over to the ad hoc supervision of MoPHP.[159]

The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) operates the Physically Challenged Project, focusing on the integration of person with disabilities in their families and communities through economic growth opportunity and community-based rehabilitation. In 2005, ADRA Yemen supported 1,101 (545 females and 556 males) people with disabilities, 11 of whom were mine survivors. ADRA provided home care services to 375 people; referred 11 people for prostheses; provided referral services for 96 other people with disabilities; and provided seven pairs of crutches. Additionally, 37 people graduated from the vocational training program; seven people were assisted in the development of a micro-enterprise; and awareness-raising sessions were organized for 575 people. Ten previous graduates have been able to provide sustainable and sufficient income. There is a waiting list due to financial, transportation and human resources constraints.[160]

In 2005, the programs were forced to scale down after the planned handover and financing by MoLSA fell through, since a funding gap was expected in June 2006 with the end of the three-year Canadian funding support. The al-Hudaydah community-based rehabilitation program operated in 2005 on minimum capacity with three field staff and one vocational trainer, and the other projects have been temporarily put on hold.[161] ADRA receives no funding through YEMAC or the government.[162] In 2006, ADRA prioritized staff capacity-building, focusing on management skills to enhance the program’s sustainability.[163]

In 2005, Rädda Barnen supported community-based rehabilitation organizations in Aden, Lahij, Abyan and Ibb, working for the integration and rights of people with disabilities. In November 2005, the four organizations formed a coalition and began looking to include more disability organizations.[164]

Psychological support is available at clinics in Sana’a and Aden, but landmine survivors are not provided counseling services in the hospitals. YEMAC has not dealt with psychological support issues and does not have the budget to do so. Family is the support mechanism and counseling is not perceived as a priority. Within the framework of the Nairobi Action Plan, Yemen aims to provide economic rehabilitation for 500 mine survivors by 2009, by providing training and establishing small enterprises. To achieve this aim, six vocational training centers will be established in addition to the nine that reportedly already function.[165]

The Yemen Association for Landmine and UXO Survivors (YALS), created in 2004 by YEMAC to promote the socioeconomic reintegration of mine/UXO survivors, provided courses in computers, administration and sewing to approximately 100 students. The first students graduated from the training program in May 2005; 48 beneficiaries obtained work by starting micro-businesses or as employees with guidance from YALS. YALS also aimed to play an important role in advocacy and awareness raising, selecting students from different mine-affected areas to ensure greater awareness throughout Yemen.[166] In 2005, the program was supported by Japan ($150,000). However, the organization was not able to secure funds for 2006 and worked at reduced capacity.[167]

The Vocational Rehabilitation Center for People with Special Needs in Aden provides vocational training courses of between six months and two years in carpentry, office work, sewing, leatherwork, textiles and the production of mobility aids and literacy classes. From January 2005 until 20 March 2006, 120 people with disabilities, including several mine survivors (for example, four in April 2005), received vocational training and 65 were provided with a small loan to start a business. Graduates are provided with loan of between YR1,200 and YR12,000 (roughly $6.50 to $65.00); as of May 2005, 80 of 85 businesses established have been successful. The carpentry workshop covers 65 percent of the center’s costs. After HI’s departure in early 2006, the center took on the responsibility of running the Aden Physical Rehabilitation Center, which is in the same compound. The Social Fund for Development provides the buildings, and the Disability Fund, MoLSA and the government of Canada have provided funding.[168]

The Aden Association for the Physically Disabled (AAPD) lobbies for the rights for people with disabilities, working with the Ministry of Education to integrate disabled children into mainstream education, improve accessibility and organize cultural events; it also provides vocational training, sports and cultural activities. It includes landmine survivors among its members, but does not work with other actors in survivor assistance. Between January 2005 and March 2006, 10 youth were trained in computer skills and sewing, and 50 children (33 male and 17 female) received preparatory classes to enter mainstream education systems. The program has been funded by the Fund for the Care and Rehabilitation of the Disabled (Disability Fund).[169]

Other organizations that have been reported by Landmine Monitor as providing services for people with disabilities include: Challenge Association for Physically Disabled Women (CAPDW), which assists women with disabilities with medical issues and through ongoing education projects and workshops; Arab Human Rights Foundation (AHRF), which works to enhance awareness and implementation of disability rights in Yemen, with a special focus on the empowerment and reintegration of women; and the Iranian Red Crescent Society, which opened a new 70-bed medical center/hospital in Sana’a in 2004.[170]

Other organizations providing services for people with disabilities, including physical rehabilitation, vocational training, sports and awareness-raising, are al-Saleh Social Establishment, Islamic World Handicap and Training Council, and the Yemeni Development Foundation. The Social Fund for Development and the Disability Fund have provided services and funding to approximately 60 organizations working with people with disabilities.[171]

Many organizations working on survivor assistance or disability in Yemen have experienced funding difficulties; reportedly, international NGOs are leaving for this reason.[172] However, the government of Japan was scheduled to sign a $435,000 agreement for the rehabilitation of landmine survivors in 2006.[173]

Disability Policy and Practice

Yemen has legislation to protect the rights of all people with disabilities, with benefits including welfare, rehabilitation, tax and tuition fee exemptions, reduced public transport fees and equal (job) opportunities. There is a national committee for people with disabilities chaired by the Prime Minister, with members from various associations and ministries including MoLSA.[174] The Ministry of Civil Service and Procurement is in charge of providing suitable employment to survivors, and government offices are required to employ five percent disabled staff.[175] However, according to several disability organizations and people with a disability, the laws are not fully implemented and there is a lack of awareness concerning disability.[176]

The Social Fund for Development (SFD), an independent body under the Prime Minister, coordinates and finances disability projects. SFD mainly provides services and expertise, but also implements projects when no other expertise is available. In 2005, SFD included disability questions in the household budget survey and proceeded to finance and implement the survey. In 2005, MoLSA asked the World Bank and SFD to assist in developing the National Strategy for Disability. The World Bank recommended undertaking a situational analysis before drafting the strategy. This situational analysis and recommendations will be presented in a workshop in the last quarter of 2006.[177] As one of the objectives in the Zagreb Progress Report, Yemen stated it will implement the strategy once it has been approved.[178] The Social Fund for Development has also been in contact with other countries and regional bodies to develop regional disability initiatives.

The World Bank also implemented a Disability and Living Standard Study, in which Yemen is one of three case studies; Georgia and Kenya are the other two. This study will also be fed into the National Strategy for Disability.[179]

The Rehabilitation Fund and Care of Handicapped Persons (Disability Fund), under MoLSA, finances and facilitates services for disabled people, either by directly assisting the disabled person or through disability organizations, NGOs and village chiefs; the fund runs a referral system and finances the distribution of mobility devices, and also provides material and technical assistance to disability organizations and the Disabled Union.[180]

Landmine survivors, and other people with a disability, receive an allowance of YR1,000 (about $5.50) per month. However, this is insufficient for a reasonable standard of living, according to NGOs working in the disability sector and landmine survivors themselves.[181]


[1] Article 7 Report, Form A, 3 May 2006.
[2] Previous reports were submitted: 7 April 2005, 30 March 2004, 10 April 2003, 27 April 2002, 18 September 2001, 14 November 2000 and 30 November 1999.
[3] Presentation by Mansour al-Azi, Director, Yemen Executive Mine Action Center (YEMAC), Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 12 May 2006; email from Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, 24 April 2006.
[4] Presentation by Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 12 May 2006; email from Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, 24 April 2006.
[5] Email from Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, 24 April 2006.
[6] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Sana’a, 11 March 2002.
[7] Article 7 Report, Form D, 3 May 2006, and earlier Article 7 reports.
[8] Email from Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, 24 April 2006.
[9] “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1587 (2005),” delivered to the President of the Security Council on 5 October 2005 (Ref. S/2005/625), para. 21, p. 13.
[10] Ibid, para. 20, p. 12. The report, on page 13, also notes some arms shipments occurred in August.
[11] “Annex II: Response of the Government of Yemen to the Monitoring Group (15 August 2005), Attachment II: Efforts by the Yemeni Government to stabilize the situation in Somalia,” contained in “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1587 (2005),” delivered to the President of the Security Council on 5 October 2005 (Ref. S/2005/625), pp. 50-55.
[12] Letter from Dr. Abdulla Nasher, Ambassador of the Republic of Yemen to Canada, on behalf of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, to Steve Goose, Landmine Monitor Ban Policy Coordinator, 24 July 2006.
[13] “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1630 (2005),” Ref. S/2006/229, 4 May 2006, p. 49.
[14] “Report of the Panel of Experts on Somalia Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1474 (2003),” Ref. S/2003/1035, 4 November 2003, paras. 136-137, pp. 31-32.
[15] Reply from the Government of Yemen by Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, 21 September 2004. See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 865-866.
[16] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 866-867.
[17] Survey Action Center and Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (SAC/VVAF), “Landmine Impact Survey: Republic of Yemen, Executive Summary,” October 2000, p. 3.
[18] Telephone interview with Faiz Mohammad, Chief Technical Advisor, UN Development Programme (UNDP)/YEMAC, Sana’a, 21 June 2005.
[19] Article 7 Report, Form C, 7 April 2005; Article 7 Report, Form C, 3 May 2006.
[20] UN, “Country profile: Yemen,” www.mineaction.org, accessed 28 April 2006.
[21] Telephone interview with Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 21 June 2005.
[22] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 868.
[23] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 February 2006.
[24] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 30 May 2006.
[25] Interview with Ali Abdul Raqeeb, Deputy Director, YEMAC, Sana’a, 12 June 2005; Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), “Mid-Term Outcome Evaluation for Strengthening National Capacity for Mine Action in Yemen-Phase II,” 2005, p. 8.
[26] GICHD, “Mid-Term Outcome Evaluation for Strengthening National Capacity for Mine Action in Yemen-Phase II,” 2005, pp. 1-3; email from Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, 3 August 2005.
[27] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 30 May 2006.
[28] GICHD, “Mid-Term Outcome Evaluation for Strengthening National Capacity for Mine Action in Yemen-Phase II,” 2005, pp. 4, 6.
[29] Email from Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, 8 August 2005.
[30] YEMAC, “Five year national strategic mine action plan for Yemen, 2004-2009, Revised and Extended,” June 2004, p. 2; UN, “2006 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, p. 423.
[31] UN, “2006 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, p. 423.
[32] Email from Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, 8 August 2005.
[33] Presentation by Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 10 May 2006.
[34] YEMAC, “Five year national strategic mine action plan for Yemen, 2004-2009, Revised and Extended,” June 2004, p. 4.
[35] YEMAC, Mine Action Programme Yemen, “2005 End Year Review,” YEMAC/UNDP, Sana’a, undated.
[36] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[37] UN, “2006 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, p. 425.
[38] Presentation by Yemen, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 14 June 2005.
[39] YEMAC, Mine Action Programme Yemen, “2005 End Year Review,” YEMAC/UNDP, Sana’a, undated; email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 27 March 2006; interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[40] YEMAC, Mine Action Programme Yemen, “2005 End Year Review,” YEMAC/UNDP, Sana’a, undated; email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 30 May 2006.
[41] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006; presentation, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technology, Geneva, 10 May 2006.
[42] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[43] GICHD, “Mid-Term Outcome Evaluation for Strengthening National Capacity for Mine Action in Yemen-Phase II,” p. 27; interview with Ahmed Yehia Alawi, IMSMA Director, YEMAC, Sana’a, 13 June 2005.
[44] Telephone interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, 20 March 2006, and interview, Geneva, 12 May 2006; see also “Information Management Overview,” www.gichd.ch, accessed 20 May 2006.
[45] YEMAC, “Review Report on Activities and Staffing for the Period January–December 2004,” p. 3.
[46] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[47] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 617.
[48] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006; email from Ted Paterson, Head, Evaluation Section, GICHD, 16 May 2006.
[49] YEMAC, Mine Action Programme Yemen, “2005 End Year Review,” YEMAC/UNDP, Sana’a, undated; interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[50] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[51] Interviews with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Sana’a, 26 February 2006 and Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[52] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[53] SAC/VVAF, “Landmine Impact Survey: Republic of Yemen, Executive Summary,” October 2000, pp. 4-5.
[54] Email from Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, 7 August 2005; UN, “2006 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, p. 423.
[55] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 27 March 2006.
[56] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 618.
[57] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[58] Emails from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 30 and 31 May 2006.
[59] Ibid.
[60] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006; emails from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 30 and 31 May 2006.
[61] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 618. The size of the suspended four minefields are respectively: Qarad (12,000 square meters), Jabook Khulah (4,030 square meters), al-Hankah (251,682 square meters) and Ja’olah (22,500 square meters); emails from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 30 and 31 May 2006.
[62] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 31 May 2006.
[63] Ibid, 27 March 2006.
[64] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 619; interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[65] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[66] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 618.
[67] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 27 March 2006.
[68] Article 7 Report, Form G, 3 May 2006.
[69] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 13 April 2006.
[70] Presentation by Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 10 May 2006. According to the LIS, however, mined areas were located over a total area of 923 not 922 square kilometers.
[71] Ibid.
[72] Article 7 Report, Form C, 3 May 2006.
[73] Ibid.
[74] GICHD, “Mid-Term Outcome Evaluation for Strengthening National Capacity for Mine Action in Yemen-Phase II,” 2005, pp.6, 8.
[75] Email from Faiz Mohamad, UNDP/YEMAC, 27 February 2006.
[76] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[77] Presentation by Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 10 May 2006.
[78] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006.
[79] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 12 May 2006.
[80] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 619, for details of MRE methodologies used.
[81] Interviews with Aisha Saeed, Chairperson, YMAA, Aden, 15 December 2005 and 5 March 2006; interview with Nabeel Rassam, Director, MRE department, YEMAC, Sana’a, 21 March 2006. MRE educators trained in 2005: YEMAC six women; YMAA two men and two women.
[82] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 5 June 2006; YEMAC, “Annual Report 2005.”
[83] Faiz Mohammad, “Mine action in Yemen: an example of success,” Journal of Mine Action, Vol.9.1, August 2005.
[84] Interview with Aisha Saeed, YMAA, Aden, 5 March 2006.
[85] Interview with Nabeel Rassam, YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 February 2006.
[86] Emails from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 30 May and 5 June 2006.
[87] Ibid, 5 June 2006; see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 619.
[88] Interview with Aisha Saeed, YMAA, Aden, 15 December 2005.
[89] Ibid, 1 May 2005.
[90] YEMAC headquarters are in Sana’a with regional branches in Aden and al-Mukalla (Hadramawt).
[91] Interview with Gamal Abdul Kader, Head of YMAA designing team, Aden, 25 Feb 2006.
[92] Email from Aisha Saeed, YMAA, Aden, 3 May 2006.
[93] Interview with Aisha Saeed, YMAA, Aden, 15 December 2005.
[94] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 620.
[95] Mine Action Investments database; email from Carly Volkes, DFAIT, 7 June 2006. Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1 = C$1.2115. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
[96] France Article 7 Report, Form J, 3 May 2006; CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form E, 6 October 2005. This contribution is assumed to have been made in 2004 but was first reported in 2005. Average exchange rate for 2005: €1 = $1.2449, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006.
[97] Germany Article 7 Report, Form J, 27 April 2006; Mine Action Investments database.
[98] Emails from Manfredo Capozza, Humanitarian Demining Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, March 2006.
[99] Emails from Kitagawa Yasu, Japan Campaign to Ban Landmines (JCBL), March-May 2006, with translated information received by JCBL from Multilateral Cooperation Department, 11 May 2005 and Non-proliferation and Science Department, 11 April 2006. Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1 = ¥ 110.11. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2006. UNDP reports a contribution of $150,000 from Japan to YALS in 2005. Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 March 2006.
[100] USG Historical Chart containing data for FY 2005, by email from Angela L. Jeffries, Financial Management Specialist, US Department of State, 8 June 2006; email to Landmine Monitor (MAC) from H. Murphey McCloy Jr., Senior Demining Advisor, US Department of State, 10 July 2006.
[101] Mine Action Support Group, “MASG Newsletter-First Quarter of 2006,” Washington DC, 1 May 2006, p. 10.
[102] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 620-621; Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 870.
[103] Extract from YEMAC database provided via email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 March 2006.
[104] Response to Landmine Monitor VA Questionnaire by Fuad Derhim al-Shamery, Director, Victim Assistance Department, YEMAC, Sana’a 18 March 2006.
[105] The incidents identified by Landmine Monitor as not recorded in the YEMAC database are: “Two missing after battle,” Bath Chronicle (UK), 2 May 2005; “Demining worker killed on mission,” Saba (Sana’a), 13 August 2005; and “Mine explosion in al-Dale,” al-Ayam, 30 October 2005.
[106] “Two missing after battle,” Bath Chronicle (UK), 2 May 2005.
[107] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 March 2006.
[108] Ibid, 14 August 2005.
[109] “Injured girls get comprehensive care and the doctors believe their condition is stable,” al-Ayam, 13 April 2005.
[110] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Sana’a, 26 April 2005.
[111] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 March 2006.
[112] Ibid, 14 August 2005.
[113] “Demining worker killed on mission,” Saba (Sana’a), 13 August 2005.
[114] “Mine explosion in al-Dale,” al-Ayam, 30 October 2005.
[115] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 29 May 2006.
[116] “One Person dead and injury of five others of which two women in two AP explosions in al-Shuaib, al-Dale Governorate,” al-Ayam, 14 January 2006.
[117] “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, “Victim Assistance objectives of the States Parties that have the responsibility for significant numbers of landmine survivors,” Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, p. 220.
[118] Extract from YEMAC database provided via email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 March 2006.
[119] Presentation by Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 8 May 2006.
[120] Email from Aisha Saeed, Senior Program Officer, Rädda Barnen, Aden, 15 February 2006.
[121] Response to Landmine Monitor VA Questionnaire by Rachel C. Chandiru, Project Director, ADRA, Hays, 16 April 2006.
[122] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 21 May 2006.
[123] UN, “Final Report, First Review Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction,” Nairobi, 29 November-3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 99.
[124] “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 219-226.
[125] Presentation by Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 8 May 2006.
[126] Article 7 Report, Form I, 3 May 2006.
[127] GICHD, “Mid-Term Outcome Evaluation for Strengthening National Capacity for Mine Action in Yemen-Phase II,” 2005, p. 24.
[128] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 March 2006.
[129] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 622.
[130] “Five Year National Strategic Mine Action Plan for Yemen, 2004-2009,” revised and extended June 2004.
[131] Interviews with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Sana’a 1 May 2005, and Geneva, 12 May 2006..
[132] Interviews during field visit to Yemen, 26 April-9 May 2005.
[133] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 March 2006.
[134] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006. Cooperation on victim assistance with ICRC, UNICEF, ADRA, Movimondo and Rädda Barnen had ceased prior to May 2005; cooperation with HI ceased at the end of 2005. For more information about the VAAC, see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 622-623.
[135] Email from Aisha Saeed, Rädda Barnen, Aden, 27 March 2006; emails from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 March 2006 and 21 May 2006.
[136] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, Sana’a, 27 March 2006.
[137] Telephone interview with Afrah al-Ahmadi, Head of Bureau, World Bank, Sana’a, 27 May 2006.
[138] “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, p. 220-222.
[139] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 623.
[140] Presentation by Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 8 May 2006.
[141] Email from Aisha Saeed, Rädda Barnen, Aden, 27 March 2006.
[142] Interview with Abubakr Abbas, Victim Assistance Department, YEMAC, Aden, 20 May 2006.
[143] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Geneva, 12 May 2006; Article 7 Report, Form I, 3 May 2006.
[144] Interview with Lou’a Adbu Hamid and Mukhtar Ahmed Salem, Aden, 27 April 2005.
[145] “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 222-223.
[146] ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme - Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, July 2006, p. 46.
[147] Email from Martin Amacher, Head of Delegation, ICRC, Sana’a, 21 May 2006.
[148] Ibid.
[149] ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme - Annual Report 2005,” Geneva, July 2006, p. 46.
[150] Interview with Layla Abu Bakr Bashumaila, Director, Vocational Rehabilitation Center for People with Special Needs and Physical Rehabilitation Center, Aden, 21 May 2006.
[151] Handicap International, “2005 PRC Statistics,” (internal document), Brussels, 2 May 2006.
[152] Interview with Layla Abu Bakr Bashumaila, Vocational Rehabilitation Center for People with Special Needs and Physical Rehabilitation Center, Aden, 21 May 2006.
[153] Samar al-Yassir, “Final External Evaluation: The Rehabilitation Center and Orthopedic Workshop Aden, supported by Handicap International, Belgium,” Yemen, December 2005, pp. 7, 9, 12, 16.
[154] Ibid.
[155] Interview with Layla Abu Bakr Bashumaila, Vocational Rehabilitation Center for People with Special Needs and Aden Physical Rehabilitation Center, Aden, 21 May 2006.
[156] Email from Tawfeik al-Kershy, Director, Physical Rehabilitation Center, Ta’izz, 8 May 2006.
[157] CBR: Community Based Rehabilitation Program.
[158] Interview with Yassin A. Wadood, Chairperson, CBR Coalition, Aden, 21 March 2006.
[159] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 624.
[160] Response to Landmine Monitor VA Questionnaire by Rachel C. Chandiru, Project Director, ADRA, Hays, 16 April 2006; see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 625 for details of ADRA’s services.
[161] Email from Nagi Khalil, Country Director, ADRA, 20 January 2006.
[162] Interview with Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Sana’a, 1 May 2005; interview with Nagi Khalil, ADRA, 1 May 2005; Response to Landmine Monitor VA Questionnaire by Rachel C. Chandiru, ADRA, Hays, 16 April 2006.
[163] Response to Landmine Monitor VA Questionnaire by Rachel C. Chandiru, ADRA, Hays, 16 April 2006.
[164] Interview with Yassin A. Wadood, Chairperson, CBR coalition, Aden, 21 March 2006.
[165]“ Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part I, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November - 2 December 2005, pp. 223-225.
[166] Interview with Saleh al-Dahyani, Director, YALS, Sana’a, 19 March 2006.
[167] Email from Faiz Mohammad, UNDP/YEMAC, 27 March 2006; see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 625 for details of YALS activities.
[168] Interview with Layla Abu Bakr Bashumaila, Vocational Rehabilitation Center for People with Special Needs and Aden Physical Rehabilitation Center, Aden, 20 March 2006.
[169] Interview with Nizer Wasser, Secretary, AAPD, Aden 20 March 2006.
[170] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 623, 626.
[171] US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices-2005: Yemen,” Washington DC, 8 March 2006.
[172] Emails from Nagi Khalil, ADRA, Sana’a, 26 March and 30 March 2006; email from Charles Debras, Country Director (closure follow-up), HI, Aden, 8 May 2006.
[173] Mohammed Bin Sallam, “2 Million USD, a new Japanese donation,” Yemen Times, 2 March 2006.
[174] “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 225-226.
[175] Presentation by Mansour al-Azi, YEMAC, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 8 May 2006.
[176] Interviews with Saleh al-Dahyani and Saba Ali Ahmad al-Jiradi, YALS, Sana’a, 30 April 2005; Mohammad Saleh and Faisal Amin, AAPD, Aden, 27 April 2005; Raja Abdullah al-Masabi, AHRF, Sana’a, 2 May 2005.
[177] Telephone interview with Afrah al-Ahmadi, World Bank, Sana’a, 27 May 2006.
[178] “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties / Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, p. 225.
[179] Telephone interview with Afrah al-Ahmadi, World Bank, Sana’a, 27 May 2006.
[180] Interview with Abdullah al-Hamadani, General Manager, Disability Fund, Sana’a, 2 May 2005.
[181] Interviews in Yemen, 26 April-9 May 2005.