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Table of Contents
Country Reports
Sub-Sections:
Cambodia, Landmine Monitor Report 2007

Cambodia

State Party since

1 January 2000

Treaty implementing legislation

Adopted: 28 May 1999

Last Article 7 report submitted on

11 May 2006

Article 4 (stockpile destruction)

Deadline: 1 January 2004

Completed: February 1999

Article 3 (mines retained)

None

Contamination

APMs, AVMs, AXO, CBUs, other UXO

Estimated area of contamination

4,446 km2 LIS estimate out of date

Article 5 (clearance of mined areas)

Deadline: 1 January 2010

Likelihood of meeting deadline

Low

Demining progress in 2006

Mined area clearance: 51.9 km2 (2005: 40.6 km2)

Area cancellation/reduction: 303 km2 (2005: 85.4 km2)

MRE capacity

Adequate

Mine/ERW casualties in 2006

Total: 450 (2005: 875)

Mines: 191 (2005: 365)

Cluster munitions: 20 (2005: 39)

Other ERW:  239 (2005: 471)

Casualty analysis

Killed: 61 (44 civilians, 12 children, 5 military) (2005: 168)

Injured: 389 (238 civilians, 128 children, 16 deminers, 7 military) (2005: 707)

Estimated mine/ERW survivors

43,316 (2005: 42,927)

Availability of services in 2006

Unchanged or small increase but inadequate

Progress towards survivor assistance aims

Slow (VA24)

Mine action funding in 2006

International: US$29,583,031/€23.5 million (2005: $23.9 million)

(Cambodia received 42% of UN Portfolio appeal)

National: $1,150,000

Key developments since May 2006

Cambodia hosted a regional conference on mine action in March 2007. Demining NGOs cleared 15 percent more land in 2006 and released more than triple the amount of land. CMAA accredited demining NGOs but the RCAF did not submit to accreditation. In January 2007 seven CMAC deminers were killed. A new national strategy for MRE was approved and capacity increased, but MRE reached fewer people due to targeting of most at-risk groups. Reporting and destruction of mines and ERW increased. The 2006 decrease in casualties continued in 2007. An evaluation of the physical rehabilitation sector confirmed its inadequacy; it is reliant on international NGOs which reduced inputs in 2006.

Mine Ban Policy

The Kingdom of Cambodia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified on 28 July 1999 and the treaty entered into force on 1 January 2000. Domestic implementation legislation—the Law to Prohibit the Use of Anti-personnel Mines—took effect on 28 May 1999.[1]

As of 31 July 2007 Cambodia had not submitted its annual Article 7 transparency report for calendar year 2006. Its most recent report was submitted on 11 May 2006, covering calendar year 2005. Cambodia submitted six previous reports.[2]

The Secretary General of the Cambodia Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA), Sam Sotha, led the Cambodian delegation to the Seventh Meeting of States Parties in September 2006 in Geneva. Cambodia was named co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, with Sam Sotha serving in that role until the Eighth Meeting of States Parties. Cambodia intervened during the sessions on mine clearance and victim assistance. Cambodia also participated in the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in May 2006 and April 2007. At the April meeting Cambodia made statements on mine clearance and victim assistance.

Cambodia has not engaged in the extensive discussions that other States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2 and 3, and particularly the issues related to joint military operations with states not party to the treaty, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and the permissible number of mines retained for training.

Cambodia is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II on landmines. Cambodia did not attend the Eighth Annual Conference of States Parties to the protocol in Geneva in November 2006. It submitted a transparency report under Article 13 of the protocol in March 2007, covering 1 July 2005-30 June 2006. Cambodia is not yet party to CCW Protocol V on explosive remnants of war.

On 12-14 March 2007 Cambodia hosted a regional conference titled Mine Action and Implications for Peace and Development.[3] At this meeting Deputy Prime Minister Sok An called on all governments in the region to join the Mine Ban Treaty. He also said, “In response to our survivors who reminded us eloquently that Cambodia should support the Oslo Process [aimed at a treaty banning cluster munitions in 2008], and join the UN Disability Rights Convention, I would like to emphasize that the Royal Government of Cambodia is committed to support the survivors of weapons of war, mines, UXOs, and clusters munitions, and to the clearance of all these munitions that litter our country.”[4]

NGO Activities

The Cambodia Campaign to Ban Landmines (CCBL) continued to be extremely active, particularly with regard to victim assistance issues. In addition to its work on landmines, it carried out many activities related to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and cluster munitions. The CCBL released Landmine Monitor Report 2006 in the Jesuit Refugee Service office in Phnom Penh on 13 September 2006. It translated and promoted the UN Disabilities Rights Convention, and succeeded in getting a public commitment that Cambodia would ratify. Following the Mine Action conference, the ICBL, Cluster Munition Coalition and CCBL hosted the Regional Forum on Cluster Munitions in Phnom Penh on 15 March 2007.

Production, Transfer, Use, Stockpiling and Destruction

The government has reported that it does not have any antipersonnel mine production facilities.[5] Cambodia is not known to have exported antipersonnel mines in the past. There have been no specific allegations of use, production or transfer of antipersonnel mines by government forces or any opposition forces since 1999. Landmine Monitor is not aware of any instances of private sales of antipersonnel mines in 2006 or 2007. There has been a decline in the trade of scrap metal from abandoned mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO), due to supervision by the police and government.

The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF) destroyed its declared stockpile of 71,991 antipersonnel mines between 1994 and 1998, and in February 1999 the RCAF Deputy Commander in Chief formally stated that the RCAF no longer had stockpiles of antipersonnel landmines.[6] In 2000, Cambodia reported a stockpile of 2,034 antipersonnel mines held by the National Police.[7] Cambodia subsequently declared that there have been no antipersonnel mine stockpiles in the country since 2001.[8]

However, police and military units continue to find antipersonnel mines and other weapons in various locations and from various sources around the country. Many are caches left over from the decades of war. Informal (“village”) demining and the scrap metal trade also account for some of the newly discovered stocks of mines. The mines are supposed to be reported to CMAA and handed over to the Cambodia Mine Action Center (CMAC) for destruction; some of the mines may also be used for training purposes.[9]

In its April 2006 Article 7 report, Cambodia declared that, from 2000 to 2005, a total of 71,136 antipersonnel mines were found and destroyed. This included 16,878 destroyed by three agencies in 2005: 9,544 by CMAC, 5,720 by HALO Trust and 1,614 by Mines Advisory Group (MAG). That was a larger number than in any previous year. Cambodia noted the mines “were collected by civilian and military authorities from various sources, locations and caches.”[10]

Mines Retained for Research and Training

In all of its Article 7 reports, Cambodia has indicated that it has no antipersonnel mines retained for training or development purposes, as permitted under Article 3. However, it has also reported transfer of mines for training and development purposes to the CMAC Training Center each year. It appears these are mines removed from the ground by deminers or mines from newly discovered caches.

Cambodia has not stated clearly if all (or any) of the transferred mines are consumed each year, or kept from one year to the next for training purposes. Moreover, Cambodia has not yet reported in any detail on the intended purposes and actual uses of mines kept for training—a step agreed by States Parties at the First Review Conference in 2004. Cambodia did not use the new expanded Form D for reporting on retained mines, as agreed by the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in 2005.

Cambodia reported that in 2005 the CMAC Training Center did not receive any antipersonnel mines to support its training activities. It noted that HALO received 77 mines from local villagers for the purpose of training.[11] From 1993 to 2004, a total of 3,079 antipersonnel mines were reportedly transferred to the Training Center for use in demining training, including 596 mines from various CMAC demining units in 2004.[12]

Landmine and ERW Problem

Cambodia is one of the countries most severely contaminated by landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), including conventional and cluster bombs, artillery shells and abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO), as a result of nearly three decades of war.[13]

Fifteen years after the start of humanitarian demining in Cambodia, new land release initiatives are sharply reducing estimates of the extent of contamination. The 2002 Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) estimated 4,466 square kilometers of known or suspected mine contamination.[14] In 2004 an estimate of 460 square kilometers, which could be further reduced by updated survey and mapping, was proposed.[15] In 2005 HALO found large areas identified by the LIS as suspected to be in productive use; this prompted the government to endorse an area reduction strategy that led to removal by the end of 2006 of over 389 square kilometers previously identified as suspect.[16]

In 2006 there was also a sharp decline in the number of casualties, with UXO accounting for over half of them and most (88 percent) occurring in just four provinces on the border with Thailand. The sharp rate of decline continued in 2007 (see later section on Landmine/ERW Casualties).

The socioeconomic effects of mine and ERW contamination in Cambodia, however, remain considerable. Deputy Prime Minister Sok An commented in early 2006 that “even when landmines and UXO do not directly kill or hurt people, they are a major obstacle to the development of the country because the contaminated land cannot be used for agriculture or resettlement, people cannot travel or access basic social infrastructures. Getting rid of landmines is a prerequisite to lift affected populations out of poverty.”[17]

Mine Action Program

The Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA), set up in September 2000, regulates and coordinates mine action.[18] Prime Minister Hun Sen is the CMAA President, and Deputy Prime Minister Sok An its Deputy President. A senior government minister, Prak Sokhonn brought in as second CMAA Vice President in June 2005 leads the dialogue with donors as the proactive chairperson of a Government-Donor Technical Working Group for Mine Action.[19] The CMAA’s day-to-day management is provided by the Secretary General, Sam Sotha.[20] A meeting of CMAA’s Standing Committee on 5 January 2006 identified the CMAA’s responsibilities.[21]

The first five of 17 draft national mine action standards came into effect in August 2006, covering accreditation and licensing, monitoring of demining organizations, the storage, transportation and handling of explosives, and reporting of demining accidents. Another six standards, including mine/UXO clearance, were approved at the end of 2006 and reviewed at a workshop in February 2007.[22]

The CMAA embarked on fully accrediting all operators for the first time in 2006, with the intention of suspending any operators unable to meet the standards.[23] By October all three major operators, CMAC, HALO and Mines Advisory Group, had been accredited; two commercial companies, Phoenix Clearance and BACTEC South East Asia, received provisional accreditation; one Cambodian commercial company, MUA, applied but did not receive accreditation and was suspended.[24] The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces, however, did not apply for accreditation and the government made them an exception to the requirement, raising stakeholder concerns about the extent of CMAA authority and the government’s support for it. CMAA Secretary General Sam Sotha commented, “the Prime Minister trusted RCAF and I gave them permission to demine.”[25]

To reinforce its role as regulator, CMAA has also placed emphasis on developing a quality assurance capacity, supported by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) which contracted BACTEC to provide technical assistance. In 2006 CMAA operated two two-person quality assurance (QA) teams to assess operators applying for accreditation, monitor operations and investigate accidents; for 2007 it planned to add two more teams.[26] The CMAA’s 2007 workplan also called for thorough investigation of all major accidents.[27] In July 2007 two QA teams were deployed permanently to Battambang and Siem Reap to be closer to demining operations.[28]

However, CMAA’s ability to fulfill its mandate was put in doubt when a QA team sent to investigate the deaths of seven CMAC deminers on 19 January 2007 was prevented by CMAC and higher authorities from conducting a full investigation. The incident sharpened concerns among donors and mine action NGOs that lack of political support was undermining CMAA and fostering different standards for local and foreign operators.[29]

CMAA has identified strengthening data collection and management as a “core activity.” In May 2007, after discussion with operators, CMAA adopted proposals by Australian Volunteers International (AVI) based on a needs assessment of CMAA’s database unit completed in May 2006.[30] AVI found that CMAA did not have set documentation or reporting standards, that these differed between operators, and that the CMAA had difficulty obtaining data in a useable format and on a regular basis. Individual data providers had some good data management procedures but worked in isolation. Moreover, the RCAF, police and newly established commercial operators were “not reporting any clearance or EOD [explosive ordnance disposal] information to the CMAA on a regular basis.”[31]

CMAA plans to create a central database adopting the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA). Meetings with Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining in Phnom Penh in August 2007 were planned for installation of version 4.[32] In May CMAA signed a Memorandum of Understanding on training for CMAA database staff with Norwegian People’s Aid.[33]

Strategic Mine Action Planning

Cambodia’s medium-term vision is to “move towards zero impact from landmines and UXO by 2012,” involving clearance of all high-impact mined areas. The long-term vision is “a Cambodia free from the negative humanitarian and socio-economic impacts of landmines/UXO by sustaining a national capability to address the problem in non-cleared and remote areas from 2012.”[34]

In 2005 CMAA drew up a Five Year Mine Action Plan for 2005-2009 that sets out four main goals and a number of activities, including plans to:

  • enhance national coordination by integrating mine action with national development and developing information management tools;
  • improve socioeconomic planning and monitoring by integrating clearance into the work of Provincial Mine Action Committees (PMACs) and Mine Action Planning Units (MAPUs);
  • further develop mine action by regularly reviewing deployment of mine clearance assets, establishing targets to clear high priority minefields by 2012, reducing the number and size of suspected mined areas, and applying Cambodian Mine Action Standards;
  • enlarge and improve the coordination of mine risk education and victim assistance.[35]

The 2005-2009 plan was intended to provide a national framework for annual planning and priorities which, in the five most affected provinces, are set by MAPUs in consultation with district/provincial authorities and demining organizations.[36] In a bid to strengthen coordination, MAPUs from the end of 2006 started receiving monthly work reports from operators.[37] HALO identified as “a key concern” the sustainability of the MAPUs when support provided for the past two years by AVI ends in mid-2008.[38]

In May 2006 the government adopted a risk reduction strategy of reclassifying land identified as suspect in the LIS but already reclaimed by the community. CMAA Secretary General Sam Sotha said such land is not considered cleared but viewed as “land where the threat has been reduced to a level at which, unless particular circumstances exist (such as for infrastructure), further mine clearance should not be considered.”[39] Deputy Prime Minister Sok An urged mine action operators “to help the CMAA identify all areas which were previously suspect but have been returned safely to productive use by the population” and to focus clearance on the most densely contaminated land.[40]

In 2006 UNDP started implementing a five-year project, Clearing for Results, intended to promote efficiency and transparency in mine action. UNDP provided funding to CMAC for clearance tasks linked to clearly defined socioeconomic objectives. In a later phase, UNDP aims to move to competitive bidding for clearance tasks by any organization accredited to work in Cambodia. In 2006 UNDP provided a little over US$4 million under this project, of which $3.5 million was for clearance and the balance for developing capacity in the CMAA. In 2007 UNDP expected to provide funding of around $4.5 million, including $4 million for clearance.[41]

A national study released in 2006 noted that Cambodia’s mine problem conceivably could be largely resolved by 2010, and urged the government to develop a strategy addressing Cambodia’s longer term issues of ERW contamination and to reorient mine action resources to the ERW problem.[42] It called on the government to set up a national ERW center. As of mid-2007 no decisions had been taken on the study’s recommendations.[43]

Integration of Mine Action with Reconstruction and Development

In February 2007 the CMAA issued operational guidelines for implementing the 2004 Sub-decree on Socio-economic Management of Mine Clearance. The subdecree set out the roles of the CMAA, MAPUs, provincial and district authorities.[44]

Post-clearance land use and titling of cleared land became a focus of attention amid growing pressure on land and concerns about land-grabbing in areas cleared of mines. Most land is cleared for agriculture and resettlement (30 percent and 14.7 percent respectively in 2005). However, a research paper commissioned by Austcare found that MAPU procedures for selecting land for clearance and for allocating land do not meet requirements of Cambodia’s 2001 Land Law and that documents issued to beneficiaries are not consistent in format and do not provide legal title. The paper urged CMAA to pursue harmonization of relevant laws and called for a pilot project to develop documentation that would legalize ownership of cleared land already allocated or planned for demining.[45]

Evaluations of Mine Action

The contribution of mine action (including clearance, mine risk education and law enforcement) and economic, seasonal and environmental factors to the dramatic decline in mine/UXO casualties was assessed in 2006. In the study, based on 500 interviews conducted in seven provinces between October and December 2006, respondents identified mine clearance and EOD as the primary reason for the decline in incidents, followed by mine risk education. The study noted clearance had been better targeted in recent years by focusing on local priorities and heavily mined areas, and mine risk education alone was “unlikely to have accounted for the sharp drop.” Poverty was a key factor in increasing the exposure of people to mine/UXO risks; respondents’ answers and incident data suggested that casualty reduction is also related to improved harvests and livelihoods. Increased police attention to the illegal sale of ordnance as scrap metal may also have been a factor.[46]

Demining

Humanitarian demining is conducted by three NGOs, Cambodian Mine Action Center, HALO and MAG. In 2007, CMAC also embarked on demining on behalf of Australian mining company BHP Billiton, exploring for bauxite in the northeastern province of Mondolkiri. The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces engineering battalion conducts demining mainly in support of government priorities which include developing infrastructure; it undertakes commercial contracts for road development funded by the Asian Development Bank. RCAF engineers also conduct demining operations for the UN in Sudan.[47]

Identification, Marking and Fencing of Affected Areas

Cambodia has data available from a number of partial surveys, the LIS and extensive technical surveying undertaken by demining operators in the past 15 years.[48] The basic planning tool used by MAPUs remains the LIS, although the survey has drawn criticism from operators for including land already cleared and not including some areas of contamination.[49] Additionally, it “does not discriminate according to the intensity of the contamination.”[50]

In line with the CMAA’s area reduction strategy, HALO deployed survey teams in 2006 to assess the amount of land identified as suspect in the LIS but reclaimed by the population, and planned to increase the number of teams on this task to eight in 2007.[51] MAG had three teams mapping reclaimed land in 2006 and expected to increase the number to six in the course of 2007.[52] CMAC’s 23 technical survey teams (19 five-person teams and four 10-person teams) surveyed 220 square kilometers of land in 2006 and released 169.5 square kilometers. CMAC marked two kilometers of perimeters of mined or suspected mined areas in 2006.[53]

Mine/ERW Clearance

Clearance by Cambodia’s three NGOs continued to increase in 2006, albeit at a slower rate than in 2005, and land release increased greatly, spurred by official encouragement. CMAC, HALO and MAG cleared 35.4 square kilometers of land, 15 percent more than the previous year, but they released a total of 303 square kilometers, more than triple the amount in 2005.[54] RCAF reported it demined 70 percent more than in 2005.[55]

Demining in Cambodia in 2006[56]

Operator

Mined area

clearance

(km2)

APMs destroyed

AVMs destroyed

Battle area clearance (km2)

UXO

destroyed

AXO

destroyed

Area reduced or cancelled (km2)

CMAC

26.8

35,806

1,000

N/A

113,296

N/A

144

HALO

4.8

34,372

210

N/A

17,180

N/A

106

MAG

3.8

4,528

37

N/A

18,963

N/A

53

NGO total

35.4

74,706

1,247

149,439

303

RCAF

16.5

1,528

139

N/A

9,870

N/A

N/R

Total

51.9

76,234

1,386

159,309

303

N/A = not applicable; N/R = not reported

CMAC, the biggest operator with more than 2,300 personnel and 41 demining platoons, almost doubled its clearance in 2005 and in 2006 reported a further increase of 21 percent. CMAC technical survey teams also conducted limited clearance for risk reduction. To achieve greater operational flexibility, CMAC converted marking and risk reduction teams to also undertake minefield clearance and spot UXO clearance.[57] With additional mechanical assets, CMAC believes annual productivity can be raised to between 30 and 35 square kilometers per year.[58] CMAC also has Cambodia’s main operational EOD capacity, with 21 EOD teams and six mobile teams undertaking mine/UXO risk education and spot UXO clearance. CMAC opened an EOD regional office in Kompong Cham in early 2006 to address needs in eastern provinces.[59] In 2006 two explosive detection dog teams underwent training in Cambodia and Laos; CMAC was considering training and deploying 10 teams.[60]

HALO, with four international and 1,200 national staff, deployed 100 clearance teams which focused entirely on the K5 mine belt on the Thai-Cambodia border and on defensive positions used by Vietnamese troops.[61] HALO contends that “the extraordinary density of mines (1,000 to 3,000 reported per linear kilometer) and length of K5 (700 kilometers) means the greater portion of it needs to be cleared in order to help the country attain ‘mine-impact free’ status.” Although HALO demined 14 percent less land than in 2005, its teams cleared 34,372 antipersonnel mines, an average of 7,160 mines per square kilometer. HALO survey teams also identified 160 square kilometers of formerly suspect land as reclaimed land.[62]

MAG, employing 456 staff, increased productivity by 21 percent in 2006, operating a “toolbox” of 27 demining teams, five technical survey teams, three mine detection dog teams subcontracted from CMAC and five EOD teams. MAG attributed the higher manual mine clearance partly to the addition of Tempest brushcutters in 2006 and expected higher productivity to continue in 2007. MAG also trained three two-person teams to survey reclaimed land and in the last three months of 2006 alone released 53 square kilometers of land identified as suspect in the LIS. MAG closed three of seven EOD teams after donor support for them ended but later brought one back into operation. Despite the loss of EOD capacity, MAG cleared nearly 10 percent more UXO in 2006.[63]

Taking the view that the benefits of clearance to communities are maximized when they are supported in making use of the reclaimed land, MAG works in partnership with development agencies, including Lutheran World Federation, World Vision, Church World Service and CARE. This integrated approach to clearance aims to ensure the full and relevant utilization of land post-clearance.[64]

In the first half of 2007 demining NGOs continued to improve the pace of clearance. CMAC demined 13.3 square kilometers, HALO 2.3 square kilometers and MAG 2.5 square kilometers. The three operators area-reduced 268 square kilometers of formerly suspect land, most of it now reclaimed.[65] CMAC’s clearance efforts were overshadowed in January 2007 by an accident which killed seven deminers of a community-based demining platoon. CMAC’s accident report concluded the incident was caused by nine or ten antivehicle mines exploding together and did not result from a breach of standing operating procedures (SOPs) but did show “a weakness of leadership” of the platoon commander.[66] The CMAA investigating team’s draft accident report said it could not reach firm conclusions because it was denied immediate access to the site and witnesses by CMAC; it questioned the transparency of CMAC’s response. It noted five of those killed were not wearing personal protective equipment, the safety distances between demining lanes was inadequate and that SOPs varied between CMAC demining platoons.[67]

Summary of Efforts to Comply with Article 5

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Cambodia is required to clear all antipersonnel mines from mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but no later than 1 January 2010. Cambodia’s medium-term vision, however, is to be mine-impact free by 2012.[68] In April 2006 the CMAA Secretary General publicly affirmed that Cambodia will not meet the deadline and that “an extension will be required.” He said the government would make clear the duration of the extension required at the time of the request and would explain in detail the reasons for the extension.[69]

Demining in Cambodia 2002-2006; NGO clearance data (with NGOs and RCAF totals)

Year

Mined area

clearance (km2)

Area reduced or

cancelled (km2)

Total area

released (km2)

2002

17.8 (34.9)

-

17.8 (34.9)

2003

17.3 (41.7)

-

17.3 (41.7)

2004

18.9 (32.0)

-

18.9 (32)

2005

30.8 (40.6)

85.4

116.2 (126)

2006

35.4 (51.9)

303

338.4 (354.9)

Total

120.2 (201.1)

388.4

508.6 (589.5)

Cambodia has made rapid progress in the clearance and release of contaminated and suspect land in the last two years. NGOs have doubled their demining rate and taken a major step towards more accurately defining the extent of the remaining problem by cancelling or area-reducing more than 388 square kilometers identified as suspect by the 2002 LIS. A study undertaken by Norwegian People’s Aid for CMAC observed that “the remaining high-impact border contaminated areas can arguably be reduced within a 5-10 year period,” noting that even this estimate may prove conservative.[70]

Mine Risk Education

Cambodia did not include mine risk education (MRE) activities in Form I of its Article 7 reports for 2006, 2005 or 2004. However, MRE was reported in Cambodia’s CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 report for the period 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006.[71]

In 2006 the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, CMAC, Cambodian Red Cross, HALO, MAG and World Vision continued to provide MRE; Cambodian Mine Victim Information System (CMVIS) and the UK-based NGO Spirit of Soccer began providing MRE in 2006. UNICEF continued its technical and financial support. Most MRE was conducted in the northwestern provinces where casualties continue to occur, albeit at a lower rate.[72]

Cambodia’s already substantial MRE capacity increased in 2006. CMAC had 62 staff, with volunteers in 434 community-based MRE networks and 169 community-based UXO risk reduction networks.[73] The Cambodian Red Cross (CRC) had 500 volunteers and 1,050 youth volunteers.[74] CMVIS had 15 staff trained to provide MRE.[75] In schools, 6,000 teachers taught MRE with 19,041 students as “outreach teachers” for out-of-school children and their parents.[76] During 2006 38,881 primary school teachers were trained in child-focused approaches to MRE. NGOs provided another 25 MRE professionals: MAG (18 people), World Vision (four) and HALO (three).[77]

Despite the increase in capacity, the 649,679 people receiving MRE in 2006 was less than in 2005 (781,889), although still substantial.[78] The decrease was attributed to providers targeting more at-risk groups, through integration of MRE with community development and small income-generation activities, thereby giving less attention to the general population.[79] Methods used included presentations to mine-affected villages, volunteers providing MRE information to their peers, billboards and television spots, primary school lessons and outreach to out-of-school children. Counseling for most at-risk groups willing to change dangerous behavior was also reported by UNICEF.[80]

In October 2006 CMAC developed a new project, UXO Risk Reduction through Scrap Metal Dealers (URSMD), which was to be piloted for six months in two affected districts and evaluated in July 2007 with UNICEF support.[81]

Since December 2003 the CMAA has been responsible for coordination of MRE activities, with technical and financial support from UNICEF. CMAA strengthened its coordination role in 2006 through regular meetings with government institutions, demining operators and development partners; the meetings focused on improving provincial mine action planning.[82]

Cambodia’s Mine Risk Education Strategic Plan was revised in the first quarter of 2006. The new MRE strategy for 2006-2012 aims to reduce casualties by empowering affected communities to identify appropriate and effective risk education/reduction approaches, and by integrating these efforts with broader humanitarian and development activities. The Technical Working Group for MRE met twice in 2006 to review and update materials, especially school curricula.[83]

In 2006 CMVIS focused on communities where new incidents occur, and on collaborating with operators who requested MRE for high-risk areas. CMAC trained 15 CMVIS data gatherers, five volunteers and four data management staff and CMVIS started MRE activities in January 2006. As well as providing MRE to 9,719 people during the year, CMVIS data gatherers and volunteers also established peer education groups.[84]

In June 2006 Spirit of Soccer began MREs in Battambang, reaching 14,508 students (8,229 boys and 6,279 girls) from 53 primary schools and 17 secondary schools through sports activities.[85]

The Cambodian Red Cross community-based landmine risk education project, established in 2000, provided MRE to 5,196 (16,408 in 2005) people and 6,782 (2,668 in 2005) students in 38 (183 on 2005) communes in six provinces in 2006.[86] MAG gave MRE presentations to 29,136 villagers, about 50 percent less than the 63,186 reached in 2005. World Vision provided MRE as an integral part of its infrastructure and agricultural activities in two target districts, each with one team. In 2006, the teams provided MRE to 7,532 villagers, also about 50 percent less than the 14,492 served in 2005.[87] HALO’s MRE team, tasked with delivering MRE while clearance is taking place, addressed 36,251 residents of mine-affected communities, considerably more than the 26,715 in 2005.[88]

Six CMAC teams visited fewer villages, delivered fewer MRE sessions and reached fewer people in 2006, but increased the number of mines/ERW reported and destroyed. In total 520 (855 in 2005) MRE presentations were made in 507 villages; 13,398 households were visited and 1,653 mines and 6,159 UXO were cleared. CMAC teams delivered MRE to a total of 172,625 participants in 2006.[89]

In its community-based UXO risk reduction project in four provinces predominantly at risk from UXO (Kandal, Kampong Speu, Prey Veng and Svay Rieng), CMAC significantly increased coverage, activity and productivity of operations to nearly double that of 2005. Sixteen (13 in 2005) district focal points were deployed in 2006, targeting 2,154 villages. UXO risk education was provided to 102,493 villagers in 3,078 sessions and 20,450 household visits; 2,340 (1,156 in 2005) “actions” were reported to demining agencies on 942 mines and 20,530 UXO.[90] In 2006, CMAC increased its mass media campaign.[91] The Cambodian Red Cross produced and distributed 12 billboards.[92] UNICEF helped produce 150,000 MRE materials.[93]

A study of the dramatic “casualty drop” in 2006 found that 40 percent of respondents stated MRE was the second most important factor, after clearance, in the reduction in casualties. Notable were improvements in targeting more at-risk people and high-risk activities (particularly scrap metal dealers) and involvement of stakeholders such as the police. The study cautioned that people tended to give “outsiders responses to questions that they think are ‘correct’…” and added that other factors, including improved living conditions and access to arable land, and greater regulation of the scrap metal trade, were major contributors to the reduction in casualties. The study recommended targeting MRE on scrap metal yards and other high-risk and marginalized groups.[94]

However, CMVIS data indicated that in 2006 over 87 percent of mine/UXO casualties received MRE prior to the incident. Although only 15 percent of casualties occurred in areas marked as dangerous it is important to note that only mined areas are marked and that nearly 35 percent of mine casualties occurred in these areas. Males, particularly men, continued to be the most vulnerable to both mine and ERW incidents, and were most likely to become casualties by handling mines or ERW.[95]

On 19 December 2006 CMAA organized a nationwide workshop on the reduction in casualties. Recommendations included prohibition by local authorities of land reclamation prior to clearance, targeting the most at-risk groups, continued multi-skills training to MRE teams to provide immediate clearance, more community-based networks to allow rapid reporting and removal of mines/ERW by demining operators, and integration of risk reduction education into development projects.[96]

Landmine/ERW Casualties[97]

In 2006 there were 450 new mine/ERW casualties in Cambodia (61 people killed and 389 injured) in 272 incidents.[98] This decrease of nearly 50 percent from 2005 (875 casualties) prompted a survey to identify the reasons, as the casualty rate had been relatively constant (averaging 846 per year) since 2000. The survey, conducted from October to December 2006, found that the reduction was mainly due to favorable seasonal conditions improving agricultural production and, more generally, greater economic opportunities through farming and construction, such that the economic reasons for risk-taking behavior had reduced; the survey noted that poverty is “a defining factor in increasing the vulnerability of people to mine/UXO risk.” It also noted that increased community involvement in mine action planning and prioritization had addressed the socioeconomic impact of mine/ERW contamination more efficiently than before. Nearly 90 percent of survey respondents said that scrap metal trade in ERW in their villages had ceased.[99] However, the proportion of ERW casualties remained constant between 2001 and 2006.[100]

ERW caused nearly 60 percent of all casualties (259 casualties, including 20 cluster submunitions casualties) in 2006, whereas mines caused 191 casualties (antipersonnel mines: 116, antivehicle mines: 72, and fuzes: three). Males accounted for some 87 percent (393) of casualties (men: 63 percent or 284; boys: 24 percent or 109). Handling was the main cause of casualties among males (114), followed by “nothing” or by-standing (68), and cutting/collecting wood (39). Females were 13 percent (57) of casualties; the number of female casualties due to deliberate engagement with mines/ERW has declined steadily from 30 percent in 2001 to five percent (three) in 2006. But the rate of female casualties while doing “nothing,” or standing by has risen sharply from 20 percent in 2001 to 51 percent (29) in 2006. Children were 31 percent (140) of all casualties and most child casualties were caused by ERW (83 percent or 116); in 2004 and 2005, 87 percent of all child casualties were caused by ERW.[101] Children accounted for 85 percent of all cluster submunitions casualties in 2006 (17 of 20). The deminer casualty rate was equivalent to that in 2005 at 22, including 16 civilians and six military personnel; all were men. In addition, 13 “informal deminers” were injured while conducting ad hoc village clearance; all the casualties were men.

The reduced casualty rate continued in 2007, with 208 casualties (38 killed and 170 injured) by 30 June; during the same period in 2006, 240 casualties were recorded.[102]

Data Collection

The Cambodia Mine/UXO Victim Information System has maintained a casualty database since 1994. Casualties are reported via a network of Cambodian Red Cross field staff, then entered into the CMVIS database and analyzed with technical support from Handicap International (HI) Belgium. CMVIS data is used for planning and prioritization of survivor assistance, MRE, clearance and EOD tasks. It is widely distributed as monthly and annual reports.[103]

National casualty data collection in Cambodia is considered to be comprehensive, although it is “possible that not all casualties are reported due to lack of access to medical facilities, the isolation of some villages, and legal issues relating to tampering.”[104] CMVIS only began to differentiate casualties from different types of ERW in September 2006; as a result, many cluster submunitions casualties have not been recorded as such.[105] A March 2006 external evaluation noted that while data collected by CMVIS is “mostly accurate…the reliability and consistency of the incident location is an area in need of much improvement.”[106]

The main purpose of the evaluation was to analyze CMVIS’ capacity to operate with limited or no technical and financial support from HI. It recommended that HI adopt an exit strategy detailing steps for a handover and progress indicators for CMVIS’ ability to manage the project, and should provide direct capacity-building support. Another key recommendation was to improve cooperation and coordination with survivor assistance stakeholders.[107] In response to this, CMVIS revised its objectives in August 2006; the 2007-2009 strategy aims to expand victim assistance, place greater emphasis on MRE and ensure sustainability.[108]

As of 31 December 2006 the CMVIS database contained records on 62,653 mine/ERW casualties in Cambodia (19,337 killed, 43,316 injured, 8,589 amputees, 36,537 civilians).[109]

In April 2007 CMVIS began a survey of approximately 4,000 survivors for the period 2001 to 2005 in 17 provinces and municipalities, to collect data on assistance received by survivors and socioeconomic indicators.[110] The survey data will be used for a study of victim assistance in Cambodia and for planning. However, initial data received and processed by CMVIS indicated further training was needed for the data collectors and the survey form needed revision. CMVIS anticipated re-starting the survey in September/October 2007.[111]

Information about assistance received by mine/ERW casualties is meant to be distributed among stakeholders on a regular basis by CMAA, but reportedly this does not occur.[112]

Accurate information about the number of people with disabilities in Cambodia and their living circumstances is lacking. Data collection systems used in the physical rehabilitation sector are considered to be inadequate.[113] Reportedly, information on disability will not be included in the 2008 census in Cambodia.[114]

Survivor Assistance

Many governmental and NGO survivor assistance services in Cambodia are urban-based and do not fully reach individuals with disabilities in rural areas. Due to limited government capacity NGOs provide most survivor assistance in cooperation with relevant authorities. According to CMAA, there are 43 organizations assisting mine survivors and other people with disabilities in Cambodia.[115]

The healthcare system in Cambodia is structured in health centers, referral hospitals and hospitals at the national level. Medical care at public hospitals usually is not free of charge and the cost of continuing medical care is prohibitive.[116] First-aid is available in government health centers but many mine/ERW injured require specialized treatment not available locally. In 2006 about 60 percent of new casualties received medical care within 30 minutes of their incident and the fatality rate was reduced from 19 percent in 2005 to about 14 percent in 2006.[117]

Physical rehabilitation services are generally well-organized and good quality, particularly for amputees. Although it is estimated that between 70,000 and 153,000 people require assistive devices and that almost all of them (89 percent) live in rural areas, it is thought many have already received services.[118] No progress was reported on the 2005 Complementary Package of Activities for Hospital Services, and the rehabilitation sector continued to rely on extensive support from international organizations.[119]

Psychosocial support is limited; some services are offered through mental health units of referral hospitals or are integrated in community development activities. While there is a national program for mental health, it does not function well due to financial and human resource constraints. There are few trained psychiatrists and there is a “huge need for social workers to help support” those suffering from trauma.[120] However, the number of self-help groups has grown and usually include survivors. Some self-help groups carry out economic assistance initiatives, but economic reintegration services remain limited for survivors and were mainly offered by international and national NGOs.[121]

The Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation is responsible for disability issues and operates a pension scheme for former civil servants and soldiers with disabilities. However, amounts are modest, paid irregularly and subject to bribery.[122]

Cambodia has no legislation to protect the rights of people with disabilities. The government continues to prohibit people with disabilities from being teachers in public schools, although some do work as teachers.[123] The draft Law for the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of People with Disabilities was submitted to the government in December 2006.[124] Although Cambodia announced in March 2007 that it would sign the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in March 2007 it had not done so by July. [125]

Progress in Meeting VA24 Survivor Assistance Objectives

Cambodia is one of 24 States Parties identified at the First Review Conference in Nairobi in November-December 2004 as having significant numbers of mine survivors and “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing adequate services for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of survivors.[126] As part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action Plan, Cambodia prepared its 2005-2009 objectives for the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in 2005.[127] At the April 2007 Standing Committee meetings Cambodia detailed some progress made towards the objectives.[128] However, many objectives do not have time frames and are not specific or measurable; it appears that real changes in service provision have not taken place as a result of the objectives, although evaluations have recommended improvements. Cambodia does not monitor its survivor assistance activities and no monitoring indicators have been established.[129]

Cambodia has acknowledged it has not done enough to assist survivors.[130] The CMAA 2007 workplan contains few provisions specifically for survivor assistance.[131]

Cambodia made statements on victim assistance at the Seventh Meeting of States Parties in September 2006 and the April 2007 Standing Committee meetings; a victim assistance specialist was included in both delegations.[132] Cambodia received support from the victim assistance specialist of the Mine Ban Treaty Implementation Support Unit (ISU) in 2006 and 2007, and has requested further support.[133]

Progress on Cambodia’s Nairobi Action Plan Victim Assistance Objectives[134]

Service

Objective

Time Frame

Task

Assigned to

Plans to achieve

objectives

Actions

in 2006-2007

Data

collection

Maintain casualty surveillance and referral network

N/A

CMVIS

N/A

Continued surveillance; external evaluation

Analyze/disseminate casualty data

N/A

CMVIS

N/A

Continued analysis and dissemination

CRC capacity development

N/A

CMVIS, HI-B

N/A

Evaluation conducted, 2007-2009 strategy developed

Monitor survivor assistance in two mine-affected provinces

End 2006

JSC, CMVIS

N/A

JSC survey in two provinces in 2006; CMVIS survey started in April 2007

Emergency and

continuing medical care

Develop guidelines and strategies

N/A

N/A

N/A

Evaluation and recommendations completed

Medical rehabilitation policy and planning

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Share information

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Develop plan for free hospital care for mine casualties and monitor implementation

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Physical

rehabilitation

Improve standards and quality of PRC services

N/A

N/A

N/A

Evaluation and recommendations completed

Maximum equitable distribution of physical rehabilitation services

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Psychological support and social

reintegration

Plans and guidelines for best practice

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Economic reintegration

Capacity-building of PWD and their families; full participation of PWD in development

N/A

N/A

N/A

435 self-help groups established with 3,335 survivors participating

Income-generation opportunities for PWD

N/A

N/A

N/A

Limited progress reported

Identify skills/services for PWD

N/A

N/A

N/A

Limited progress reported

Assist PWD children reach full potential; equality in society

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Comprehensive community projects; special care for severely disabled children

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Laws and Public

Policies

Draft legislation to protect rights of PWD

N/A

N/A

N/A

Draft law submitted for approval

Review existing laws to identify discrimination against PWD

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Raise awareness of rights and needs of PWD

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Convene VA forum with mine survivors, ministries, NGOs, DAC, to plan to meet NAP aims

2006

CMAA, MoSVY

N/A

VA Forum convened and action plan drafted

Survivor Assistance Strategic Framework

The CMAA is responsible for the coordination and monitoring of survivor assistance and developed a strategic plan for 2004-2009. However, there is no budget to implement the strategy. CMAA delegated the coordination of survivor assistance and disability services provided by 43 organizations in the country to the Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation and the Disability Action Council (DAC). The victim assistance department at CMAA reportedly “worked closely: with the Ministry and DAC to obtain information on services provided to landmine victims.” In December 2006 CMAA and the ministry created a Steering Committee to develop, monitor and evaluate a new strategic plan for victim assistance over a two-year period. In preparation for the Steering Committee, CMAA initiated meetings with stakeholders.[135] The ministry has been delegated responsibility for the Steering Committee meetings by CMAA.[136] However, reportedly it is increasingly resistant to measures specifically for survivors and alongside other disability service providers prefers a mainstreaming approach.[137] A short-term consultant was hired to start developing the strategic plan in July 2007; the ISU will also provide support.[138]

The CMAA 2007 Road Map, its workplan for the year, contains only two objectives relating to survivor assistance: establishing a technical working group, and assisting implementation of a survivor assistance coordination mechanism. Although the Department of Victim Assistance is responsible for “compiling monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, and annually reports from the national and international organizations involved in assistance to mine victims,” these reports were not available for 2005 or 2006. The Department’s annual workplan does not contain specific goals.[139] CMAA has not established mine action standards for survivor assistance. The CMAA section dealing with socioeconomic planning and database management does not have activities or indicators specific to survivor assistance. Although the DAC is in principle a lead agency for survivor assistance in Cambodia, several working groups and committees were not functioning as of mid-2007, including the disability awareness and medical rehabilitation working groups and the committees for sustainability, community work with the disabled, and women with disabilities.[140]

According to CMAA 19,367 mine/ERW survivors received services in 2006. Within this total 2,842 survivors received physical rehabilitation services, 492 received wheelchairs, 2,197 received prosthetic or mobility device repairs, 10,074 received continuing medical care, 117 received transportation for treatment, 221 received direct economic assistance, 3,335 were involved in 425 self-help groups, 89 received vocational training and of these 34 received career development services.[141]

However, according to information provided to Landmine Monitor by implementers and other sources, at least 34,165 people with disabilities in Cambodia received services during 2006. Of these, 10,641 were mine/ERW survivors, including 174 receiving emergency or continuing medical care, 5,507 physical rehabilitation, 3,894 psychosocial support, 880 socioeconomic reintegration services, 68 other forms of direct assistance and 118 were referred to other services. Within this total, Emergency assisted 101 new mine/ERW casualties with emergency medical care and 73 with continuing medical care.[142] Cambodia Trust assisted 4,596 people with physical rehabilitation services (1,448 survivors), established 39 new self-help groups (79 survivors) and graduated 10 prosthetic/orthotics technicians.[143] The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) assisted 3,325 people with physical rehabilitation services (1,680 survivors), outreach teams provided 6,400 people with therapeutic assistance and referrals and training was provided for five technicians.[144] HI Belgium assisted 5,244 people with physical rehabilitation services (2,096 survivors) and 129 people with economic services (39 survivors); outreach services were provided to 335 people (number of survivors unknown) and training for two physiotherapists and two orthopedic technicians.[145] HI France assisted 860 people with physical rehabilitation services (225 survivors), provided 221 survivors with economic assistance, established one new self-help group (10 survivors) and provided training to seven technicians and four physiotherapists.[146] Veterans International Cambodia assisted 4,900 people with rehabilitation, 133 received economic assistance or skills training and three new self-help groups (24 survivors) were established; in addition 1,520 people were referred to other services and 34 rehabilitation workers were trained.[147] Jesuit Service Cambodia provided employment to 58 survivors, assisted 120 survivors and provided psychosocial support coupled with economic assistance to 559 survivors.[148] Disability Development Services Pursat assisted 58 survivors with physical rehabilitation services and 170 with economic reintegration services.[149] The Cambodian War Amputees Rehabilitation Society assisted 118 survivors with referral to physical rehabilitation or medical services.[150] World Vision Cambodia provided 2,321 people with economic assistance or skills training (154 survivors).[151] World Rehabilitation Fund provided 537 people with self-employment or job placements (72 survivors) and 395 received on-the-job training or other employment training (40 survivors).[152] The Association for Aid and Relief-Vocational Training for the Disabled project (AAR-VTD) provided skills training for 37 people (six survivors) and AAR-Wheel Chair for Development project distributed 272 wheelchairs.[153] The Association of the Blind in Cambodia assisted 72 people with income-generating activities and provided 1,672 with referrals to other services.[154] CMVIS provided 68 survivors with emergency and household assistance.[155] Other organizations that established self-help groups for people with disabilities were Action on Disability and Development (278 groups, 2,137 survivors), Landmine Disability Support (89 groups, 1,036 survivors) and the National Center for Disabled People (15 groups, 49 survivors).[156]

The Landmine Victim Assistance Fund, established in 2004 to meet the needs of Cambodia’s landmine survivors for physical, social and economic reintegration, received A$650,000 ($489,775) in 2006 from AusAID. The fund provides support to 10 NGOs to assist survivors and other people with disabilities in mine-affected communities with a variety of services.[157]

As in 2005, there were 11 physical rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops in 2006 covering 24 provinces in Cambodia (a decrease from 14 centers in early 2003, mainly due to lack of funding). An evaluation of the long-term sustainability of prosthetic and orthotic services planned for 2005 started in June 2006 and was completed in October 2006. Ongoing patient needs, the current and future role of the government, and declining donor support were key issues. Five international organizations―ICRC, Cambodia Trust, HI (Belgium and France) and Veterans International Cambodia―supported the 11 rehabilitation centers in 2006 as in previous years. The cost of managing the centers is around $4.6 million per year and the current level of donor funding “would need to continue if present service levels are to be maintained.” However, the evaluation believed that donor funding is likely to decrease.[158] In 2006 the Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation contributed $100,000 to running the centers.[159] The evaluation noted, “the rehabilitation sector is not a [government] priority and its funding will continue for a long time to massively depend on external assistance.”[160]

Association for Aid and Relief Japan operated the Wheelchair Production Service and the Kien Khleang Vocational Training Center in Phnom Penh from 1993 to 2006. The project was placed under national management in October 2006 and split into two NGOs. AAR-Japan will cease financial support to AAR-VTD in the 2008 financial year.[161]

In June 2006 the Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation and DAC received support from UNICEF for a nationwide community-based rehabilitation project to address the gaps in services for people with disabilities, in cooperation with Cambodian Disabled People’s Organization (CDPO).[162] In June 2006 a pilot project began in eight provinces and was scheduled for completion on 31 July 2007.[163] UNICEF planned to support nationwide expansion starting in August 2007 and to provide a technical advisor to the Ministry. Training of government and NGO partners was conducted, with disability awareness-raising activities. The national victim assistance report (previously compiled by CMAA) was completed; as of July 2007 the report had not been officially approved and translated.[164]

UNICEF also continued to support Veterans International, Opération Enfants du Cambodge, the National Center for Disabled People and the Capacity Building of People with Disability in Community Organization.[165]

The HI Belgium community-based rehabilitation program was put under the management of a new Cambodian NGO, CABDICO, in January 2006; this child-focused program provides medical follow-up, psychosocial support, poverty alleviation, and socioeconomic reintegration of people with disabilities through self-help groups and a small grants program.[166] Cambodia Development Mission Disabled (CDMD), a new national NGO created in January 2007, provided community-based rehabilitation in Phnom Penh and six districts of Kandal, Takeo, Kompot and Kompong Speu provinces.[167]

Transcultural Psychosocial Organisation (TPO) focused on people traumatized by war, including mine/ERW survivors, through community mental health, income-generation and mental health training.[168]

Alleviating Poverty through Peer Training (APPT) is a low-cost, grassroots poverty reduction project for people with disabilities in rural areas utilizing peer training and micro-business development. The Finnish Embassy extended funding for APPT to June 2007 and the project received new funding from the AGFund (Arab Gulf States) and the International Labour Organization. The current project focus is on women with disabilities.[169]

The National Center for Disabled People, Action on Disability and Development, Cambodia Trust, Veterans International, HI France and Landmine Disability Support have all established self-help groups that include mine/ERW survivors.[170]

For more information on survivors assistance providers in Cambodia, see last year’s edition of Landmine Monitor.[171]

Funding and Assistance

In 2006 international donations totaling $29,583,032.00 (€23.5 million) for mine action in Cambodia were reported by 13 countries and the European Commission (EC), an increase of 24 percent from 2005 ($23.9 million from 14 countries).[172] Donor countries reporting funding in 2006 were:

Australia: A$7,439,000 ($5,605,287) consisting of A$955,763 to AUSTCARE for integrated mine action in Banteay Meanchey, A$63,415 to the Australian Red Cross for victim assistance, A$690,322 to AVI for mine action planning, A$1,326,669 to CARE Australia for integrated mine action, A$100,000 to MAG for survey, A$3 million to UNDP for the Clearing for Results project, A$582,588 for the Landmine Victim Assistance Fund, and A$720,243 to World Vision and International Women’s Development Agency for integrated mine action;[173]

  • Belgium: €200,000 ($251,260) for victim assistance;[174]
  • Canada: C$3,031,048 ($2,672,778) consisting of C$36,000 to UNDP for mine clearance, C$37,744 to MAG for EOD, C$50,000 for a Southeast Asia workshop, C$61,461 to Geospatial International (GI) for mine clearance, C$1,130,440 to GI for agricultural development in mine-affected areas, C$200,503 to Oxfam for victim assistance, and C$1,514,900 to UNDP for mine clearance;[175]
  • EC: €1 million ($1,256,300) for mine action;[176]
  • Finland: €1,020,000 ($1,281,426) consisting of €100,000 to HI for victim assistance, €250,000 to FinnChurchAid for mine clearance in Battambang, and €670,000 to HALO for mine clearance;[177]
  • France: €39,846 ($50,059) consisting of €2,146 for training and €37,700 for victim assistance;[178]
  • Germany: €846,844 ($1,063,890) to CMAA/CMAC for mine clearance in Siem Reap and Oddar Meanchey;[179]
  • Ireland: €500,000 ($628,150) to HALO for mine clearance;[180]
  • Japan: ¥863,858,660 ($7,429,184) consisting of ¥7,283,709 to the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) for victim assistance, ¥20,462,199 to CMAC for mine action management, ¥41,837,000 to CMAC for ERW clearance, ¥58,690,917 to Japan Mine Action Service (JMAS) for mine clearance in western Cambodia, ¥62,740,419 to JMAS for EOD in southeast Cambodia, ¥66,332,831 to MAG for mine action, ¥92,329,134 to HALO for mine action in northwest Cambodia, ¥98,182,451 to CMAC for mine clearance in Battambang, and ¥416,000,000 to the government of Cambodia for research and development;[181]
  • Luxembourg: €25,111 ($31,547) to HI for victim assistance;[182]
  • Netherlands: €1,380,913 ($1,734,841) consisting of €750,913 to HALO for mine clearance, and €630,000 to NPA for capacity-building;[183]
  • Spain: €557,358 ($700,209) consisting of €257,358 for victim assistance, and €300,000 to UNDP for mine clearance;[184]
  • UK: £506,727 ($934,101) consisting of £23,774 to CMVIS/UNDP for victim assistance, £99,862 and £266,220 to MAG for mine clearance, and £116,871 to HALO for mine clearance;[185]
  • US: $5,944,000, consisting of $4,900,000 from the Department of State, $94,000 from the Department of Defense, and $950,000 from the USAID/Leahy War Victims Fund.[186]

In October 2006 CMAC reported a one-fifth reduction in funding compared to 2005. CMAC reported an annual budget of $10 million, of which 95 percent was provided by international funding.[187]

The 2006 end-year review of the UN’s Portfolio of Mine Action Projects reported that Cambodia received 42 percent ($9,087,733) of funds requested through the appeal process in 2006.[188] The 2007 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects includes 13 projects for Cambodia with project appeals totaling $10,937,622, of which $1,780,300 had been funded by November 2006.[189]

National Contribution to Mine Action

Until two years ago Cambodia’s 15-year old mine action program was funded almost exclusively by foreign donors. The government pays the salaries of CMAA staff as part of an annual contribution to demining that amounted to $1.2 million in 2006 and was due to rise to $1.4 million in 2007.[190] However, government payment of salaries was five months in arrears, putting staff under considerable financial pressure and raising concerns that CMAA would not retain the staff it needs to fulfill its mandate.[191]

Cambodia detailed contributions by the government totaling $1,150,000 for mine action in 2006, consisting of a “regular allocation” of $350,000 to CMAC, the government provided $150,000 in additional funds to CMAC, $250,000 to CMAA, $250,000 to RCAF, $100,000 for victim assistance through the Ministry of Social Assistance, $30,000 to support provincial mine action committees and $20,000 to support MRE.[192]


[1] The law bans the production, use, possession, transfer, trade, sale, import and export of antipersonnel mines. It provides for criminal penalties, including fines and imprisonment for offenses committed by civilians or members of the police and the armed forces. It also provides for the destruction of mine stockpiles.

[2] The 2006 report was dated April 2006 but shown on the UN website as submitted on 11 May 2006; since then, the UN has ceased recording date submitted. Previous reports were submitted on: 22 April 2005, 30 April 2004, 15 April 2003, 19 April 2002, 30 June 2001 and 26 June 2000.

[3] Fifteen countries participated, as well as the ASEAN Secretariat, UN agencies, the ICRC, GICHD, ICBL and mine action organizations. For details, see Sam Sotha and Donica Pottie, Closing Summary, Mine Action and its Consequences on Peace and Development, Phnom Penh, 14 March 2007.

[4] Deputy Prime Minister Sok An, Address to the Regional Conference on Mine Action, Phnom Penh, 14 March 2007.

[5] Article 7 Reports, Form E. In the 1970s Cambodia manufactured one type of antipersonnel landmine, the KN-10 Claymore-type mine, and various forces manufactured home-made mines in the past.

[6] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 391, for annual destruction totals.

[7] Article 7 Report, Form B, 26 June 2000.

[8] Article 7 Report, Form F, 30 April 2004.

[9] Article 7 Report, Forms D and F, 22 April 2005. For many years the discovery and disposal of these additional mines were not consistently or completely reported in Cambodia’s Article 7 reports. It appears difficult for mine-affected countries like Cambodia to answer questions on stockpiles and destruction accurately, in view of mines transferred from minefields for destruction becoming temporary stockpiles, village caches and mines held in warehouses being found. See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 248.

[10] Article 7 Report, Form G, April 2006. Mines destroyed in previous years included: 8,739 in 2000; 7,357 in 2001; 13,509 in 2002; 9,207 in 2003 (all by CMAC from 2000-2003); and 15,446 in 2004 (10,033 by CMAC, 3,632 by HALO and 1,781 by MAG). However, MAG informed Landmine Monitor that it had in effect destroyed 6,688 antipersonnel mines. Email from Tim Carstairs, Director of Communications, MAG, UK, 6 August 2007. For information on past inconsistencies in Article 7 reporting on discovered mines, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 248.

[11] Article 7 Report, Form D, April 2006. HALO told Landmine Monitor in February 2006 that it is often called by police or military to dispose of mines or other ordnance handed over in remote areas. It said that some of the mines could be used for training and experimentation with disposal techniques. Interview with Richard Boulter, Programme Manager, HALO Trust, Siem Reap, 28 February 2006.

[12] Article 7 Reports, Form D, 22 April 2005 and April 2006.

[13] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 245.

[14] The LIS, also known as the Cambodia National Level 1 Survey, started in 2000 and was completed in May 2002. See, www.sac-na.org; Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 137.

[15] Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, 4 December 2004.

[16] HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mined Area Database,” Phnom Penh, 2005. “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006 and Work Plan 2007,” CMAA, Phnom Penh, March 2007, p. 29.

[17] Deputy Prime Minister Sok An, address during a signing ceremony between UN Development Programme (UNDP) and Australia, Phnom Penh, 25 January 2006.

[18] CMAC is the leading national demining operator but does not exercise the wider responsibilities associated with the term ‘center.’ Set up in 1992, CMAC was assigned the role of coordinator in the mid-1990s. It surrendered this function in a restructuring of mine action in 2000 that separated the roles of regulator and implementing agency and led to the creation of the CMAA.

[19] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 250.

[20] A royal decree dated 4 September 2000 and a subdecree dated 8 August 2001 define the roles and responsibilities of CMAA; the 2001 subdecree also confirmed CMAC’s status as service provider. For details, see Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, “A Study of the Development of Mine Action Legislation,” Geneva, 2004, pp. 64-66.

[21]See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 250.

[22] Interview with Steve Munroe, Program Manager, UNDP, Siem Reap, 13 June 2007.

[23] Opening statement of Deputy Prime Minister Sok An, Third Conference on Mine Action Achievements, Phnom Penh, 24 May 2006.

[24] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, p. 31.

[25]Interview with Sam Sotha, Secretary General, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 15 June 2007.

[26]Interview with Sam Sotha, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 15 June 2007.

[27] CMAA, “2007 Road Map,” Phnom Penh, 27 November 2006, p. 6.

[28] Email from Steve Munroe, UNDP, 20 July 2007.

[29] Interviews with mine action stakeholders, Phnom Penh, 14-15 June 2007.

[30]Interview with Sam Sotha, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 15 June 2007.

[31] AVI, “Recommendations for a Collective Information Management Strategy for the Cambodian ERW Action Sector,” draft, Phnom Penh, May 2007, pp. 1-7.

[32] Interview with Sam Sotha, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 15 June 2007.

[33] Interview with Luke Atkinson, Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), Phnom Penh, 14 June 2007; Memorandum of Understanding between the Royal Government of Cambodia and Norwegian People’s Aid in Cambodia, 16 May 2007.

[34] CMAA, “National Mine Action Strategy,” Third Edition, Phnom Penh, March 2005, p. 7.

[35] CMAA, “Five Year Mine Action Plan 2005-2009,” Phnom Penh, April 2005, p. 6.

[36] For more information on MAPUs, see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 251-252. The five provinces are Battambang, Bantheay Meanchey, Krong Pailin, Oddar Meanchey and Prey Vihear.

[37] Interview with Andy Kervel, AVI, Siem Reap, 16 July 2007.

[38] “Mine clearance in Cambodia – 2007, A HALO Trust background brief,” HALO Trust, undated but May 2007, p. 9.

[39] Statement by Sam Sotha, CMAA, to a Landmine Monitor panel on mine action, Landmine Monitor Global Research Meeting, Phnom Penh, 3 April 2006; CMAA, “Draft Strategy on Area Reduction,” Phnom Penh, 26 April 2006.

[40] Deputy Prime Minister Sok An, Third Conference on Mine Action Achievements, Phnom Penh, 24 May 2006.

[41] Telephone interview with Steve Munroe, UNDP, Phnom Penh, 19 July 2007.

[42]Dave McCracken, “National Explosive Remnants of War Study, Cambodia,” (draft), NPA/CMAA, Phnom Penh, March 2006, p. 77.

[43] Interview with Sam Sotha, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 15 June 2007.

[44] Email from Steve Munroe, UNDP, 20 July 2007.

[45] Austcare, “AIMAD Land Titling Pilot Project,” Phnom Penh, February 2007.

[46] Ruth Bottomley, “A Study on the Dramatic Decrease of Mine/UXO Casualties in 2006 in Cambodia,” February 2007. Organizations involved were Handicap International (HI), NPA, UNICEF and Cambodian Mine Victim Information Service (CMVIS).

[47] “Cambodia to send new demining team to Sudan soon,” People’s Daily Online, 15 May 2007,

http://english.people.com.cn, accessed 15 May 2007.

[48] Dave McCracken, “National Explosive Remnants of War Response Study, Cambodia,” (draft), NPA/CMAA, Phnom Penh, March 2006, p. 18.

[49] CMAC found that more than 15 percent of land designated for clearance in the 2003 workplan was not included in the LIS.

[50] HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mine Area Database in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 16 September 2005, p. 2.

[51] Interview with Tim Porter, HALO, Siem Reap, 13 June 2007.

[52] Interview with Nick Guest, Technical Operations Manager, MAG, Siem Reap, 13 June 2007.

[53] CMAC, “Annual Report 2006,” draft, Phnom Penh, undated but 2007, p. 4.

[54] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006 and Work Plan 2007,” Phnom Penh, March 2007, p. 29; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 254. HALO informed Landmine Monitor that it had area-reduced 160 square kilometers in 2006. Email from Tim Porter, HALO, 5 August 2007.

[55] RCAF operations are not subject to CMAA oversight, are not quality assured and its clearance data is unconfirmed.

[56] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006 and Work Plan 2007,” Phnom Penh, March 2007, p. 24.

[57] CMAC, “Annual Report,” draft, Phnom Penh, undated but 2007, pp. 19-26.

[58]Interview with Heng Rattana, Deputy Director General, CMAC, Phnom Penh, 15 June 2007.

[59] CMAC, “Annual Report,” draft, Phnom Penh, undated but 2007, pp. 1, 13, 34.

[60] Interview with Heng Rattana, CMAC, 15 June 2007.

[61] Interview with Tim Porter, HALO, Siem Reap, 13 June 2007.

[62] HALO, “Mine clearance in Cambodia–2007,” undated but 2007, p. 8.

[63] Email from Nick Guest, MAG, 26 June 2007.

[64] Email from Rupert Leighton, MAG, 9 August 2007.

[65]Emails from CMAC, 20 July 2007, HALO, 20 July 2007, MAG, 18 and 23 July 2007. CMAC reported area reducing 60.2 square kilometers, HALO 73.97 square kilometers and MAG 134.4 square kilometers.

[66] CMAC, “Investigation Report on AT Mine Accident 19 January 2007,” Phnom Penh, 22 February 2007.

[67] CMAA, “Draft accident report,” Phnom Penh, undated but 2007.

[68] CMAA, “National Mine Action Strategy,” Third Edition, Phnom Penh, March 2005, p. 7.

[69] Statement by Sam Sotha, CMAA, to Landmine Monitor panel on mine action, Phnom Penh, 3 April 2006.

[70]Dave McCracken, “National Explosive Remnants of War Study, Cambodia,” (draft), NPA/CMAA, Phnom Penh, March 2006, pp. vii, 73.

[71] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form A, March 2007.

[72] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, p. 32.

[73] CMAC, “Annual Report: January-December 2006,” Phnom Penh, 2007, pp. 8-12.

[74] CRC, “Community Based Landmine/UXO risk Education program, Annual Report 2006,” March 2007, p. 14.

[75] Email from Dos Sovathana, MRE Project Manager, CMVIS, 19 July 2007.

[76] CMAA, “Summary of 2005 Annual Mine Risk Education Report,” Phnom Penh, 2006, p. 1.

[77] Mine Action Support Group (MASG), “Newsletter-First Quarter of 2006,” Washington, DC, 1 May 2006, p. 22.

[78] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, p. 34.

[79] Emails from Plong Chhaya, Assistant Project Officer, Accidents, Injuries and Disabilities, UNICEF, 16 July 2007; email from Chan Monty, Project Manager, World Vision Cambodia, 17 July 2007.

[80] CMAC, “Annual Report: January-December 2006,” Phnom Penh, 2007, p. 12; CMAC, “Integrated Work Plan 2007,” Phnom Penh, p. 42-43.

[81] CMAC, “Annual Report: January-December 2006,” Phnom Penh, 2007, p. 12; CMAC, “Integrated Work Plan 2007,” Phnom Penh, p. 42-43; email from Plong Chhaya, UNICEF, 7 August 2007.

[82] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, pp. 1, 32-34; email from Plong Chhaya, UNICEF, 16 July 2007; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 259.

[83] Ibid, pp. 32-33; Ibid.

[84] Ibid; Ibid, pp. 261-262.

[85] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, p. 36; see also, www.spiritofsoccer.net, accessed 22 July 2007.

[86] CRC, “Community Based Landmine/UXO Risk Education Program Annual Report 2006,” March 2007, p. 4.

[87] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, p. 35; emails from Chan Monty, World Vision Cambodia, 17 and 20 July 2007.

[88] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, p. 35.

[89] Ibid, p. 34; CMAC, “Annual Report: January-December 2006,” Phnom Penh, 2007, pp. 13-14; email from Heng Ratana, CMAC, 19 July 2007.

[90] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, p. 34; CMAC, “Annual Report: January-December 2006,” Phnom Penh, 2007, pp. 14-16; email from Heng Ratana, CMAC, 19 July 2007.

[91] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, p. 34.

[92] CRC, “Community Based Landmine/UXO Risk Education program Annual Report 2006,” March 2007, p. 5.

[93] Email from Plong Chhaya, UNICEF, 16 July 2007.

[94] Ruth Bottomley, “A Study on the Dramatic Decrease of Mine/UXO Casualties in 2006 in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, February 2007, pp. 5, 12.

[95] Landmine Monitor analysis of data provided by Cheng Lo, Data Management Officer, CMVIS, Phnom Penh, 4 and 6 July 2007; email from Bruno Leclercq, Director of Programs, HI Belgium, Phnom Penh, 7 August 2007. In 2006, 390 of 450 people had received MRE prior to the incident and 66 casualties (all caused by mines) occurred in marked areas.

[96] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, pp. 32-34.

[97] Unless noted otherwise, information in this section was provided in emails from Cheng Lo, CMVIS, Phnom Penh, 4, 6, 23 and 24 July 2007 (hereinafter CMVIS data).

[98] CMVIS, “Annual Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, July 2007, p. 7; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 264.

[99] Ruth Bottomley, “A Study on the Dramatic Decrease of Mine/UXO Casualties in 2006 in Cambodia,” February 2007, pp. 5, 12.

[100] CMVIS data.

[101] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 264.

[102] CMVIS, “Monthly Report: June 2007,” Phnom Penh, July 2007, p. 2.

[103] CMVIS, “Annual Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, July 2007, p. 6.

[104] Sheree Bailey, “Landmine Victim Assistance in Integrated Mine Action in Cambodia–Final Report,” December 2005, p. 6.

[105] HI, “Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities,” Brussels, May 2007, p. 24.

[106] Elke Hottentot, “CMVIS External Evaluation Report,” Phnom Penh, March 2006, p. 1, www.redcross.org.kh, accessed 23 July 2007.

[107] Ibid, pp. 1, 28, 37.

[108] CMVIS, “Annual Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, July 2007, pp. 3, 5-7.

[109] CMVIS data.

[110] Email from Bruno Leclercq, HI Belgium, 16 July 2007; “ERW Survivor Assistance Information Form,” Chhiv Lim, CMVIS, 22 March 2007.

[111] Email from Bruno Leclercq, HI Belgium, 16 July 2007.

[112] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, Annex C, pp. 5-6; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 267-268. The annual victim assistance reports, previously compiled by CMAA, were assigned to Disability Action Council without funding support.

[113] Kendra J. Gregson, et al., “Evaluation of the Physical Rehabilitation Sector in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 27 October 2006, p. i.

[114] Email from Plong Chhaya, UNICEF, 16 July 2007.

[115] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, p.16.

[116] “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties/ Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 123-124.

[117] CMVIS, “Annual Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, July 2007, p. 17.

[118] Kendra J. Gregson, et al., “Evaluation of the Physical Rehabilitation Sector in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 27 October 2006, p. i; email from Denise Coghlan and Nhar Ny, Landmine Monitor researchers, Phnom Penh, 8 August 2007.

[119] Presentation by Long Sothy, Executive Director, Disability Action Council (DAC), Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 24 April 2007; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 268.

[120] NGO Forum on Cambodia, “NGO Position Papers on Cambodia’s Development in 2006…,” Phnom Penh, June 2007, p. 89.

[121] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, pp.16-17.

[122] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 272.

[123] US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices-2006: Cambodia,” Washington, DC, 6 March 2007; email from Denise Coghlan and Nhar Ny, Landmine Monitor researchers, Phnom Penh, 8 August 2007.

[124] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, p.18; Presentation by Long Sothy, DAC, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 24 April 2007.

[125] Deputy Prime Minister Sok An, public address, Phnom Penh, 14 March 2007.

[126] UN, “Final Report, First Review Conference,” Nairobi, 29 November-3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 99.

[127] “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties/ Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 122-128.

[128] Presentation by Long Sothy, DAC, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 24 April 2007.

[129] NGO Forum on Cambodia, “NGO Position Papers on Cambodia’s Development in 2006…,” Phnom Penh, June 2007, p. 58.

[130] Statement by Cambodia, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 19 September 2006.

[131] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, Annex D.

[132] Statement by Cambodia, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 19 September 2006; Presentation by Long Sothy, DAC, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 24 April 2007.

[133] Email from Sheree Bailey, Victim Assistance Specialist, ISU, GICHD, 12 June 2006.

[134] “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties/ Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 122-128; statement by Cambodia, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 19 September 2006; presentation by Long Sothy, DAC, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 24 April 2007; co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, “Status of the development of SMART victim assistance objectives and national plans,” Geneva, 23 April 2007, pp. 20-21.

[135] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, Annex C, pp. 5-6, presentation by Long Sothy, DAC, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 24 April 2007.

[136] Email from Bruno Leclercq, HI Belgium, 7 August 2007.

[137] Email from Denise Coghlan and Nhar Ny, Landmine Monitor researchers, 8 August 2007.

[138] Email from Sheree Bailey, ISU, 12 June 2006.

[139] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” 6 March 2007, Phnom Penh, Annex C, Annex D.

[140] DAC, “Current Activities,” www.dac.org.kh, updated 2 July 2007.

[141] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, p. 17.

[142] Email from Paolo Busoni, Statistician, Emergency, Battambang, 13 July 2007.

[143] Email from Mary Scott, Country Manager, Cambodia Trust, Phnom Penh, 25 May 2007.

[144] ICRC, “Annual Report 2006,” Geneva, May 2007, p. 209.

[145] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, p.17; email from Bruno Leclercq, HI-Belgium, 7 August 2007.

[146] Email from Lucile Papon, Program Director, HI France, Phnom Penh, 19 July 2007.

[147] Email from Josefina McAndrew, Interim Country Representative, Veterans International Cambodia, Phnom Penh, 6 July 2007.

[148] Emails from Nhar Ny, Jesuit Service Cambodia, 7 June, 6 and 12 July 2007.

[149] Email from Pheng Samang, Director, Disability Development Services Pursat, Pursat, 13 July 2007.

[150] Email from Tuoch Narin, Deputy Managing Director, Cambodian War Amputees Rehabilitation Society, Siem Reap, 13 July 2007.

[151] Emails from Chan Monty, World Vision Cambodia, 17 and 20 July 2007.

[152] World Rehabilitation Fund, “Accomplishments for 2006,” 2007, pp. 1-2, www.worldrehabfund.org, accessed 14 July 2007.

[153] Email from Houy Socheat, Project Director, AAR-VTD, Phnom Penh, 12 July 2007.

[154] Association of the Blind in Cambodia, Newsletter, www.cambodiablindassociation.org, accessed 6 March 2007.

[155] CMVIS, “Annual Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, July 2007, pp. 7-8.

[156] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, p.17.

[157] Statement by Australia, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 27 April 2007. See later for exchange rate.

[158] Kendra J. Gregson, et al., “Evaluation of the Physical Rehabilitation Sector in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 27 October 2006, pp. 16, 76.

[159] Statement by Cambodia, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 19 September 2006.

[160] Kendra J. Gregson, et al., “Evaluation of the Physical Rehabilitation Sector in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 27 October 2006, p. 106.

[161] Email from Houy Socheat, AAR-VTD, 12 July 2007.

[162] Email from Plong Chhaya, UNICEF, 5 July 2007; CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, p.17.

[163] DAC, “Community Based Rehabilitation Committee,” www.dac.org.kh, accessed 12 July 2007.

[164] Email from Plong Chhaya, UNICEF, 5 July 2007.

[165] Ibid.

[166] Telephone interview with Bruno Leclercq, HI, Phnom Penh, 17 July, and email, 7 August 2007.

[167] Email from San Sothorn, Administration/Finance Coordinator, CDMD, Phnom Penh, 4 May 2007.

[168] TPO, “Welcome to TPO Cambodia, Company Profile,” www.tpocambodia.org, accessed 19 July 2007.

[169] International Labour Organization, “Overview and Background Paper of APPT in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, April 2007; ILO, “Cambodia: Alleviating Poverty through Peer Training (APPT) Women and Disability,” www.ilo.org, accessed 12 July 2007.

[170] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements Report 2006,” Phnom Penh, 6 March 2007, p.17.

[171] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 268-272.

[172] Ibid, p. 262. Average exchange rate for 2006: €1 = US$1.2563, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[173] Email from Catherine Gill, Mine Action Coordinator, AUSAID, 10 July 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: A$1 = US$0.7535. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[174] Belgium Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2007.

[175] Email from Carly Volkes, Program Officer, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, 5 June 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: C$1 = US$0.8818. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[176] “EC Budget line 19 02 04, Community participation to actions relating to antipersonnel mines, Annual Work Plan 2006,” Version 15/13/2006; additional data provided by Antoine Gouzée de Harven, EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, 23 July 2007.

[177] Email from Sirpa Loikkanen, Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23 February 2007.

[178] Email from Anne Villeneuve, Advocacy Officer, HI, Lyon, 12 July 2007.

[179] Germany Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2007.

[180] Email from Michael Keaveney, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, Department of Foreign Affairs, 20 July 2007.

[181] Email from Conventional Arms Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 6 June 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: ¥1 = US$0.0086. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[182] Email from Michel Leesch, Secrétaire de Légation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 24 July 2007.

[183] Email from Vincent van Zeijst, Deputy Head, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 11 July 2007.

[184] Spain Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2007.

[185] Email from Andy Willson, Program Officer, Department for International Development, 23 February 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: £1 = US$1.8434. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[186] USG Historical Chart containing data for FY 2006, by email from Angela L. Jeffries, Financial Management Specialist, US Department of State, 20 July 2007.

[187] “Demining in Cambodia at risk as funding dries up,” Taipei Times, 15 October 2006, www.taipeitimes.com, accessed 12 June 2007.

[188] UN, “2006 Portfolio End-Year Review,” New York, January 2007, p. 3.

[189] UN, “2007 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, List of Projects, pp. 406-423.

[190]Interview with Sam Sotha, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 15 June 2007.

[191] UNDP, “Clearing for Results, Annual Project Review Report,” Phnom Penh, 15 March 2007. For details of UNDP contributions under this program, see earlier section Strategic Mine Action Planning.

[192] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Annex 4, March 2007.