The Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production, and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (“Mine Ban Treaty”) entered into force on 1 March 1999. Signed by 122 governments in Ottawa, Canada in December 1997, the Mine Ban Treaty had 155 States Parties as of 15 August 2007. A total of 40 states remain outside the treaty, including two that have signed but not yet ratified.
The International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) considers the Mine Ban Treaty the only viable comprehensive framework for achieving a mine-free world. The treaty and the global effort to eradicate antipersonnel mines have yielded impressive results. A new international norm is emerging, as many governments not party to the Mine Ban Treaty are taking steps consistent with the treaty, and an increasing number of non-state armed groups are also embracing a ban.
Further progress towards elimination of antipersonnel mines was made in 2006-2007. Four more states (Iraq, Kuwait, Montenegro and Indonesia) have joined the treaty, and others have moved closer to joining. Over three-quarters of the world’s states are now members of the Mine Ban Treaty.
Extensive research for this ninth edition of the Landmine Monitor Report has also found that:
• New use of antipersonnel mines continues to decline ongoing use by only two states (Myanmar/Burma and Russia) was confirmed since May 2006.
• Six more States Parties completed destruction of their stockpiled antipersonnel mines only 10 other States Parties still have stocks to destroy.
• Over 450 square kilometers of contaminated land was cleared in 2006, and several mine action programs adopted new methods to increase future productivity.
• Mine risk education reached 7.3 million people to protect them from the danger of mines and explosive remnants of war.
• Recorded casualties continued to fall, to 5,751 last year 16 percent less than in 2005.
• Funding for mine action increased to a record level in 2006 $475 million.
However, in some important respects little progress has been made in the global effort to eradicate antipersonnel mines.
• Forty countries outside the Mine Ban Treaty possess together 160 million antipersonnel mines.
• Thirteen countries still produce or retain the right to produce antipersonnel mines.
• At least 13 countries are in urgent need of new or additional mine risk education programs.
• Although casualties declined in 2006 the number of mine survivors in the world continued to grow, to at least 473,000, many needing life-long care.
Major challenges still facing States Parties in implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty include:
• Ten States Parties have some 14 million stockpiled antipersonnel mines remaining to be destroyed.
• Fourteen States Parties are not on track to meet their treaty deadlines for clearance of mined areas; therefore, the Nairobi Action Plan’s aim that “few, if any” would miss the deadline is likely to be met instead with many requests for extensions.
• Few States Parties have solid survivor assistance plans with SMART objectives adjusted to the needs of survivors, families, communities and the country-context.
• Basic data collection on clearance, casualties and survivors has shown little improvement overall, which is an obstacle for effective mine action planning, optimal use of resources and adequate provision for survivors.
• Funding remains mostly short-term instead of multi-year, limiting the sustainability and effectiveness of mine action programs; much of the very impressive increase in 2006 funding was in response to crisis situations in Lebanon, Iraq and Afghanistan.
The following pages document both the impressive progress made and the substantial challenges remaining to universalize the Mine Ban Treaty and to fully implement it by clearing mines from the ground, destroying stockpiled antipersonnel mines, educating people about the dangers of mines and assisting mine survivors. The ICBL believes the only real measure of the Mine Ban Treaty’s success will be the concrete impact that it has on the global antipersonnel mine problem. As with the eight previous annual reports, Landmine Monitor Report 2007 provides a means of measuring that impact, with chapters giving detailed information on 118 countries and areas. Landmine Monitor Report 2007 is also available online at www.icbl.org/lm/2007.
This Executive Summary provides a global overview of the current Landmine Monitor reporting period since May 2006. It contains sections on banning antipersonnel mines (universalization, use, production, trade and stockpiling), on mine action, including mine risk education, on landmine casualties and survivor assistance, and on mine action funding.
The ICBL generally uses the short title, Mine Ban Treaty; other short titles in use include: Ottawa Treaty, Ottawa Convention, Antipersonnel Mine Ban Convention, and Mine Ban Convention.
 “Ending The Suffering Caused By Anti-Personnel Mines: Nairobi Action Plan 2005-2009” was agreed by States Parties at the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in November-December 2004. The Nairobi Action Plan sets out 70 “actions” for the universalization and implementation of the treaty. See, UN, “Final Report, First Review Conference,” Nairobi, 29 November-3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, part III, pp. 94-105, www.reviewconference.org.
 SMART = Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound. Twenty-four States Parties were identified at the Mine Ban Treaty Review Conference in 2004 as having the greatest need to provide medical care, rehabilitation and other services to mine survivors; they were given assistance in preparing survivor assistance objectives and plans.