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Table of Contents
Country Reports
Sub-Sections:
Mozambique, Landmine Monitor Report 2007

Mozambique

State Party since

1 March 1999

Treaty implementing legislation

None

Last Article 7 report submitted on

Undated but 2007

Article 4 (stockpile destruction)

Deadline: 1 March 2003

Completed: 28 February 2003

Article 3 (mines retained)

Initially: 0 (then 1,427 in 2003)

At end-2006: 1,265

Contamination

APMs, AVMs, UXO, AXO

Estimated area of contamination

60 km2 , likely reduced by later technical survey

Article 5 (clearance of mined areas)

Deadline: 1 March 2009

Likelihood of meeting deadline

Low

Demining progress in 2006

1.45 km2 of mined area cleared by three international operators; other results uncertain as mine/battle area clearance/technical survey not separated

MRE capacity

Inadequate

Mine/ERW casualties in 2006

Total: 35 (2005: 57)

Mines: 2

Unknown devices: 33

Casualty analysis

Killed: 19 (9 civilians, 10 children) (2005: 23)

Injured: 16 (7 civilians, 7 children, 2 deminers) (2005: 34)

Estimated mine/ERW survivors

30,000

Availability of services in 2006

Unchanged-inadequate

Progress towards survivor assistance aims

Slow (VA24)

Mine action funding in 2006

International: US$6,219,923/€4,950,986

(2005: $9,997,142)

(Mozambique received 26% of UN Portfolio appeal)

National: $1,146,982

Key developments since May 2006

Mozambique’s draft new four-year strategic plan awaited results of a “baseline assessment” in the central and southern regions conducted by HALO. At the end of March 2007 explosions at an arms depot spread ordnance across a neighborhood in Maputo causing many casualties. Reported casualties decreased in 2006 but data collection remained poor.

Mine Ban Policy

The Republic of Mozambique signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified it on 25 August 1998 and became a State Party on 1 March 1999. No implementing legislation is in place. In early 2007 Mozambique stated that a draft law was awaiting approval by parliament.[1] It made the same statement in May 2006 and April 2005. [2]

Mozambique submitted its eighth annual Article 7 transparency report in early 2007, covering calendar year 2006.[3]

Mozambique participated in the Seventh Meeting of States Parties in September 2006 in Geneva, where it made statements on mine clearance and victim assistance. It also attended the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in May 2006 and April 2007, making statements on mine clearance.

Mozambique has not engaged in the discussions that States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2 and 3, regarding joint military operations with states not party to the treaty, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and the permissible number of mines retained for training. However, in June 2004 a Mozambique legal advisor told Landmine Monitor that Mozambique believes any mine that is capable of exploding from the contact of a person is prohibited by the treaty.[4]

Mozambique is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Production, Transfer, Stockpiling and Use

Mozambique has never produced or exported antipersonnel mines.[5] Throughout the civil war antipersonnel mines were imported from many countries and used by different parties to the conflict. Mozambique completed destruction of its stockpile of 37,818 antipersonnel mines on 28 February 2003, a few days before its treaty-mandated deadline.[6]

In 2006 Handicap International, an NGO carrying out demining activities in Mozambique, transferred 120 antipersonnel mines to the Belgian APOPO research project on mine detecting rats based in Tanzania. Mozambique reported that the “transfer process was correctly done with the information shared with the National Demining Institute and in compliance with the standard procedures for transference of mines according to the MBT [Mine Ban Treaty].”[7]

Mines Retained for Training

Mozambique’s 2007 Article 7 report indicated that it retained 1,265 antipersonnel mines at the end of 2006.[8] This included the 120 mines transferred from Handicap International to APOPO. The total is 54 fewer mines than reported the previous year. The mines were held by four demining entities: Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (900), HALO Trust (101), Handicap International (76), RONCO (50) and INTEGRA (18), in addition to APOPO.[9] The numbers and types are inconsistent with last year’s report and do not appear to add up correctly.[10] It is unclear how many mines were actually consumed (destroyed) in training activities.[11]

Mozambique has yet to provide details on the intended purposes and actual uses of its retained mines, as agreed by States Parties at the First Review Conference in December 2004. Mozambique did not utilize the new expanded Form D on retained mines agreed by States Parties at the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in December 2005.

Landmine and ERW Problem

Mozambique is affected by landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), a legacy of nearly 30 years of conflict that ended in 1992.[12] The exact extent of contamination is disputed, and in March 2006 the National Demining Institute (IND) acknowledged that determining the extent of the mine problem posed a major challenge needing the efforts of all stakeholders.[13]

To provide a more accurate picture of the mine/ERW threat in Mozambique, IND engaged HALO Trust to conduct an internationally funded “baseline assessment” (technical review) in the central and southern regions; results, including clearance and costing estimates, were due by the end of 2007.[14] Pending results of HALO’s assessment, the draft 2007-2010 National Mine Action Plan reflects IND’s estimate that remaining contamination might be as low as 11.5 square kilometers.[15] IND bases its current estimates on the widely discredited 2001 Landmine Impact Survey combined with extensive re-surveys and mine clearance, which indicate that at the end of 2006 there were 237 suspected areas covering an area of 60 square kilometers.[16] It is expected that these figures will be decreased by the HALO review and Handicap International’s survey.[17]

An external review in 2005 concluded that mine/ERW contamination in Mozambique no longer represented a humanitarian emergency, but was rather a constraint on reconstruction efforts and development.[18] However, in presenting appeals for mine action funding in 2007 the UN states that, “The impact of mines in Mozambique has become acute in some cases because of the increased economic and social activity accompanying the country’s transition from conflict to stability and economic growth.”[19]

Localized exacerbation of the mine/ERW problem occurred in March 2007 when explosions at an arms depot spread ordnance across the Malhazine area of the capital, Maputo, causing huge loss of life (see later section on Landmine/ERW Casualties). It was estimated that about 20 tonnes of military equipment was stored at the site.[20] Damage occurred in a 10 kilometer radius and affected 14 neighborhoods, where about 300,000 people live.[21] The incident has raised serious questions about the state of Mozambique’s other 17 weapons depots. A Commission of Inquiry set up by President Armando Guebuza suggested that the disaster was caused by the obsolescence of material stored in the arsenal, storage conitions, exposure to sun, rain, heat and cold, and human error. The military did not know the safe storage life of the munitions; inspections consisted of simply looking at the boxes; soldiers carrying out this task had no technical support; no attempt was made to verify the contents of the boxes and check their condition.[22]

Mine Action Program

Mozambique does not have a national mine action authority, despite the 2005 review recommending that it establish one. In practice, the Minister of Foreign Affairs assumes the role of interministerial coordination.[23]

The National Demining Institute, established by decree in 1999, coordinates mine action at the national, provincial and international levels, under the supervision of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[24] IND is supported by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) with a chief technical advisor, who was joined in May 2006 by a technical advisor for operations.

The latest Information Management System for Mine Action, version 4, was not installed at IND in 2006 as planned and had not been done by mid-2007.[25] IND reported that it did not have the resources for re-training and transfering data to the new system and would optimize continued use of the existing system.[26]

Strategic Mine Action Planning

A draft version of the 2007-2010 National Mine Action Plan (NMAP) was circulated in September 2006 but was criticized by demining operators as it was based on the inaccurate 2001 LIS data.[27] IND drafting of a new version of the NMAP for 2007-2010 involved consultation in February 2007 with demining operators and government ministries. The revised NMAP will be released after completion of the baseline assessment.[28] The 2007-2010 NMAP was intended to contribute to Mozambique’s poverty reduction strategy (Plano de Acção para a Reducão da Pobreza Absoluta, PARPA).[29]

Mine Action Evaluations

Key recommendations of the 2005 review of mine action in Mozambique that were adopted by IND and the government included:

  • reaching a common definition of “mine impact free” with demining operators;
  • improving data management and reconciling existing mine information data sets;
  • requiring that mine action needs are considered by ministries and agencies in the development of all major projects;
  • allocating state funds for mine action through tenders involving commercial operators;
  • working harder with donors and other stakeholders to develop a new mine action strategy.[30]

Demining

During 2006 there were four international operators (HALO, Handicap International, APOPO and RONCO) and five national operators in Mozambique, including the armed forces (Forças armadas de Moçambique, FADM).[31] HALO had planned to withdraw in December 2006 but decided to remain because its baseline assessment indicated that the mine/ERW problem in central and southern regions requires humanitarian mine action.[32]

Identification, Marking and Fencing of Affected Areas

Since October 2004, HALO Trust has re-surveyed the four Northern provinces of Cabo Delgado, Niassa, Nampula, and Zambézia, with the purpose of making them “mine impact free” and to serve as a basis for withdrawing from the north of Mozambique by June 2007.

HALO’s Mine Impact Free District survey in the four northern provinces was completed in Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula by March 2007, and only five districts in Zambézia remained to be visited. Every community (nearly 7,000) was visited; where a threat was identified, HALO cleared the mines/ERW; after clearance and where there was no threat, village leaders signed a declaration that it was mine impact-free. Basic post-clearance land-use surveys were also conducted at each village during re-surveying.[33] By late May only three minefields remained to be cleared to make the north free of known mined areas.[34] Subject to final quality assurance, completion of the survey will identify 51 percent of the Mozambican landmass as clear of known mined areas. Completion of the survey will not necessarily mean the end of casualties in the north, as there may be unknown mined areas in uninhabited remote areas and UXO contamination remaining. The IND suspects that many of the incidents reported as due to mines are actually due to UXO, and proposed that Mozambican Armed Forces develop a mobile explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) capacity.[35]

In March 2007 IND commissioned HALO to conduct a four-month baseline assessment in six central and southern provinces and prepare a detailed costing for final clearance operations. The assessment involved reconciling six data sets (the 2001 LIS, national database, provincial priority lists, military data, and two NGO databases). Results of the baseline assessment were expected in the fourth quarter of 2007.[36]

In 2006 Handicap International (HI) continued working towards a “mine impact-controlled” state in 12 districts of Inhambane, Sofala and Manica provinces. Most of the LIS suspected mined areas (SMAs) were cancelled, while many previously unrecorded sites were identified, therefore in mid-2006 HI began to conduct a “comprehensive survey” visiting every village in every district of the three provinces to confirm the mine/ERW contamination.[37] In December 2006 IND requested HI to intensify its comprehensive survey in order to contribute to the NMAP 2007-2010; in response HI deployed eight survey teams and as of April 2007 had identified 302 SMAs.[38]

FADM were reported to have conducted technical survey of 27 square kilometers in Gaza province in 2006.[39] IND’s quality assurance teams confirmed 34 SMAs from the LIS and identified 11 new SMAs in the districts of Cahora Bassa, Chiuta, Macanga, Maravia, Moatize and Mutarara districts of Tete province and Caia and Maringué districts of Sofala province.[40]

Mine/ERW-affected areas in Mozambique are generally not marked or fenced.[41] In 2006 HI began marking all 302 SMAs it had identified (a total of 6.07 square kilometers).[42]

Mine/ERW Clearance

HALO and HI used manual and mechanical clearance techniques, and HI also used mine detection dogs. RONCO used manual and dog techniques. APOPO used mine detection rats and manual deminers.[43]

In 2006 HALO cleared most of the minefields in the northern four provinces, including the high-density Portuguese-laid mine belts in Cabo Delgado; clearance of all remaining sites was expected by June 2007. HALO had cleared 52 SMAs as of March 2007. In 2007 HALO reduced its operations in the four northern provinces.[44]

HI continued clearance of identified SMAs in Inhambane, Manica and Sofala, prioritizing those which would have the strongest socioeconomic impact. During 2006 HI cleared 274 SMAs and cancelled 64, handing over 338 sites to communities.[45]

IND reported that 7.1 square kilometers of land was cleared by humanitarian operators in 2006, destroying 23,845 mines and 1,591 UXO; some operators reported different results. In 2006 humanitarian operators cleared 37 percent less than in 2005, largely due to Norwegian People’s Aid and Accelerated Demining Program ceasing operations, and the increased focus on survey by the remaining organizations. Also, in September 2006 RONCO reduced its operations.[46]

Clearance results reported by FADM and RONCO are thought to be inflated, largely due to IND’s inability to distinguish between mine clearance, battle area/EOD tasks and technical survey; this is illustrated by the small number of mines found in areas “cleared.”[47]

Demining in Mozambique in 2006[48]

Operator

Mined area clearance (km2)

APMs destroyed

AVMs destroyed

Battle area clearance (km2)

UXO

destroyed

AXO

destroyed

Area reduced or cancelled (km2)

HALO

0.95

23,712

1

0

836

0

N/A

HI

0.50

27

24

0

464

0

12

RONCO

3.83

36

0

N/A

5

0

0

FADM

1.71

27

0

N/A

53

0

0

APOPO

0.01

0

0

0

0

0

0

ASM

0.07

4

0

N/A

3

0

0

EMD

0

0

0

0

0

0

3.10

JVD

0.06

0

0

0

0

0

0

MMA

0.06

39

0

N/A

15

0

0

Total

7.19

23,845

25

0

1,376

0

15.10

N/A=not affected

Following the March 2007 arms depot explosions in Malhazine area of Maputo, emergency response was led by the army, which asked HALO to work as its main technical partner in the clean-up. Thousands of pieces of unexploded ordnance were recovered and transported to an isolated location, and destroyed in controlled demolitions; other ordnance, deemed too dangerous to move, was destroyed in situ.[49] Clearance efforts ceased after several weeks but were restarted in mid-June 2007 following the death of two children and serious injury of a third.[50] Later in June, five Mozambican soldiers were killed when ordnance they were transporting exploded; later, a South African soldier assisting the Mozambicans was injured and a second reported “missing” following a further explosion.[51]

IND reported that it conducted 124 quality assurance visits in 2006, a 57 percent increase from 2005.[52] HALO provided intensive training to IND teams so they could properly evaluate operations in the northern provinces.[53] Humanitarian operators also have their own internal quality control procedures.

After clearance operations are conducted, land is normally handed over through a formal ceremony involving local authorities, community leaders, the demining team and IND officials.[54] HALO conducted basic post-clearance land use surveys in each of the villages it visited during the MIFD survey process.[55] HI’s community liaison team conducted post-clearance land use evaluation in November 2006 in nine communities of Inhambane province.[56]

Research and Development

After its research on the use of trained rats to detect landmines, the Belgian organization APOPO was licensed by IND in October 2006 to work as an independent operator. APOPO hired 15 manual deminers to deal with any mines detected by the rats and between October and December cleared 9,503 square meters in Gaza province. As of March 2007 APOPO had 28 rats licensed and was in the process of licensing more; it planned to purchase a brush-cutting machine to increase the speed of operations. In 2006 APOPO’s budget was €340,000 (US$427,142); in 2007 it was €396,000 ($497,495), with funds coming from the Flemish government and the EC. The rats are foreseen as an area-reduction mechanism, as well as a quality control tool.[57]

APOPO also researched a “fishing-rod system” to decrease the number of handlers necessary per rat, and worked with the Belgian Military Academy to develop GIS-based mapping software.[58]

Summary of Efforts to Comply with Article 5

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Mozambique must destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but no later than 1 March 2009. According to the UN, “the government’s vision is a mine-free Mozambique by the end of 2009”.[59] According to the UNDP Chief Technical Advisor to the IND, “Given all the scenarios surrounding the mine clearance progress so far and the task ahead, it is quite evident that the Government of Mozambique will request an extension on its deadline…possibly until end-2010.”[60] In March 2007 Mozambique began making preparations for requesting an extension; if granted, this request was expected to be integrated into the 2007-2010 National Mine Action Plan.[61]

Mine Risk Education

IND identified mine risk education (MRE) as a priority area that continues to be one of the weakest components of Mozambique’s mine action strategy; its annual report referred to MRE as “civic education about the danger of landmines.”[62] MRE was identified as one of the principal activities in the National Mine Action Plan 2002-2006. However, the 2005 review of mine action in Mozambique concluded that “Given the great progress in reducing landmine accidents and victims, stand-alone MRE projects seem no longer warranted…” and according to UNDP, stand-alone MRE is of limited value unless marking or demining removes the threat.[63]

In 2006 MRE reached 382,878 people and was undertaken by IND, HI, HALO and APOPO; in most cases very basic awareness messages were passed on during community liaison associated with demining operations. IND maintained its five MRE staff, providing 75 “basic MRE” sessions to 35,134 people, an increase on 2005. With the exception of MRE in schools, these were mixed groups and no monitoring of gender or age was undertaken. In March and November 2006 IND trained 64 MRE community focal points with HI assistance. The community focal points formed ten MRE committees in the districts of Manica (Manica province), Caia and Chibabava (Sofala province).[64] In May and July 2006 IND endorsed two MRE educator training sessions for eight staff from HI’s Community Liaison and Planning Team.[65] An HI MRE specialist trained eight staff from HI’s community liaison and planning team in participatory learning approaches and how to adapt MRE messages to specific groups. In 2006 HI provided MRE to 13,442 people.[66]

HALO deminers provided basic community liaison during its clearance operations in 2006 as a means of informing community members in the vicinity of a clearance task about the work the teams would be conducting. APOPO reported providing MRE to 400 children in Mavila schools in Gaza province.[67]

In the first half of 2007 MRE activities were revised to provide emergency response to the arms depot explosions in March in Maputo and the flooding which affected mined areas in Zambézia and Sofala provinces in February-March. In the Maputo neighbourhood of Malhazine, emergency MRE reached most of the 300,000 inhabitants; in Zambézia and Sofala MRE reached 49,100 people.[68]

According to the UNDP Chief Technical Advisor, lack of funding is the main challenge facing MRE in Mozambique.[69] In February 2007 Italy agreed $272,588 funding of a joint MRE-victim assistance program for Sofala province; about $68,147 was designated for the MRE component.[70]

Landmine/ERW Casualties

In 2006 IND reported 35 new mine/UXO casualties in 16 incidents and two demining accidents, including 19 killed and 16 injured. Two deminers were injured. Nearly 50 percent of the casualties were children (17); the second largest group was men (15). This is a decrease from 2005 (57 casualties in 20 incidents and three clearance accidents), however inadequate data collection makes comparisons unreliable. The high number of children involved in landmine incidents may be associated with limited MRE, as most children were injured when playing with explosive devices. The majority of men were injured or killed when collecting ERW for scrap metal. Casualties were recorded in nine of 10 provinces, most incidents occurring in Sofala and Namula (eight each), followed by Manica (six), Niassa (four), Tete (three), Maputo and Cabo Delgado (two), Inhambane and Zambezia (one each). No incidents occurred in Gaza. The data collected contains insufficient detail to differentiate the type of device causing the incident.[71]

Casualties continued to be reported in 2007, with at least 12 new mine/ERW casualties (six killed and six injured) in five incidents by 24 June.[72] In addition, on 22 March explosions in an arms depot in the Malhazine area of Maputo killed 103 civilians and 27 military personnel and injured approximately 515 people.[73] Casualties from the incident continued with, in mid-June, two children killed and one seriously injured when they lit a fire on debris in which ERW from the depot explosion was buried.[74] On 23 June an explosion when transporting the remaining ordnance killed four soldiers and injured 11.[75]

Data Collection

IND stores casualty data in IMSMA and makes it available upon request and in its annual reports. Data is also collected by the police, the Mozambique Red Cross Society, hospitals and others. However, it is not considered complete as capacity to collect and record data is limited. The IND database differentiates insufficiently between devices causing incidents; it appears that data has not been used for MRE and survivor assistance planning. In 2006 efforts were made to improve data collection; the Ministry of Health and the Ministry for Women and Social Action developed a database to record information on mine/ERW casualties, under IND supervision. It is anticipated that the database will improve interministerial coordination in assisting survivors. As of March 2007, 254 mine casualties in Sofala, Manica, and Tete provinces had been registered.[76] The World Health Organization (WHO) provided technical support to the Ministry of Health (MINSAU) to improve injury surveillance in provincial and central hospitals in Maputo and Gaza.[77]

The cumulative number of mine/ERW casualties in Mozambique is not known. There are estimates as high as 30,000.[78] A US Department of State study estimated there had been approximately 10,000 casualties between the signing of the peace accords in 1992 and 1998.[79] Between 1996 and June 2007 IND recorded 1,444 mine/ERW casualties.[80] The most comprehensive collection of casualty data remains the nationwide LIS, completed in August 2001, which recorded 2,145 mine/ERW casualties.[81]

It is estimated that there are around 1,600,000 people with disabilities in Mozambique, or 9.9 percent of the population.[82]

Survivor Assistance

Mozambique’s healthcare infrastructure was severely damaged during almost 30 years of armed conflict, as well as by the floods in 2000. Local health centers can only provide first-aid and refer casualties to rural and district hospitals for emergency and surgical care; specialized medical services are only available at provincial and central hospitals. Health services are also provided by private clinics, international NGOs and religious organizations. Trained surgeons, medical equipment and drugs are in short supply.[83]

Rehabilitation services are available in 10 centers in provincial capitals mostly far away from mine-affected areas; all but one are operated by the government. Physiotherapy is available at hospitals with surgical capacities. Service provision suffers from a lack of coordination between ministries, trained technicians, raw materials and modern equipment, as well as long waiting lists. With state funding, all the centers provide free of charge services to war-disabled people, including mine/ERW survivors. However, access is limited because many people with disabilities are not aware of the services available, referral is lacking and most cannot afford transport or accommodation costs.[84]

Psychosocial support and economic reintegration opportunities are limited; services do not have enough trained personnel and teachers and suffer from financial constraints. In 2006 there were only 13 psychologists of whom eight were located in Maputo.[85] People with disabilities are often stigmatized and are usually marginalized and poor.[86]

Mozambique has legislation to protect the rights of people with disabilities and a national disability policy. On 18 April 2006 a National Plan of Action on Disability for 2006-2010 (Plano Nacional de Acção da Área da Deficiência, PNAD) was approved by the Council of Ministers.[87] Specific actions in favor of people with disabilities were also included in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Program 2006-2009, PARPA II, which was approved in March 2006.[88]

On 30 March 2007 Mozambique signed the UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities; but not the Optional Protocol which allows monitoring of disability activities. Mozambique was chosen as a pilot country for the African Decade for the Disabled; no concrete results have been reported apart from the development of the PNAD. Organizations of people with disabilities are diverse and active, but have received support only from external donors.[89]

Progress in Meeting VA24 Survivor Assistance Objectives

At the First Review Conference in Nairobi in 2004, Mozambique was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors, and “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing adequate services for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of survivors.[90] As part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action Plan, Mozambique presented its 2005-2009 objectives at the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in 2005.[91] At the Seventh Meeting in September 2006 Mozambique said it hoped to report on the development of a strategic plan for survivor assistance at the Eighth Meeting of States Parties in November-December 2007.[92] At the April 2007 Standing Committee meetings Mozambique did not present any update on survivor assistance, and the delegation did not include a survivor assistance expert. By mid-2007 no objectives for data collection and medical care had been developed; the other objectives have no timeframe and are not specific.[93]

Mozambique received support from a survivor assistance consultant of the Mine Ban Treaty Implementation Support Unit (ISU) in 2007.[94] Mozambique provided information on casualties and the number of survivors assisted by the government in voluntary Form J of its 2007 Article 7 Report.

Progress on Mozambique’s Nairobi Action Plan Victim Assistance Objectives[95]

Service

Objective

Time-frame

Task

assigned to

Plans to achieve objectives

Actions
in 2006-2007

Physical rehabilitation

Expand services to all provinces

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Build center capacity through staff training, improved infrastructure/ supplies

N/A

N/A

N/A

Delayed

Improve information/referral

By 2009

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Develop transportation system

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Improve coordination

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Psychosocial support and social reintegration

Improve counseling services for PWD

N/A

N/A

N/A

MMAS continued community-based services

Strengthen PWD organizations

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Ensure mobility of children with physical disabilities

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Economic reintegration

Identify economic opportunities for PWD

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported

Laws and public policies

Create national coordination group for disability

N/A

N/A

N/A

No progress reported, but disability action plan approved

Survivor Assistance Strategic Framework

The National Mine Action Plan 2007-2010 affirmed the IND’s coordinating role in survivor assistance, but its role has been limited to donor liaison and reporting for purposes of the Convention.[96] Mozambique stated in its Article 7 report that the responsibility for landmine survivor assistance is shared by the Ministry of Health (MINSAU) and the Ministry of Women and Social Action (MMAS) under coordination of the IND.[97] MINSAU provides physical rehabilitation services and MMAS coordinates psychosocial and socioeconomic reintegration activities, including the community-based assistance program to improve rural access to specialized rehabilitation services.[98] MMAS also shares responsibility for providing orthopedic and physiotherapy services with MINSAU by managing transit centers located near MINSAU orthopedic workshops in Maputo, Inhambane and Sofala.[99]

The World Health Organization continued to provide technical support to MINSAU and MMAS. In 2006 it focused on strengthening emergency and pre-hospital care services for injuries, improving the national injury surveillance system, and the provision of rehabilitation services through community-based rehabilitation.[100]

Mozambique reported having almost 250 national staff involved in the provision of prosthetics, orthotics and physiotherapy in 2006, including 13 prosthetic/orthotic technicians and 25 assistants.[101] This is a decrease from 2005 and reflects a lack of progress in achieving MINSAU’s rehabilitation strategy of increasing technical staff both in the medium (to 89) and long-term (to 104).[102] A training course for technicians was planned for the second half of 2007.[103] The physiotherapy center at Beira hospital was refurbished in January 2007.[104]

In its 2006-2015 Labor Strategy the Ministry of Labor included plans to promote the professional rehabilitation of people with disabilities by establishing more professional training centers, and lobbying for regulations encouraging employers to provide job opportunities for people with disabilities.[105]

On 22 February 2007 IND decided to establish a new working group to create an action plan for victim assistance; no progress had been reported by June.[106]

At least 365 mine/ERW survivors received services during 2006.[107] Hospitals in Mozambique treated 5,139 people with disabilities in 2006 (1,461 newly registered disabled people, 571 that were registered before, and 3,107 outpatients). The nine government orthopedic centers produced 1,203 prostheses, 72 orthoses, 203 wheelchairs and 3,605 assistive devices, and repaired 1,895 mobility devices. The Mozambique Red Cross Society Center in Gaza assisted 280 people with physical rehabilitation, including 95 landmine survivors.[108] MMAS provided income-generating and social assistance activities for 5,606 people with disabilities.[109] In its Article 7 report, IND stated that the government had assisted 254 mine survivors in Sofala, Tete and Manica in 2006; however, in its 2006 Annual Report IND states that these 254 suvivors were (only) identified for further assistance.[110]

The Mozambique Red Cross Society operates the Jaipur Orthopedic Center in Gaza province. A Jaipur Mobile Orthopedic Unit also operates free of charge throughout Gaza, and free transportation is provided for patients.[111] The center also organized disability awareness campaigns and several people with disabilities benefited from socioeconomic support projects.[112]

In 2006 the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Special Fund for the Disabled (SFD) supplied raw materials and components to physical rehabilitation centers in Mozambique, assessed physiotherapy services and a pilot patient follow-up system was introduced.[113] It trained 23 orthopedic technicians in accordance with SFD recommendations made after an evaluation visit in 2005. Three rehabilitation technicians were sponsored for training in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.[114]

Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) closed its operations in Zambézia province in May 2006, because working as a stand-alone organization was too costly and complicated. Since then, LSN has developed partnerships with the Mine Victim Assistance Network (Rede para Assistência às Vítimas de Minas, RAVIM) and the Mozambique Red Cross Society in Gaza province. It also carried out disability rights advocacy.[115]

RAVIM, a local association of landmine survivors with 45 members in Maputo city, conducted a pilot survey of landmine survivors in four districts of Maputo province in 2006.[116] As of February 2007 they had identified some 60 survivors and sought funding to provide assistance to them.[117]

The UK-based NGO POWER’s largest program in 2006 was a community radio initiative that allowed people with disabilities to inform others about disabilities. Eleven community radio groups were set up in Gaza, Nampula, and Zambézia.[118]

In 2006 Handicap International recruited a disability officer who began to liaise with partners at the national level and coordinate and reinforce HI’s activities in the field of disability. HI also supported activities implemented by disabled people’s organizations, such as sports and theater.[119]

Other organizations involved in survivor assistance in Mozambique were noted in last year’s Landmine Monitor.[120]

Funding and Assistance

Landmine Monitor identified international donations of $6,219,923 (€4,950,986) for mine action in Mozambique in 2006 from nine countries and the European Commission (EC), a decrease of 38 percent from 2005 ($9,997,142 provided by twelve countries).[121] Donors contributing funds in 2006 were:

  • Austria: €50,000 ($62,815) to HI for mine clearance;[122]
  • Canada: C$392,500 ($346,107) for mine clearance;[123]
  • EC: €500,000 ($628,150) to HI for survey, mine clearance and victim assistance;[124]
  • France: €4,184 ($5,256) for victim assistance;[125]
  • Italy: €200,000 ($251,260) for mine clearance and victim assistance;[126]
  • Japan: ¥47,274,012 ($406,557) to HALO for mine clearance;[127]
  • Netherlands: €352,450 ($442,783) to HALO for mine clearance;[128]
  • Norway: €7 million ($1,092,000) to NPA for mine clearance;[129]
  • Switzerland: CHF302,000 ($240,996) consisting of CHF239,000 to HI for mine action, and CHF63,000 to HALO for mine action;[130]
  • US: $2,744,000, consisting of $2,344,000 from the Department of State ($1,343,052 to HALO for mine clearance and $1,000,568 to ArmorGroup for FADM training and support) and $400,000 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[131]

The 2006 end-year review of the UN’s Portfolio of Mine Action Projects reported that Mozambique received 26 percent ($998,700) of funds requested through the appeal process in 2006.[132] The 2007 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects includes two project appeals for Mozambique totaling $2,495,926, none of which had been funded at the time of publication (November 2006).[133]

National Contribution to Mine Action

Mozambique reported national funding of mine action totaling MZN29,485,411 ($1,146,982) in 2006, including full coverage of costs related to mine action center premises and equipment, insurance and medical coverage and some expense of technical advisors.[134] The UN reported that Mozambique was likely to have the necessary funds to run its two regional offices until the end of 2008 but that funds were lacking to cover some expenses of the main office in Maputo.[135]


[1] Article 7 Report, Form A, undated but 2007. It states, “No legal measures were taken within the period under consideration. In fulfillment of the Ottawa Convention, particularly in respect to Article 9, the proposed law on this matter has been prepared and awaits Parliamentary approval.”

[2] Article 7 Report, Form A, 27 April 2006, states that “the proposed law on this matter has been submitted to the Parliament for appraisal.” Article 7 Report, Form A, 25 April 2005, states, “The bill is awaiting approval by the Assembly of the Republic.”

[3] The report is not dated. Previous reports were submitted on: 27 April 2006 (for calendar year 2005), 25 April 2005, 23 April 2004, one with no submission date (covering 1 January 2002-1 March 2003), 2 July 2002, 30 October 2001 and 30 March 2000.

[4] Interview with Numibio Mambique, Legal Advisor, National Demining Institute (IND), Geneva, 29 June 2004.

[5] Article 7 Report, Form E, 2007, and earlier Article 7 reports.

[6] For more details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 580.

[7] Article 7 Report, Form D, 2007. The report indicates the mines were transferred to “two demining operators”—APOPO (an NGO) and INTEGRA (a commercial firm)—but does not indicate when, and does not identify the types of mines. As noted in Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 538, the Tanzanian government submitted a written request to Mozambique asking for a transfer of 1,000 deactivated antipersonnel mines to be used for training by APOPO. The request was turned down by the Mozambican Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the explanation that Mozambique had no mines in its possession. Subsequently there were discussions about the possibility of acquiring the mines from demining organizations in Mozambique, which would store cleared mines for eventual transfer to APOPO in Tanzania with prior authorization from both Mozambican and Tanzanian authorities, in accordance with their Mine Ban Treaty obligations. The Tanzanian Ministry of Defense then made such a request, which was granted by Mozambique.

[8] Article 7 Report, Form D, 2007. Mozambique’s first three Article 7 reports, submitted in 2000, 2001 and 2002, stated that no antipersonnel mines would be retained for training or development purposes. The 2003 report indicated 1,427 mines would be kept, the 2004 and 2005 reports both cite a figure of 1,470 antipersonnel mines, and the 2006 report cites 1,319. The reduction of 151 mines from 2005 to 2006 was the result of the Accelerated Demining Program destroying its mines when the ADP ended in June 2005.

[9] Article 7 Report, Form D, 2007.

[10] The 2007 report does not give numbers for each mine type, unlike the 2006 report, just the overall number and types for each operator. The HI number shows a decrease of 109, from 185 to 76, but Mozambique cites a transfer of 120 mines to APOPO. In a supplementary note, Mozambique seems to indicate the 76 figure should be 66. RONCO’s total increased by 32 mines, from 18 to 50, with no explanation; it includes one new type of mine not listed last year. HALO’s total decreased by 115 mines, from 216 to 101, with no explanation; the HALO information shows it no longer has three mine types listed last year (including the two most numerous types), but now has six types not listed last year. Last year HALO told Landmine Monitor that its mines were inert and free from explosives, detonators and boosters; as such, they would not constitute antipersonnel mines under the terms of the Mine Ban Treaty. It is not known if the same applies to the mines listed for HALO this year.

[11] No training activities were carried out in 2004 or 2005. The IND director told Landmine Monitor in June 2005 that the training program had been suspended in 2004 due to logistical difficulties, but that it was expected to start later in 2005. See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 538.

[12] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 538; UN, “Portfolio of Mine Action Projects 2007,” New York, November 2006, p. 242.

[13] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 542.

[14] Email from Dan Bridges, Program Manager, HALO, Mozambique, 27 January 2007.

[15] Email from Andy Frizzell, Technical Advisor Operations, UNDP Mozambique, 4 April 2007. In last year’s Landmine Monitor, the UN Development Programme (UNDP) Chief Technical Advisor suggested that, “given that since 2001, of the 423 square kilometers visited by operators in the 1,047 LIS-identified areas, only 17.5 square kilometers of land needed clearance, it can be assumed, with caution, that the remaining 149 square kilometers which need clearance may turn out to be only six square kilometers.” Email from Lutful Kabir, Chief Technical Advisor, UNDP Mozambique, 28 April 2006. See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 539.

[16] IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, February 2007, pp. 8-9.

[17] Email from Andy Frizzell, UNDP, 4 April 2007.

[18] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 540.

[19] UN, “Portfolio of Mine Action Projects 2007,” New York, November 2006, p. 242.

[20] “Handicap International’s Response to the Arms Depot Explosion in the Maputo Suburb of Malhazine,” IRIN, 27 March 2007.

[21] “Government Negligence Blamed for Deadly Blast,” IRIN (Maputo), 26 March 2007.

[22] “Explosions: Commision of Inquiry Gives Its Report,” Agencia de Informação de Moçambique (Maputo), 12 April 2007.

[23] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 540.

[24] UN, “Portfolio of Mine Action Projects 2007,” New York, November 2006, p. 243.

[25] Email from Jean-Paul Rychener, IMSMA Regional Coordinator for Africa and the Middle East, Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, 30 June 2007.

[26] Email from Andy Frizzell, UNDP, 21 March 2007.

[27] Interview with Dan Bridges, HALO, 22 March 2007.

[28] Email from Melissa Sabatier, Mine Action and Small Arms Unit, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, UNDP, 13 July 2007.

[29] UN, “Portfolio of Mine Action Projects 2007,” New York, November 2006, p. 242.

[30] Email from Andy Frizzell, UNDP, 27 March 2007; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 543.

[31] IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, February 2007, p. 5.

[32] Interview with Dan Bridges, HALO, Maputo, 22 March 2007.

[33] Email from Andy Frizzell, UNDP, 27 March 2007. Landmine Monitor visited HALO’s field operations in Zambézia province to view the mine impact-free survey process. Interview with David Gill and Lordes Zavale, HALO, Quelimane, 15 March 2007.

[34] Interview with Tim Turner, HALO, Scotland, 22 May 2007.

[35] Email from Andy Frizzell, UNDP, 27 March 2007.

[36] Interviews with Dan Bridges, HALO, Maputo, 22 March 2007 and 7 April 2007; and with Tim Turner, HALO, UK, 22 May 2007.

[37] See Landmine Monitor 2006, pp. 546-7; email from Adérito Ismael, Mine Action Coordinator, HI, 30 March 2007.

[38] Gilles Delecourt, “Handicap International’s Response to Mozambique Mine Action Plan Design & Joint Review Process,” Maputo, March 2007, p. 1.

[39] IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, February 2007, p. 5.

[40] Ibid, p. 6.

[41] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 547.

[42] Email from Adérito Ismael, HI, 30 March 2007.

[43] Interview with Frank Weetjens, Program Manager, APOPO, Maputo, 6 March 2007.

[44] Interview with Dan Bridges, HALO, Maputo, 22 March 2007.

[45] Email from Adérito Ismael, HI, 30 March 2007.

[46] IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, February 2007, pp. 6-8.

[47] Email from Andy Frizzell, UNDP, 4 April 2007.

[48] Data from NPA, RONCO, FADM, ASM, EMD, JVD, MMA from: IND, “Annual Report 2006,” draft, Maputo, April 2007, pp. 7-8. Also: interview with David Gill and Lordes Zavale, HALO, Quelimane, 15 March 2007; email from Adérito Ismael, HI, 30 March 2007; interview with Frank Weetjens, APOPO, Maputo, 6 March 2007. In contrast to the IND report, EMD’s figures have been reported as area cancellation/reduction as no explosive ordnance was actually cleared.

[49] “Government Negligence Blamed for Deadly Blast,” IRIN, 26 March 2007.

[50] “Mozambique: Search for Explosive Devices Resumes,” Agencia de Informacao de Mocambique (Maputo), 18 June 2007.

[51] “Casualties continue to rise in arms Mozambique depot blast,” DPA (German news agency), www.earthtimes.org, accessed 28 June 2007.

[52] IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, February 2007, p. 14.

[53] Interview with Dan Bridges, HALO, Maputo, 22 March 2007.

[54] See Landmine Monitor 2006, p. 549.

[55] Interview with David Gill and Lordes Zavale, HALO, Quelimane, 15 March 2007.

[56] Megan Latimer, “Evaluation of Land Previously Demined by Handicap International,” Inhambane, November 2006.

[57] Interview with Frank Weetjens, APOPO, Maputo, 6 March 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: €1 = US$1.2563. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[58] Interview with Frank Weetjens, APOPO, Maputo, 6 March 2007.

[59] UN, “Portfolio of Mine Action Projects 2007,” New York, November 2006, p. 242.

[60] Email from Lutful Kabir, UNDP, 26 February 2007.

[61] Interview with Mila Massango, Assistant to the Director, IND, 26 February 2007.

[62] IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, May 2007, Executive Summary.

[63] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 550-551.

[64] Interview with Surengue Assane, MRE Coordinator, IND, Maputo, 14 February 2007; IND, “Annual Report 2006,” draft, Maputo, April 2007, p. 10.

[65] IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, May 2007, p. 10. HI’s MRE capacity in 2007 was reduced to six staff because of reduced funding, email from Megan Latimer, Landmine Monitor researcher, 15 May 2007.

[66] Interview with Adérito Ismael, Mine Action Coordinator, HI, Maputo, 26 February 2007, and emails, 30 March and 15 June 2007.

[67] Interview with Frank Weetjens, APOPO, Maputo, 6 March 2007.

[68] “Handicap International’s response to the arms depot explosion in the Maputo suburb of Malhazine, Final update, 10th of April 2007,” Maputo, received by email from Adérito Ismael, HI, 15 June 2007; email from Adérito Ismael, HI Mozambique, 15 June 2007.

[69] Email from Lutful Kabir, UNDP, 25 April 2007.

[70] IND, “Sumário da reunião entre o IND e a cooperação italiana” (“Summary of the meeting between IND and the Italian Cooperation”), Maputo, 1 February 2007, pp. 1-2; interview with Surengue Assane, IND, Maputo, 14 February 2007.

[71] IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, May 2007, pp. 12-13; Article 7 Report, Form J, 2007; interview with Surengue Assane, IND, Maputo, 14 February 2007; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 553.

[72] Email from Surengue Assane, IND, 2 April 2007; interview with David Gill and Lordes Zavale, HALO, Quelimane, 15 March 2007.

[73] “Munitions Explosion Information Bulletin No. 2/07,” IRIN (Maputo), 30 March 2007; “Explosions: Commission of Inquiry Gives Its Report,” Agencia de Informação de Moçambique (Maputo), 12 April 2007.

[74]“Ammunition debris claims two children,” IRIN (Maputo), 15 June 2007.

[75] “Four Mozambican soldiers killed in arms explosion: report,” Agence France Presse (Maputo), 24 June 2007.

[76] IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, May 2007, p. 14.

[77] WHO, “WHO support to countries for scaling up essential interventions towards universal coverage in Africa, The Maputo Report,” WHO/CCO/06.02, Geneva, 2006, p. 26, www.who.int, accessed 29 June 2007.

[78] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 553.

[79] US Department of State, “Hidden Killers 1998: The Global Landmine Crisis: Country Profile Mozambique.” www.state.gov, accessed 29 June 2007.

[80] Emails from Surengue Assane, IND, Maputo, 2 April 200; Landmine Monitor analysis.

[81] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 554.

[82] African Decade of People with Disabilities, “Mozambique: Policy and Legislation,”

www.mozambique.disabilityafrica.org, accessed 28 March 2007.

[83] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 554-555.

[84]Statement by Edma Sulemane, Ministry for Women and Social Action (MINSAU), Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 20 September 2006.

[85] See Landmine Monitor 2006, p. 557.

[86] Interview with Cídia Monteiro, National Director, POWER, Maputo, 26 February 2007.

[87] MINSAU, “Plano Nacional de Acção da Área da Deficiência, 2006-2010” (“National Action Plan of the Area of Deficiency, 2006-2010”), Maputo, 2006, p. 29.

[88] See Landmine Monitor 2006, p. 558, for the goals of PARPA II.

[89] African Decade of People with Disabilities, “Country Profile: Mozambique.”

[90] UN, “Final Report, First Review Conference,” Nairobi, 29 November-3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 33.

[91] “Final Report of the Meeting of States Parties/ Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 167-171.

[92] Statement by Edma Sulemane, MINSAU, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 20 September 2006.

[93] Co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration (Austria and Sudan), “Status of the development of SMART victim assistance objectives and national plans,” Geneva, 23 April 2007, p. 33.

[94] Email from Sheree Bailey, Victim Assistance Expert, ISU, GICHD, 12 June 2007.

[95] “Final Report of the Meeting of States Parties/ Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 167-171.

[96] For details see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 554; see also, IND, www.ind.gov.mz, accessed 30 June 2007.

[97] Article 7 Report, Form J, 2007.

[98] Mozambique, “Plano Nacional de Acção da Área da Deficiência 2006-2010,” Maputo, 2006, p. 7; see Landmine Monitor 2006, p. 557.

[99] Statement by Edma Sulemane, MINSAU, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 20 September 2006; see Landmine Monitor 2006, p. 557.

[100] WHO, “WHO support to countries for scaling up essential interventions towards universal coverage in Africa, The Maputo Report,” Geneva, 2006, p. 26.

[101] Statement by Edma Sulemane, MINSAU, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 20 September 2006.

[102] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 555.

[103] Interview with Edma Sulemane, MINSAU, Maputo, 25 April 2007.

[104] “Re-equipment of the Beira Physiotherapy Center,” TVM (Televisão de Moçambique), 8 January 2007.

[105] Ministry of Labor, “Estratégia de Emprego e Formação Profissional em Moçambique 2006-2015” (“Strategy of Work and Professional Formation in Mozambique 2006-2015”), Maputo, 14 March 2006, p. 18.

[106] Interview with Becky Jordan, Regional Coordinator for Africa, LSN, Maputo, 28 February 2007, and email, 25 May 2007.

[107]This may include multiple recording of services received by one person. Email from Filipe Pedro Ussiva, Project Coordinator, Mozambique Red Cross Society, Manjacaze, 30 January 2007.

[108] Email from Filipe Pedro Ussiva, Mozambique Red Cross Society, 30 January 2007.

[109] Interview with Edma Sulemane, MINSAU, Maputo, 25 April 2007.

[110] Article 7 Report, Form J, 2007; IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, May 2007, p. 15.

[111] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 556.

[112] Email from Filipe Pedro Ussiva, Mozambique Red Cross Society, 30 January 2007.

[113] ICRC Special Fund for the Disabled, “Annual Report 2006,” Geneva, February 2007, p. 7.

[114] ICRC Special Fund for the Disabled, “Mid-term Report 2006,” Geneva, June 2006, p. 11.

[115] Interview with Becky Jordan, LSN, Maputo, 28 February 2007.

[116] Belchior Martins, “RAVIM-Rede para Assistência ás Vítimas de Minas” (“Mine Victims Assistance Network”), Desminando (IND Magazine, Maputo), December 2006, p. 6.

[117] Interview with Becky Jordan, LSN, Maputo, 28 February 2007.

[118] Interview with Cídia Monteiro, POWER, Maputo, 26 February 2007; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 558.

[119] Email from Odile Flez, Disability Coordinator, HI, 16 January 2007.

[120] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 554-558.

[121] Ibid, p. 551. Average exchange rate for 2006: €1 = US$1.2563, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[122] Austria Article 7 Report, Form J, undated; UN OCHA Financial Tracking Service (FTS), www.reliefweb.int/fts, accessed 2 June 2007.

[123] Email from Carly Volkes, Program Officer, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, 5 June 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: C$1 = US$0.8818. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[124] Email from Noel Cooke, Programme Officer, EC Delegation to Mozambique, 30 July 2007.

[125] Email from Anne Villeneuve, Advocacy Officer, HI, Lyon, 12 July 2007.

[126] Mine Action Investments Database, accessed 21 March 2007.

[127] Email from Conventional Arms Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 6 June 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: ¥1 = US$0.0086. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[128] Email from Vincent van Zeijst, Deputy Head, Arms Control and Arms Export Policy Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 11 July 2007.

[129] Email from Yngvild Berggrav, Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 8 August 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: NOK1 = US$0.1560. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[130] Email from Rémy Friedmann, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 7 June 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: CHF1 = US$0.7980. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[131] USG Historical Chart containing data for FY 2006, by email from Angela L. Jeffries, Financial Management Specialist, US Department of State, 20 July 2007; email from Derek Kish, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, US Department of State, 31 July 2007.

[132] UN, “2006 Portfolio End-Year Review,” New York, January 2007, p. 3.

[133] UN, “2007 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, List of Projects, pp. 406-423.

[134] Response to Landmine Monitor National Funding Questionnaire from Celma Manjate, Head of Administration and Finance, IND, 10 April 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: MZN1=US$0.0389. Landmine Monitor estimate based on www.oanda.com.

[135] UN, “2006 Portfolio End-Year Review,” New York, January 2007, p. 8.