Chad

Impact

Last updated: 17 March 2024

COUNTRY SUMMARY

Chad is contaminated with landmines, cluster munition remnants, and other explosive remnants of war (ERW). The contamination results from the 1973 Libyan invasion of the country and more than 30 years of internal armed conflict.[1]

Chad has been granted four extensions to its Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline to clear mines from its territory. The extension requests have included provisions to conduct survey, to better understand the extent of contamination. Chad has indicated that it is uncertain whether it will be able to meet its current Article 5 deadline of 1 January 2025, due to insufficient funding.[2]

In 2022, Chad submitted a request to extend its initial Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 clearance deadline of 1 September 2023, and was granted a 13-month extension to 1 October 2024. In this timeframe, Chad plans to survey 19km² of suspected hazardous area (SHA) contaminated by mines and cluster munition remnants in Tibesti province.[3]

Risk education in Chad is integrated into land release and broader child protection activities.[4]

Chad is responsible for a significant number of survivors of mines, cluster munition remnants, and other ERW. Access to healthcare and physical rehabilitation services remains a challenge for survivors, due to insufficient resources and lack of services.[5]

ASSESSING THE IMPACT

Contamination

     Extent of contamination[6]

 

Antipersonnel landmine

Cluster munition remnant

     ERW

Extent of contamination

Large

Medium

 

Massive

Reported contamination

58.65km2*

CHA: 56.02km²

SHA: 2.63km²

SHA: 19.05km2**

 

CHA: 217.23km²

 

Note: CHA=confirmed hazardous area; SHA=suspected hazardous area; ERW=explosive remnants of war.

*Mixed contamination consisting of antipersonnel and antivehicle mines.

**In addition to cluster munition remnants, this reported contaminated figure includes antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines, and ERW.

Landmine contamination

Mine contamination in Chad is the result of the 1973 Libyan invasion and 30 years of internal armed conflict. The contaminated areas are along the northern border with Libya, the eastern border with Sudan, and the southern border with the Central African Republic.

As of the end of 2022, Chad had identified 120 hazardous areas, of which 72 were classified as confirmed hazardous area (CHA), located in the provinces of Borkou, Ennedi, and Tibesti.[7] Contamination was reported to be mixed and to cover a total area of 77.69km².[8] Of this total, 19.05km2 was also thought to be contaminated by cluster munition remnants, in the province of Tibesti. Over half of Chad’s mine contamination (43.24km²) was located in Tibesti.[9]

Ouadi Doum minefield, in Ennedi province, is a densely contaminated area with antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines, and ERW, resulting from the 1973 Libyan conflict, and from French bombardments in 1986. Ouadi Doum may take several years to clear, according to operators.[10]

Lake Chad province is contaminated with improvised landmines.[11]

Mines and ERW are an ongoing threat to local populations and have a negative impact on the socio-economic development of the poorest provinces, including Borkou, Ennedi, and Tibesti. Contamination also prevents humanitarian access in many affected areas.[12]

Mines/ERW have caused loss of cattle; an important revenue source in northern Chad.[13] The cities of Zouarké (Tibesti), Ounianga Kebir (West Ennedi), and Faya (Borkou) are located on travel routes for sub-Saharan migrants, resulting in their exposure to the risk of ordnance.[14] 

Cluster munition remnants contamination

Following the end of armed conflict with Libya in 1987, unexploded submunitions and cluster munition containers were found in the north in Borkou, Ennedi, and Tibesti provinces. Cluster munition remnants were also found in Biltine department, in Wadi Fira province; and east of the capital, N’Djamena.[15] Mines Advisory Group (MAG) reported in 2017 that most of Tibesti still had to be surveyed, and that there was a possibility that cluster munition remnants might contaminate areas around former Libyan military bases.[16]

Chad reported, in June 2021, that land release for the last area known to be contaminated with cluster munition remnants was almost complete, and awaiting quality assurance and control.[17] However, Chad submitted an extension request in May 2022 under Article 4 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, acknowledging that there might be remaining contamination in Tibesti and that survey was required. Chad planned to conduct non-technical survey across 19.05km² in its extension period (2022–2024), before submitting a second request, based on the survey, with a workplan for clearance.[18] Chad did not report surveying the affected areas in 2022.[19]

Other types of contamination

Armed clashes in North Kanem province in April 2021, between the Chad National Army and a non-state armed group (NSAG), resulted in new ERW contamination. Chad reported that this contamination totaled 215.69km² CHA.[20] Further ERW contamination (totaling 1.54km² CHA) was mainly located in Borkou, Ennedi, and Tibesti.[21] Lake Chad province was thought to be contaminated by ERW, as a result of clashes with Boko Haram militants.[22]

In 2021, Chad reported that new ERW contamination could be discovered in Miski, in Tibesti province, following violent clashes in 2018–2020.[23] In June 2019, Chad had reported new use of antivehicle mines by unknown NSAGs near its borders with Sudan and the Central African Republic.[24] In April 2018 and September 2019, Chadian soldiers were killed and injured in a series of operations in Lake Chad province against Boko Haram militants. Boko Haram used improvised mines and other improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during these clashes.[25]

Casualties

     5-year casualties total: 2018–2022

Year

Injured

Killed

Unknown

Total

2022

0

0

29

29

2021

18

8

0

26

2020

21

13

0

34

2019

22

23

0

45

2018

11

18

1

30

More than 3,000 mine/ERW casualties have been recorded in Chad, for all time.[26]

Casualties in 2022[27]

Injured

Killed

Unknown

Total

Change from previous year

0

0

29

29

Increase from 26 in 2021

In 2022, Chad reported 29 casualties due to ERW incidents in Lake province, according to its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report.[28]  However, the data was not disaggregated and information on the incidents, collected primarily via local radio, was incomplete. In recent years, casualty data in Chad was not adequately collected, leading to discrepancies in the reported totals.[29]

Cluster munition casualties

No cluster munition casualties have been identified in Chad since 2015, when four casualties (three girls and one boy) were attributed to cluster munition remnants.[30]

The number of casualties caused by unexploded submunitions or the use of cluster munitions in Chad, for all-time, is unknown, due to a lack of detailed and comprehensive data. However, it is likely that there have been other unexploded submunition casualties.[31]

In its Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 transparency report for 2022, Chad reported that 49 survivors received victim assistance services during the year, without providing details on whether cluster munitions were responsible for their injuries.[32]

COORDINATION 

Summary table[33]

Mine action

Main Coordination Body    

Coordination Mechanism

Strategy/plan

National Mine Action Standards      

HCND

 

Direct coordination

National Mine Action Plan 2020–2024

National standards in place (updated in 2021)

Risk education

Main Coordination Body    

Coordination Mechanism

Strategy/plan    

National Mine Action Standards      

HCND

Direct coordination with operators

 

Humanitarian coordination through Child Protection Sub-Cluster

Included in National Mine Action Plan 2020–2024

Risk education standards in place (pending review)

Victim assistance

Main Coordination Body    

Coordination Mechanism

Strategy/plan

National Mine Action Standards

HCND

Direct coordination with operators

 

Humanitarian coordination through Child Protection Sub-Cluster

National Plan on Victim Assistance (pending review)

N/R

Note: HCND=Haut Commissariat National de Déminage (National High Commission for Demining); N/R=not reported.

ADDRESSING THE IMPACT

Clearance

Highlights from 2022

In 2022, the four-year multistakeholder Demining and Economic Development Project (Projet de déminage et de développement économique, PRODECO), funded by the European Union (EU), concluded.[34] The Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (Fondation Suisse de Déminage, FSD), which had supported the National High Commission for Demining (Haut Commissariat National de Déminage, HCND) in prioritization and tasking for operators, handed over assets to HCND. The two accredited demining operators, Humanity & Inclusion (HI) and Mines Advisory Group (MAG), did not report securing alternative funding for clearance.[35]

In 2023, Chad reported that the national demining budget was limited and that a potential lack of international support may result in the cessation of activities, preventing it from meeting its Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 and Convention on Cluster Munition Article 4 deadlines.[36]

Management and coordination

Management and coordination overview

The national mine action program in Chad is managed by HCND, working under the Ministry of Economy and Planning.[37] The HCND has four directorates and four provincial centers.[38]

Demining priorities are determined by HCND in cooperation with provincial authorities. Non-technical survey highlights local socio-economic issues and forms a basis for priority-setting. HCND is responsible for approving workplans proposed by demining operators.[39]

Legislation and standards

National mine action standards, based on the International Mine Action Standards (IMAS), were updated in 2021. Chad’s national standards cover post-incident investigation, medical support, technical survey, clearance, land release, and information management.[40]

Strategies and policies

The National Mine Action Plan 2020–2024 outlines the remaining mined areas, and provides a provisional timeline for clearance along with annual budgets.

A Resource and Partnership Mobilization Strategy for 2018–2024 was noted in Chad’s 2019 Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 extension request. However, following the end of the PRODECO project in 2022, no funding was reported for the remainder of the extension period.[41]  

Information management 

HCND uses the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA). Since 2017, the HCND has received support on information management from FSD, and finalized a database clean-up in 2021. Duplicate data was removed, and geographic coordinates verified, resulting in the cancellation of some hazardous areas.[42]

Clearance operators

HCND was the only active clearance operator in 2022. In June 2023, HCND reported that two explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) units were deployed in West Ennedi province, with a third demining unit set to undertake clearance activities.[43]

Two international operators, MAG and HI, have been accredited by HCND. However, neither operator conducted clearance in 2022 due to a reported lack of funding.[44]

Land release: antipersonnel landmines

2022 land release overview: Landmines[45]

Area cleared

(km²)

Area reduced

(km²)

Area cancelled

(km²)

Total area released (km²)

APM destroyed

6.21

0

0

6.21

0

 Note: APM=antipersonnel mines. 

Chad reported having released a total of 42.7km² in 2022, in the provinces of Kanem and East Ennedi. Of the reported land release, only 6.21km² cleared in East Ennedi province related to areas known or suspected to be contaminated by landmines. Chad did not report any landmines destroyed in 2022, but reported destroying 3,026 ERW in East Ennedi province.[46]

Five-year landmine clearance: 2018­–2022[47]

Year

Area cleared (km²)

Area reduced (km²)

Area cancelled (km²)

Total area released (km²)

APM destroyed

2022

6.21

0

0

6.21

0

2021

1.45

0

2.26

3.71

15

2020

0.21

0

0.43

0.64

39

2019

0.47

0

4.13

4.60

0

2018

0

0

0

0

N/A

 Note: APM=antipersonnel mines; N/A=not applicable. 

Chad reported releasing 3.71km² of mine-contaminated land in 2021. This included 1.45km² cleared by HI and MAG in Borkou and Ennedi provinces, and 2.26km² cancelled through non-technical survey.[48] 

Chad released more than 8.5km² of land in 2019–2021, mainly in the provinces of Borkou and Ennedi, despite the temporary suspension of activities due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Tibesti remained inaccessible to HI and MAG for security reasons.[49]

In 2019, HI began testing the use of drones to detect landmines in Faya-Largeau, in Borkou province, as part of the Odyssey 2025 project.[50] The use of this technology and its transfer to HCND aimed at supporting Chad to meet its Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 clearance deadline. It enables the safe survey of large areas suspected to be heavily contaminated, and the collection of contamination data for future clearance operations.[51] HI donated three drones to HCND in February 2021 as part of the PRODECO project.[52] In June 2021, HCND reported that two of its staff had been trained to fly drones.[53] In January 2022, HCND began clearance operations supported by drones in North Kanem province, which was recently contaminated by ERW.[54] 

Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 clearance deadline 

Summary of Article 5 clearance deadline extension requests[55]

Original deadline

Extension period

(no. of request)

Current deadline

Status

1  November 2009

1 year and 2 months (1st)

3 years (2nd)

6 years (3rd)

5 years (4th)

1 January 2025

Behind target

 

Chad is unlikely to meet its Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 clearance obligations by January 2025 due to foreseen funding shortfalls beyond 2022, and after the COVID-19 pandemic restricted operations in 2020–2021.[56] In 2022, the majority of land release activities were implemented in provinces contaminated by ERW rather than landmines (Lake and Kanem provinces).[57]

Land release: cluster munition remnants

In 2022, Chad did not report any clearance of cluster munition remnants. Chad was planning to conduct survey of SHA in five departments of Tibesti province.[58]

Five-year cluster munition remnant clearance[59]

Year

Area cleared (km²)

Area reduced (km²)

Area cancelled (km²)

Total area released (km²)

CMR destroyed

2022

0

0

0

0

0

2021

0

0

0

0

2

2020

0.41

0.33

0

0.74

8

2019

4.33

0.03

0

4.36

39

2018

0

0

0

0

0

 Note: CMR=cluster munition remnants.

Chad reported clearance of land contaminated with cluster munition remnants in 2019, for the first time in five years. From September 2020–April 2021, Chad reported releasing a total of 0.74km² of cluster munition contaminated land in Delbo area, West Ennedi province (0.41km² cleared and 0.33km² reduced). In 2020–2021, Chad reported that 14 cluster munition remnants were destroyed, including 11 AO-1SCH submunitions and three containers.[60]

Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 clearance deadline 

Summary of Article 4 clearance deadline extension requests[61]

Original deadline

Extension period

(no. of request)

Current deadline

Status

1 September 2023

13 months (1st)

 

1 October 2024

Likely to request another extension after planned survey in Tibesti

In May 2022, Chad requested an extension to its Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 clearance deadline to conduct survey in Tibesti province.[62] The request was granted by States Parties, setting a new deadline of 1 October 2024. In the period 2022–2024, Chad planned to survey 19.05km² of SHA, contaminated by both cluster munition remnants and landmines, in Tibesti.[63] Chad is likely to submit a second extension request if contamination is confirmed.

Land release: other ordnance

In 2022, Chad reported cancelling five areas contaminated by ERW via non-technical survey in Lake Chad province, totaling 872m², with funding from the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Chad also reported clearing 42.7km² (36.49km² in Kanem province and 6.2km² in East Ennedi province) through Chadian government funding.[64] Chad reported that a total of 7,412 ERW items were destroyed in 2022, including 3,026 in East Ennedi province.[65]

Border clearance

Chad commenced technical and operational exchanges with Sudan in 2019, aimed at clearing the border area.[66]

Residual hazards

HCND has a unit which is responsible for clearing isolated mines and ERW. Its staff received refresher training from FSD in 2020.[67] Until the end of the PRODECO project in 2022, MAG responded to community reports of explosive ordnance in Tibesti and Lake Chad provinces.[68]

Risk education

Highlights from 2022

Risk education activities were implemented by HCND and MAG in Lake Chad, North Kanem, Ouaddaï, and Sila provinces, which were believed or known to be ERW-contaminated. HCND also conducted risk education in East Ennedi, but it is unknown whether this covered mines.[69] MAG reported that messaging on cluster munition remnants was included in its materials.[70]

Management and coordination

Management and coordination overview 

HCND is responsible for accrediting risk education operators and monitoring activities.[71] Risk education is also coordinated through the Child Protection Sub-Cluster, led by UNICEF.[72]

Legislation and standards

Chad did not report updating its national risk education standards during 2022, although it had previously planned to do so.[73]

Strategies and policies

Risk education is included within Chad’s National Mine Action Plan 2020–2024.[74]

Risk education operators

In 2022, two operators in Chad implemented risk education: HCND and MAG. Risk education conducted by HCND was integrated into clearance and survey operations in Lake Chad, North Kanem, and East Ennedi provinces.[75] MAG delivered risk education in 2022 in Ouaddai and Sila provinces, bordering Sudan.[76]

Beneficiary data

Beneficiary data in 2022[77]

Operator

Men

Boys

Women

Girls

Persons with disabilities

HCND

2,088

2,069

1,211

4,033

N/R

MAG

446

4,043

725

2,718

N/R

 Note: N/R=not reported.

In 2022, Chad reported a total of 17,333 risk education beneficiaries, up from 3,030 in 2021.[78] Children represented 74% of beneficiaries in 2022. Half of the beneficiaries were female.[79]

Target groups

Target areas for risk education were North Kanem and Lake Chad provinces, with the primary focus of messages on IEDs and ERW.[80]  

Nomads, animal herders, goldminers, traditional guides, and trackers are considered high-risk groups due to their mobility in desert areas. Mine/ERW incidents involving these groups have been recorded by operators. However, these groups are challenging for operators to reach.[81]

In June 2023, HCND reported that target groups would also include refugees fleeing violence in Sudan, due to their exposure to hazards after crossing the 1,400km-long border.[82]

Delivery methods

In 2022, risk education delivery included interpersonal sessions and the training of community focal points. Risk education was combined with land release, marking, and victim assistance.[83] The Child Protection Sub-Cluster planned to disseminate key messages via radio broadcasts, and in schools and communities.[84] Risk education was not included in the school curriculum.[85]

Victim assistance

Highlights from 2022 

Chad reported progress in data management in 2022, due to the PRODECO project. As of the end of 2022, Chad had recorded a total of 522 mine/ERW survivors, including 257 identified by Catholic Relief and Development (Secours Catholique et Développement, SECADEV).[86]

Chad reported that in 2022 via UNICEF funding, 299 survivors (241 children, 35 women, and 23 men) from Lake Chad province received victim assistance services, including medical care, rehabilitation, and prosthetics and orthotics.[87] This represents a significant fall in beneficiaries from 2021.[88] Chad reported ongoing shortcomings in resources for victim assistance.[89]

Management and coordination

Management and coordination overview 

HCND is responsible for coordinating victim assistance and implementing the National Plan of Action on Victim Assistance.[90]

Legislation and standards

There is no specific legislation or standards for victim assistance in Chad.[91] HI has supported the development of a National Rehabilitation Plan, which is awaiting validation.[92]

Strategies and policies

The National Plan of Action on Victim Assistance was revised in 2018, but expired at the end of 2022. HCND planned to review and update it.[93]

Information management

Chad has a centralized casualty database, but collecting accurate data remained a challenge.[94]

Legal frameworks or policies on disability inclusion

The Ministry for Women, Early Childhood Protection, and National Solidarity is responsible for guaranteeing the rights of persons with disabilities in Chad through its Directorate for the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities, while the Ministry of Public Health is responsible for coordinating physical rehabilitation.[95]

A decree to implement Law 007 on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities was adopted in 2020.[96] The law prohibits discrimination but has not been effectively enforced. No legislation exists to ensure access to public buildings in Chad for persons with disabilities.[97]

A national interministerial Council for Disability was established under the Directorate for the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in 2021, to monitor implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which Chad ratified in October 2018.[98]

Victim assistance providers

In 2022, there were few providers of rehabilitation, psychosocial support, and socio-economic inclusion services. SECADEV manages the Kabalaye Limb-Fitting and Rehabilitation Center (Centre d’appareillage et de rééducation de Kabalaye, CARK), which provides rehabilitation, prosthetics, and post-treatment care in the capital, N’Djamena. The Our Lady of Peace House (Maison Notre Dame de la Paix, MNDP) was also providing physical rehabilitation and socio-economic inclusion services in Moundou, in the southwestern province of Logone.[99] 

In 2022, HI was the only international non-governmental organization (NGO) working in the rehabilitation sector in Chad. HI partnered with CARK, the MNDP, and other socio-economic inclusion stakeholders to develop local capacity on rehabilitation and referrals.[100]

Medical care and rehabilitation

Chad has only two functional rehabilitation centers: CARK and MNDP. Neither received state funding in 2022. Chad lacked trained physiotherapists and prosthetics technicians. Access to rehabilitation services for survivors was limited in areas other than the capital, N’Djamena.[101]

The cost of treatment at CARK was borne by patients when they were not supported by HI.[102] CARK was reported to provide care to mine survivors and other persons with disabilities, and to provide lower-cost prosthetic services to those in greatest need.[103]

Socio-economic and psychosocial inclusion

Two new projects were launched by HI in 2022. The Saha Wa Tarbia project aimed to support social services and inclusive education in northwestern Chad, while a second project included rehabilitation and psychosocial support in Lake Chad, N’Djamena, and Moundou.[104]



[1] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), p. 3. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[2] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, National High Commission for Demining (Haut Commissariat National de Déminage, HCND), 10 May 2022.

[4] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 5; Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), p. 6; Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form G, p. 17. See, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Database; and United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), “Chad: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 12 April 2023, p. 121.

[6] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 3; Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 deadline Extension Request, 30 May 2022, pp. 6–7; “Presentation of Chad,” Convention on Cluster Munitions Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 30 August–2 September 2022, p. 6; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 10 May 2022 and 5 July 2023; Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Workplan, 4 May 2022, pp. 8–9; and Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty Nineteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 15–21 November 2021, p. 3.

 

[7] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 3.

[8] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 10 May 2022 and 5 July 2023; and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Workplan, 4 May 2022, pp. 8–9.

[9] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 3; Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 deadline Extension Request, 30 May 2022, pp. 6–7; and “Presentation of Chad,” Convention on Cluster Munitions Tenth Meeting of States Parties, 30 August–2 September 2022, p. 6.

[10] UNOCHA, “A Chad without mines by 2025?,” 2 April 2021.

[11] Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (Fondation Suisse de Déminage, FSD), “Report on the national workshop on the implementation of Article 5 of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines in Chad,” April 2021, p. 5; and UNOCHA, “N’Djaména hosts a national workshop on the implementation of Article 5 of the Ottawa Convention,”8 April 2021.

[12] UNOCHA, “Chad: Humanitarian Needs Overview 2023,” 15 March 2023, p. 24; and UNOCHA, “Chad: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 12 April 2023,p. 121.

[13] UNOCHA, “A Chad without mines by 2025?,” 2 April 2021; and Humanity & Inclusion (HI), “Odyssey 2025: drones to accelerate humanitarian demining,” undated, pp. 3–4. 

[14] UNOCHA, “A Chad without mines by 2025?,” 2 April 2021.

[15] HI, Fatal Footprint: The Global Human Impact of Cluster Munitions (HI: Brussels, 2006), p. 17; HI, Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (HI: Brussels, 2007), p. 48; Survey Action Center, “Landmine Impact Survey, Republic of Chad,” 2002, p. 59; and ICBL, Human Rights Watch (HRW), and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Mines Action Canada: Ottawa, 2009), p. 56.

[16] Emails from Romain Coupez, Regional Security Manager, MAG, 10 May 2017 and 31 May 2018; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Romain Coupez, Regional Security Manager, MAG, 3 May 2017.

[17] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021; and Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), Form F.

[19] Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form F, pp. 14–16.

[20] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), p. 3; response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 10 May 2022; Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Workplan, 4 May 2022, pp. 8–9; statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty Nineteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 15–21 November 2021, p. 3; and “Chad: clashes resume in Nord Kanem between the army and FACT rebels,” RFI, 28 April 2021.

[21] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), p. 3; response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 10 May 2022; and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Workplan, 4 May 2022, pp. 8–9.

[22] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 4 and 6.

[23] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021; and Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), Form I.

[24] See, ICBL-CMC, “Country Profile: Chad: Mine Ban Policy,” updated 26 September 2019.

[25] International Crisis Group (ICG), “Global Overview: September 2019,” undated; “Chad: 7 killed in a week in Boko Haram attacks,” Le Figaro, 12 September 2019; and Abdulkareem Haruna, “Boko Haram: Military Winning the Lake Chad War Despite Losses – General Irabor,” Premium Times,29 April 2018.

[26] UNOCHA, “Northern Chad continues to be ravaged by mines and explosive remnants of war,” 8 April 2021. 1; and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2017), Form J.

[27] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 6; and Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, p. 18.

[28] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 6.

[29] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 6; and responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021 and 10 May 2022.

[30] Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form H.

[31] HI, Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (Brussels: HI, May 2007), p. 48. Landmine Impact Survey data (2002) showed that the most common activity at the time of each incident was tampering with ERW. Despite ERW incidents in provinces contaminated by unexploded submunitions, any unexploded submunition casualties were not differentiated from other ERW casualties. In 2021, at least four casualties were attributed to ERW in Tibesti province, which is thought to be contaminated by cluster munition remnants and ERW. Further disaggregation by device type was not available. Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), p. 6; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 10 May 2022.

[32] Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, p. 21.

[33] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Article 5 deadline Extension Request (revised), 13 August 2019; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021, 10 May 2022, and 5 July 2023; and Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 deadline Extension Request, 30 May 2022, Annex 1–9.

[34] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021 and 10 May 2022; Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Workplan, 4 May 2022, p. 10; and EU, Emergency Trust Fund for Africa, “PRODECO: humanitarian demining, an innovative and participative approach,” 31 January 2022. PRODECO was based on a consortium with three international mine action operators—HI, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), and FSD—in addition to one Chadian non-governmental organization (NGO), Catholic Relief and Development (Secours Catholique et Développement, SECADEV).

[35] FSD, “Annual Report 2022,” June 2023, pp. 14–15; HI, “Country sheet: Chad,” updated September 2022, p. 5; MAG, “Where we work: Chad,” undated; and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 6.

[36] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 5; and Committee on Article 5, “Preliminary observations on the Implementation of Article 5 by Chad,” Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 5.

[37] Email from Romain Coupez, Regional Security Manager, MAG, 4 July 2018.

[39] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021.

[41] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021 and 10 May 2022; and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Workplan, 4 May 2022, p. 10.

[42] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021 and 10 May 2022; Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Workplan, 4 May 2022, pp. 8–9; and FSD, “Annual Report 2022,” June 2023, pp. 14–15.

[43] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 6.                          

[44] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 4 and 6; and statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 5.

[45] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 4 and 6.

[46] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 3–4 and 6. Due to the lack of geographical and contamination data, it is unclear whether the area reported as cleared in 2022 should be included in land release figures for landmine contamination, although it was reported as such by Chad. Despite the reported land release in 2022, contamination reported by Chad decreased by only 0.64km² compared to 2021.

[47] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Reports (for calendar years 2018–2022).

[48] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), p. 4. In its response to the Monitor questionnaire in May 2022, HCND reported different land release figures for 2021 (1.42km² cleared; 0.75km² reduced through technical survey; and 8.72km² cancelled as a result of database cleaning, missions to verify GPS coordinates, and non-technical survey). Response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 10 May 2022.

[49] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Workplan, 4 May 2022, pp. 7–9; The figures reported by Chad in 2022 exceed those reported by HCND to the Monitor in 2021, and by Chad in its 2019 and 2020 Article 7 reports (indicating that 2.1km² was cleared between 2019 and 2021). Response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 10 May 2022; Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020); and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019).

[53] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021.

[54] “The HCND launches its clearance operations in North Kanem,” Portail de la Renaissance du Tchad, 19 January 2022.

[56] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Reports (for calendar years 2020–2022); response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 10 May 2022; Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Workplan, 4 May 2022, p. 7; statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 5; and Committee on Article 5, “Preliminary observations on the Implementation of Article 5 by Chad,” Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, 19–21 June 2023, p. 5.

[57] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 3–4 and 6.

[58] Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form F, pp. 13–14.

[59] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021 and 10 May 2022; Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), Form F; and Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 deadline Extension Request, 30 May 2022, p. 2.

[60] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 16 May 2022, p. 1; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021 and 10 May 2022; Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Reports (for calendar years 2020–2022), Form F; and Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 deadline Extension Request, 30 May 2022, p. 2.

[64] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 3–4; and statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 6.

[65] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 3–4; statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 6; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 5 July 2023.

[66] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 15 April 2020 and 18 June 2021.

[67] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 15 April 2020 and 18 June 2021.

[68] MAG, “Where we work: Chad,” undated.

[69] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 5.

[70] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Francesca Batault, Programme Officer, Lake Chad Basin, MAG, 13 July 2023.

[71] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 10 May 2022.

[72] UNOCHA, “Chad: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 12 April 2023, p. 121.

[73] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021 and 10 May 2022; and by Jason Lufuluabo Mudingay, Chief of Operations, HI, 13 March 2021; and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 5.

[75] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 4–5.

[76] United States (US) Department of State, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, “To Walk the Earth in Safety: 1 October 2021–30 September 2022,” June 2023, p. 12; and MAG, “Where we work: Chad,” undated.  

[77] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 5.

[78] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 5; and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), p. 6.

[79] Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 5.

[80] UNOCHA, “Chad: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 12 April 2023,p. 121.

[81] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Francesca Batault, Programme Officer, Lake Chad Basin, MAG, 13 July 2023; by Ludovic Kouassi, Community Liaison Manager, MAG, 8 May 2020; and by Jason Lufuluabo Mudingay, Chief of Operations, HI, 13 March 2021.

[82] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 8; and International Organization for Migration (IOM), “Rising Needs at Chad-Sudan Border Amid Funding Gaps,” 27 April 2023.

[83] Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form G, p. 17; response to Monitor questionnaire by Francesca Batault, Programme Officer, Lake Chad Basin, MAG, 13 July 2023; and UNOCHA, “Chad: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 12 April 2023, p. 121.

[84] UNOCHA, “Chad: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 12 April 2023, p. 121. 

[85] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Ludovic Kouassi, Community Liaison Manager, MAG, 8 May 2020; and by Jason Lufuluabo Mudingay, Chief of Operations, HI, 13 March 2021.

[86] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 4.

[87] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 5 July 2023; and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 5. In its Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 report, HCND also reported 49 victim assistance beneficiaries. It is unclear whether these beneficiaries were included in Chad’s Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 reporting. See, Chad Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, p. 21.

[88] In 2021, Chad reported that 768 mine/ERW survivors and persons with disabilities were identified and referred to relevant services, without providing further details. See, statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty Nineteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 15–21 November 2022, p. 4.

[89] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, pp. 11–12; and Committee on Victim Assistance, “Preliminary observations: Chad: Status of Implementation – Victim Assistance,” Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 3.

[90] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021 and 10 May 2022.

[91] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, pp. 11–12; and Committee on Victim Assistance, “Preliminary Observations: Chad: Status of Implementation – Victim Assistance,” Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 3.

[93] Presentation of Chad, Convention on Cluster Munitions Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 30 August–2 September 2022, p. 4; and statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 5.

[94] Committee on Victim Assistance, “Preliminary Observations: Chad: Status of Implementation – Victim Assistance,” Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 3; and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 6.

[95] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Marie-Cécile Tournier, Country Director, HI, 11 June 2021; and by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021.

[96] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Marie-Cécile Tournier, Country Director, HI, 11 June 2021; and by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021.

[97] United States (US) Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, “2022 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad,” March 2023.

[98] Statement of Chad, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 19–21 June 2023, p. 5; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Marie-Cécile Tournier, Country Director, HI, 11 June 2021; and by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021.

[99] HI, “Country sheet: Chad,” updated September 2022, p. 5; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Brahim Djibrim Brahim, Coordinator, HCND, 18 June 2021 and 10 May 2022; and by Marie-Cécile Tournier, Country Director, HI, 11 June 2021; and Chad Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), p. 11.

[100] HI, “Country sheet: Chad,” updated September 2022, pp. 8–10. 

[101] HI, “Chad: portrait of Wilfreed, physiotherapist with HI,” 30 March 2023; and HI, “Country sheet: Chad,” updated September 2022, pp. 8–10.  

[102]Society: the Kabalaye orthopedic and rehabilitation center is on the brink,” Tchadinfos, 26 August 2018; and EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa, “PRODECO: humanitarian demining, an innovative and participative approach,” 31 January 2022.

[104] HI, “Country sheet: Chad,” updated September 2022, p. 5.