Iraq

Impact

Last updated: 17 March 2024

COUNTRY SUMMARY

Iraq is massively contaminated by landmines from the 1980–1988 war with Iran, the 1991 Gulf War, and the 2003 invasion of the country by a United States (US)-led coalition. Iraq’s mined areas include minefields along its borders with Iran and Saudi Arabia. The massive use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) by the Islamic State group, in parts of Iraq that it occupied for several years from 2014, added further contamination with improvised mines.

Cluster munition remnants also contaminate large areas of Iraq, primarily in the center and south of the country, as a legacy of the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 US-led invasion. Cluster munition remnants are also thought to contaminate the northern governorates of Kirkuk and Nineveh, due to US-led coalition airstrikes.[1]

Iraq is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions. The scale of landmine contamination is such that Iraq believes it will not have completed clearance by its Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline of 1 February 2028.[2] Iraq was unable to meet its Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 clearance deadline of 1 November 2023, and submitted a five-year extension request at the Eleventh Meeting of States Parties in September 2023. The request was granted, setting a new deadline of 1 November 2028.[3]

Risk education is conducted by both national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Federal Iraq and the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The primary focus of these efforts since 2015 has been on providing risk education to refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) returning to areas liberated from the Islamic State group.[4]

Iraq is responsible for a significant number of survivors of mines, cluster munitions, and explosive remnants of war (ERW), as well as indirect victims who are also in need. During 2022, Iraq began establishing an interagency national database and referral system for victim assistance.[5]                                         

ASSESSING THE IMPACT

Contamination

     Extent of contamination (as of December 2022)[6]

 

Antipersonnel
landmine

Cluster munition remnant

IED

ERW

Extent of contamination

Massive

Large

N/A

N/A

Reported contamination

1,189.09km2

 

CHA: 1,141.81km²

 

SHA: 47.28km2

189.6km2

 

CHA: 188.46km²

 

SHA: 1.14km²

530.8km2


CHA: 391.48km²

 

SHA: 139.32km2

 

509.03km²

 

CHA: 420.35km²

 

SHA: 88.68km²

Note: IED=improvised explosive device; ERW=explosive remnants of war; CHA=confirmed hazardous area; SHA=suspected hazardous area.

Landmine contamination

Legacy mined areas account for most known antipersonnel mine contamination in Iraq and result from the 1980–1988 war with Iran, the 1991 Gulf War, and the 2003 invasion of the country by a US-led coalition. Barrier minefields also exist along Iraq’s borders with Iran and Saudi Arabia.

The occupation of large areas of Iraq by the Islamic State group for several years from 2014 added extensive contamination by IEDs. A high proportion of these devices are improvised antipersonnel mines, prohibited under the Mine Ban Treaty. Improvised mines were used by the Islamic State to form defensive belts around cities and villages, and around key infrastructure such as factories.[7]

As of the end of 2022, a total of 1,189.09km2 was contaminated with antipersonnel mines in Iraq.  Of this, 976.28kmwas under the mandate of the Directorate for Mine Action (DMA) in Federal Iraq, including 958.99km2 across 353 confirmed hazardous areas (CHAs) and 17.29km2 across 36 suspected hazardous areas (SHAs).[8] A total of 212.81km2 of mine contamination was in territory under the jurisdiction of the Iraqi Kurdistan Mine Action Agency (IKMAA), with 182.82km2 CHA and 29.99km2 SHA across the governorates of Duhok, Erbil, Halabja, and Sulaymaniyah.[9]

Cluster munition remnants contamination

Cluster munition remnants contaminate large areas in the center and south of Iraq, as a legacy of the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 US-led invasion. Some contamination is believed to remain from the 1980–1988 Iraq-Iran War. Contamination is also thought to remain in Kirkuk and Nineveh governorates, as a legacy of US-led coalition airstrikes.[10]

As of the end of 2022, Iraq had 189.6km² of cluster munition remnants contamination (188.46km² CHA and 1.14km² SHA). The reported total increased by 11.46km2 from the end of 2021, due to newly-discovered contamination in surveyed areas. While most contamination is in southern Iraq (174.13km²) under the responsibility of the DMA’s Regional Mine Action Center South (RMAC-South), cluster munition remnants are also found in the central Middle Euphrates region (4.48km²) and further north in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (10.99km²).[11]

Other types of contamination

Iraq is heavily contaminated by ERW across the north, center, and south. As of the end of 2022, it reported 509.03km² of ERW contamination.[12]

An increase in the use of technical survey in the north saw a rise in the total area contaminated by IEDs, despite ongoing clearance. As of the end of 2022, the total area of IED contamination stood at 530.8km2. Federal Iraq accounted for 526.64km² (390.39km² CHA and 136.25km² SHA), while the Kurdistan Region of Iraq accounted for 4.16km² (1.09km² CHA and 3.07km² SHA).[13]

Casualties

As of the end of 2022, the DMA had recorded a total of 34,870 mine/ERW casualties in Iraq since records began. Of this total, 10,476 were killed and 24,394 were injured.[14] In addition, since 1963, IKMAA has recorded a total of 13,565 casualties (10,820 killed and 2,745 injured). It is not clear if these datasets overlap.[15]

Mine/ERW casualties in Iraq have been under-reported, preventing the identification of clear long-term trends. Data collection on casualties remains an ongoing challenge, with both the DMA and IKMAA reportedly having insufficient staff, limited technical expertise, inconsistent reporting forms, and a lack of formal guidelines on data collection and management.[16]

Five-year casualties total: 2018–2022[17]

Year

Injured

Killed

Unknown

Total

2022

105

62

2

169

2021

135

89

0

224

2020

102

54

11

167

2019

101

60

0

161

2018

115

89

0

204

 

     Casualties in 2022[18]

Injured

Killed

Unknown

Total

Change from previous year

105

62

2

169

Decrease from
224 in 2021


Casualty demographics in 2022[19]

Adult

Men

Women

Unknown

71

62

9

53

Children

Boys

Girls

45

38

7

 

Casualties by device type in 2022[20]

APM

IED

CMR

ERW

Unknown mine/ERW

67

3

41

46

12

Note: APM=antipersonnel mine; IED=improvised explosive device; CMR=cluster munition remnant; ERW=explosive remnant of war.

All 169 mine/ERW casualties recorded in Iraq during 2022 were civilians.

Cluster munition casualties

As of the end of 2022, the Monitor had recorded a total of 3,175 cluster munition casualties in Iraq for all time. Of this total, 388 casualties resulted directly from cluster munition strikes (128 killed and 260 injured).[21] It has been estimated that since 1991, there have been between 5,500 and 8,000 casualties from cluster munitions in Iraq—from both strikes and cluster munition remnants.[22]

 COORDINATION

     Summary table[23]

     Mine action

Main Coordination Bodies    

Coordination Mechanism

Strategy/plan

National Mine Action Standards

National Higher Council for Mine Action

Directorate of Mine Action (DMA)

Iraqi Kurdistan Mine Action Agency (IKMAA)

National Forum

National Mine Action Strategic Plan 2022–2028

24 updated National Mine Action Standards (NMAS)

Risk education

Government Coordination Body

Coordination Mechanism

Strategy/plan

National Mine Action Standards

DMA

IKMAA

Risk Education Technical Working Group

Included in National Mine Action Strategic Plan 2022–2028

 

NMAS 12.10
on Explosive Ordnance Risk Education

Victim assistance

Government Coordination Body

Coordination Mechanism

Strategy/plan

National Mine Action Standards

DMA

IKMAA

Ad hoc coordination
by DMA at national level

Disability coordination
by IKMAA in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

National Plan for Disability and People with Special Needs 2022–2024

NMAS 13.10
on Victim Assistance in Mine Action

 

ADDRESSING THE IMPACT

Clearance

Highlights from 2022

During 2022, Iraq released 40.59km2 of land contaminated by antipersonnel mines. Of this total, 3.17km2 was cleared, 24.03km2 was reduced via technical survey, and 13.38km2 was cancelled via non-technical survey and database clean-up. A total of 5,702 antipersonnel mines were destroyed as a result of land release activities, including explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) spot tasks.

In 2022, Iraq released 31.93km2 of land contaminated by IEDs, including improvised mines, with 8.06km2 cleared and 10,577 IEDs destroyed across the governorates of Anbar, Kirkuk, Ninewah, and Salah al-Din.

In southern Iraq and the Middle Euphrates region, 48.26km2 of cluster munition contaminated land was released in 2022, resulting in 4,670 cluster munition remnants destroyed.[24] Iraq also reported destroying a total of 103,875 ERW and 489 antivehicle mines during 2022.[25]

Management and coordination

The DMA oversees mine action activities in Federal Iraq, covering 15 of Iraq’s 19 governates, and implements the policies of the National Higher Council for Mine Action. Three DMA-run regional mine action centers cover the north of Iraq, the Middle Euphrates region, and the south.[26]

RMAC-North, based in Baghdad, covers areas liberated from Islamic State. RMAC-South, based in Basrah, has over 90% of Iraq’s cluster munition contaminated land under its responsibility.[27]

To strengthen national coordination measures, in line with Action 44 of the Oslo Action Plan, the DMA has established a National Forum with international and national stakeholders, which meets biannually.[28]

IKMAA manages mine action in four northern governorates within the Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Dohuk, Erbil, Garmian, and Sulaymaniyah. It reports directly to the office of the prime minister in the Kurdistan Regional Government.

The humanitarian cluster system in Iraq concluded its role at the end of 2022, as Iraq transitioned from the emergency to the development phase.[29]

Legislation and standards

Iraq has no specific national mine action law. However, such legislation has been discussed in the Iraqi State Council.[30] Finalized draft legislation would require ratification in parliament.[31]

Iraq has reviewed and updated 24 national mine action standards since 2021 with support from the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS). In 2022, four standards were updated:[32]

  • 10.40 on Medical Support to Demining Operations;
  • 13.10 on Victim Assistance in Mine Action;
  • 06.10 on Management of Training; and
  • 09.50/1 on Mechanical Mine Clearance/Ground Preparation.

Strategies and policies

The National Mine Action Strategic Plan 2022–2028 supports Iraq’s implementation of clearance obligations. It is the first integrated plan for both DMA and IKMAA. It was prepared with support from the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) and UNMAS.[33]

The DMA develops annual plans based on contamination recorded in the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database, integrated within the national development plan.[34]

Iraq has submitted an updated workplan for 2022–2023, in line with its clearance obligations under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty.[35]

Information management

The DMA and IKMAA both use the IMSMA Next Generation database, with support provided by the Information Management and Mine Action Program (iMMAP).[36] GICHD is assisting Iraq with the migration of data to IMSMA Core, with this process planned to be completed in 2023.[37]

A Technical Working Group on Information Management was established in 2019 and is reported to meet monthly.[38]

Gender and diversity

In 2022, staff of the DMA and IKMAA gender units, and their implementing partners, participated in gender balance and diversity training supported by GICHD.[39]

The DMA gender unit, in cooperation with Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) and IKMAA, held workshops on gender and diversity mainstreaming in Anbar, Baghdad, and Erbil.[40]

UNMAS continued to promote gender mainstreaming and female participation in the mine action sector. As of the end of 2022, women accounted for 25% of technical and support staff among the implementing partners, in a sector previously dominated by men in Iraq.[41]

Mines Advisory Group (MAG) reported employing Yazidi women in its clearance teams in Sinjar, while IKMAA reported that it was planning to establish all-women EOD teams.[42]

Clearance operators

Clearance operators in Iraq during 2022 included UNMAS and six international NGOs: the Danish Refugee Council, the Swiss Foundation for Demining (Fondation Suisse de déminage, FSD), the HALO Trust, Humanity & Inclusion (HI), MAG, and NPA.

The Civil Defense Unit and the Directorate of Combating Explosives, operating under the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Defense Army Engineers, also carried out demining.

International commercial operators also conducted clearance: Aiman Zamin Spadana Co, the Arab Mine Action Consultancy Crew (AMACC), G4S Global, Global Clearance Solutions, Optima, and Tetra Tech. National NGOs and commercial companies are also accredited as operators in Iraq.[43]

Land release: antipersonnel landmines

2022 land release overview: Landmines[44]

Area cleared (km²)

Area reduced (km²)

Area cancelled (km²)

Total area released (km²)

APM destroyed

3.17

24.03

13.38

40.59

5,702

 Note: APM=antipersonnel mines.

In 2022, Iraq released 40.59km2 of land contaminated with antipersonnel mines (3.17km2 cleared, 24.03km2 reduced through technical survey, and 13.38km2 cancelled through non-technical survey and database clean-up). A total of 5,702 antipersonnel landmines were destroyed during 2022.

The DMA released 89 mined areas totaling 26.87km² in the south of Iraq, 12.69km² in the Middle Euphrates, and 0.02km2 in the north of Iraq. IKMAA released 1.01km² in the Kurdistan region.[45]

In 2020, Iraq acknowledged it needed to differentiate and report on IEDs that meet the definition of antipersonnel mines under the Mine Ban Treaty, due to being victim-activated. In January 2021, the DMA convened a technical meeting, with the ministries of defense and interior, to clarify the designation for improvised mines that fall within the treaty’s definition of antipersonnel mines.[46]

Despite these discussions, Iraq did not provide enough information in 2022 to enable the amount of land cleared of improvised antipersonnel mines to be disaggregated from the overall total IED clearance. In Iraq’s Article 7 transparency report for 2022, the DMA reported 16 improvised mines (victim-activated IEDs) among the 8,510 IEDs destroyed. Another 8,012 IEDs were classified as “homemade explosives” and 482 as command-detonated.[47] Yet in 2021, the DMA told the Monitor that some 98% of all IEDs found in Iraq are victim-activated devices.[48]

Five-year landmine clearance: 2018­–2022[49]

Year

Area cleared (km²)

Area reduced (km²)

Area cancelled (km²)

Total area released (km²)

APM destroyed

2022

3.17

24.03

13.38

40.59

5,702

2021

1.32

3.02

3.27

7.61

4,831

2020

0.56

0.65

39.23

40.44

1,691

2019

1.22

5.87

1.50

8.59

11,888

2018

2.02

0.92

15.68

18.62

7,944

 Note: APM=antipersonnel mines.

Since 2017, the priority of the DMA has been to clear areas liberated from the Islamic State group, particularly around infrastructure, to enable IDPs to return home and support the return to stability in these areas.[50] This has resulted in the release of large areas reported by Iraq to be contaminated with IEDs, and fewer areas contaminated with antipersonnel mines.

Land release: IEDs

2022 land release overview: IEDs[51]

Area cleared (km2)

Area reduced (km²)

Area cancelled (km²)

Total area released (km²)

IEDs destroyed

8.06

0.05

23.28

31.39

10,577

 Note: IED=improvised explosive device.

In 2022, a total of 219 areas contaminated with IEDs, totaling 31.39km2, were released in Anbar, Kirkuk, Ninewah, and Salah al-Din governates in Federal Iraq. Of this total, 8.06km2 was cleared, 0.05km2 was reduced through technical survey, and 23.28km2 was cancelled through non-technical survey. A total of 10,577 IEDs were destroyed in 2022.[52]

IKMAA did not report the release of any land contaminated by IEDs during 2022.[53]

Five-year IED clearance: 2018­–2022[54]

Year

Area cleared (km²)

Area reduced (km²)

Area cancelled (km²)

Total area released (km²)

IEDs destroyed

2022

8.06

0.05

23.28

31.39

10,577

2021

9.75

0

93.74

103.49

9,657

2020

7.04

0.38

41.35

48.76

6,287

2019

43.42

0

35.13

78.55

9,299

2018

N/R

N/R

N/R

N/R

N/R

Note: IED=improvised explosive device; N/R=not reported.

In 2022, land release for IED contaminated areas fell by two-thirds from the previous year, largely due to a reduction in the area of land cancelled through non-technical survey. However, the rate of clearance remained similar to the annual rate in 2020–2021, with 8.06km2 cleared. In 2022, for the first time in the five-year period from 2018–2022, the release of antipersonnel mine contaminated land (40.59km2) exceeded the release of IED contaminated land (31.39km2).

Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 clearance deadline

Summary of Article 5 clearance deadline extension request(s)

Original deadline

Extension period

(no. of request)

Current deadline

Status

1 February 2018

10 years (1st)

1 February 2028

Behind target

Iraq requested an extension to its Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 clearance deadline in 2017, and was granted a 10-year extension by States Parties to 1 February 2028. Given the current clearance rate, Iraq is unlikely to meet this deadline. Iraq reported that it requires a higher level of international support and increased clearance capacity in order to meet its Article 5 obligations.[55]

Land release: cluster munition remnants

2022 land release overview: CMR[56]

Area cleared (km²)

Area reduced (km²)

Area cancelled (km²)

Total area released (km²)

CMR destroyed

33.62

2.18

12.46

48.26

4,670

 Note: CMR=cluster munition remnants.

In 2022, Iraq released 48.26km2 of land contaminated with cluster munition remnants. Of this total, 33.62km2 was cleared, while 2.18km2 was reduced through technical survey and 12.46km2 was cancelled via non-technical survey. A total of 4,670 cluster munition remnants were destroyed as a result of land release activities, including EOD spot tasks.

In the south of Iraq, 16.28km2 was cleared, 2.18km2 was reduced, and 8.38km2 was cancelled. In the Middle Euphrates, 17.34km² was cleared while 4.08km2 was cancelled. No release of cluster munition contaminated land was reported in the north of Federal Iraq, or in the Kurdistan region.[57]

Four-year cluster munition remnant clearance[58]

Year

Area cleared (km²)

Area reduced (km²)

Area canceled (km2)

Total area released (km2)

CMR destroyed

2022

33.62

2.18

12.46

48.26

4,670

2021

10.16

0.64

5.83

16.64

8,202

2020

5.67

6.58

1.82

14.07

6,146

2019

6.29

76.92*

83.21

9,996

Note: CMR=cluster munition remnants; N/A=not applicable.

*Land release data for 2019 did not disaggregate the reduced and canceled area.

During 2022, Iraq made significant progress in the release of cluster munition contaminated land, releasing 48.26km2, almost three times the amount released in 2021. Yet the total number of cluster munition remnants destroyed in 2022 was significantly lower than in previous years.

Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 clearance deadline

Summary of Article 4 clearance deadline extension request(s)

Original deadline

Extension period

(no. of request)

Current deadline

Status

1 November 2023

5 years (1st)

1 November 2028

Progress uncertain

  Note: N/A=not applicable.

Under Article 4 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Iraq was obliged to clear and destroy all cluster munition remnants in areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 November 2023. Iraqreported in February 2022 that it would not be able to meet its original deadline.[59] Challenges to completion included ongoing identification of cluster munition remnants contamination through survey, particularly in the south.[60] Iraq submitted an extension request for  a five-year period, which was granted at the Eleventh Meeting of States Parties in September 2023, setting a new clearance deadline of 1 November 2028.[61]

Land release: other ordnance

In 2022, Iraq destroyed 103,875 ERW and 489 antivehicle mines during land release activities.[62]

Clearance of border areas

Although no formal agreement is in place, there was reportedly cooperation between Iraq and Iran in 2022 to clear border minefields resulting from the 1980–1988 Iraq-Iran war.[63]

Risk education

Highlights from 2022

Iraq reported that risk education was delivered to 189,628 people in 2022, including 51,745 men, 59,864 boys, 34,308 women, and 43,711 girls.[64]

UNMAS continued to lead an initiative, in coordination with DMA and the Ministry of Education, to integrate risk education into the school curriculum.[65] As part of this, risk education messaging for schoolchildren was reviewed and updated, pending Ministry of Education approval.[66]

IKMAA trained community wardens to deliver risk education in 2022, in response to an ongoing budget crisis that prevented IKMAA risk education teams from visiting contaminated villages.[67]

Management and coordination

Risk education in Federal Iraq is coordinated by the DMA Risk Education and Media Department, which also hosts the Technical Working Group on Risk Education. The Iraqi Ministry of Education coordinates school-based programs.[68]

In the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, risk education is coordinated by the IKMAA Explosive Ordnance Risk Education (EORE) Directorate.[69]

In 2023, in its updated Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 deadline extension request, Iraq submitted a plan for the distribution of risk education materials, along with a multiyear workplan with a budget for 2024–2039.[70]

Risk education operators

Risk education operators in 2022 included eight international NGOs: the Danish Refugee Council, FSD, the HALO Trust, HI, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), MAG, NPA, and Spirit of Soccer.

Three international commercial companies also conducted risk education activities in Iraq in 2022, as well as national government agencies, national NGOs, and national commercial companies.[71]

Beneficiary data

Iraq reported that risk education was delivered to 189,628 people in 2022, including 51,745 men, 59,864 boys, 34,308 women, and 43,711 girls.[72]

Target groups

The IMSMA database is used to plan risk education activities.[73] However, it has been reported that national level victim data on the IMSMA database is not fully comprehensive, with most operators relying on their own analysis of data to target risk education in their areas of operation.

Since 2019, areas liberated from the Islamic State have been prioritized for risk education to ensure that returning IDPs had awareness of the risk and knowledge on how to stay safe.[74]

Other primary target groups for risk education included children, shepherds, scrap metal collectors (including children), farmers, foragers, and agricultural workers. Accident data showed shepherds were one of most at-risk groups in Ninewa governorate.[75] In the Kurdistan region, the main at-risk groups included herb collectors, picknickers, nomads, and shepherds.[76]

People engaged in the rehabilitation and reopening of schools were also at risk.[77]

Delivery methods

Operators integrated risk education with survey and clearance activities in 2022.

The DMA and the Civil Defense Unit both operated free telephone lines for members of the public to report ordnance, and employed mass media using famous artists and sportspeople to spread risk education messages via TV, radio, text messages, and social media.[78]

The DMA worked alongside the Ministry of Education in 2022 to integrate risk education into the school curriculum for primary school grades 5 and 6. It is also developing plans to train teachers across Iraq in risk education delivery.[79]

UNMAS delivered training to build the capacity of schoolteachers, community focal points, and police officers to provide risk education in Ninewa governorate.[80] In Anbar governorate, UNMAS trained eight religious leaders as community focal points, and risk education was delivered during Friday prayers. UNMAS held direct risk education sessions in Anbar, Basra, and Ninewa. UNMAS also disseminated materials with tailored messages for children and adults. Billboards adapted to varying ages and local contexts were installed in some affected areas, while safety messages were delivered through loudspeakers, including in local languages.[81]

In 2022, the HALO Trust delivered risk education to community members at local football games. In addition, a risk education cartoon was shared on social media by the HALO Trust and by local authorities, while HALO Trust materials were updated to include interactive games, stories, and notebooks. The HALO Trust also provided a training-of-trainers program for its own staff.[82]

FSD, HI, and MAG used Facebook to deliver risk education messages in 2022.[83] IKMAA trained community wardens to deliver risk education messages during safety briefings.[84]

HI and the Baghdad Mine Clearance Organization continued to implement both direct and indirect risk education activities in prioritized villages in Sinjar. HI implemented a project to support scrap metal collectors with vocational training, to develop their skills in areas such as baking, carpentry, and barbering. Some recipients of the training reportedly stopped collecting scrap metal and started working in other occupations, lessening their risk of coming into contact with ordnance.[85]

ICRC worked with ICRC-trained national society volunteers to provide risk education, particularly in areas where shelters were being rebuilt. ICRC billboards reinforced key safety messages.[86]

Victim assistance

Highlights from 2022

In 2022, the DMA finalized and endorsed Iraq’s national standard on mine/ERW victim assistance.[87]

As part of efforts to improve data collection, a meeting between the DMA and relevant government ministries was held in December 2022. It was decided that mine/ERW victim data would be collected nationally using a standardized electronic form.[88]

Medical care, rehabilitation, socio-economic assistance, and psychosocial support was provided in Iraq in 2022, though accessibility remained a challenge, particularly for victims in remote and rural areas.[89] A pilot community-based rehabilitation service was launched in Baghdad governorate.[90]

Management and coordination

The DMA coordinates mine/ERW victim assistance with the Ministry of Health and Environment, and with the Department of Special Needs and Welfare, within the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. The Ministry of Health and Environment is responsible for disability rights, and manages rehabilitation centers.[91] The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs provides services through its Social Welfare, Employment and Loan, and Vocational Training Department.[92] The Department of Special Needs and Welfare oversees policy development.[93] 

IKMAA coordinates victim assistance in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq with the regional Ministry of Health and Environment, as well as other relevant ministries and NGOs.[94]         

The ICRC organized a workshop in 2022 on the National Strategic Framework for Physiotherapy Education in Iraq.[95]

The Commission for the Care of People with Disabilities and Special Needs implements policy on the rights of persons with disabilities. Its membership includes representative groups of mine/ERW survivors, which are able to vote on decisions and attend virtual conferences.[96]

Mine/ERW survivors are represented in victim assistance meetings in central and southern areas of Iraq through the Iraqi Alliance of Disability Organizations (IADO).[97]

Legislation and standards

In January 2023, Iraq became the first country to fully adapt International Mine Action Standard (IMAS) 13.10 on Victim Assistance as a set of national standards, which were developed with the support of HI and adopted by the DMA and IKMAA.[98]

Victim assistance providers

Under the coordination of the DMA and IKMAA, victim assistance is provided by the Ministry of Health and Environment, the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, the Ministry of Youth and Sports, the Iraqi Paralympic Committee, and the Authority for the Care of People with Disabilities and Special Needs. Services are also provided to mine/ERW victims by IADO, the Iraqi Red Crescent Society (IRCS), EMERGENCY, HI, the ICRC, and the World Health Organization (WHO).[99]

Needs assessment

In December 2022, a meeting between the DMA, the Ministry of Health and Environment, and the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, decided that data on mine/ERW victims would be collected using a standardized electronic reporting form.[100]

The DMA reported that it remains difficult to collect data, particularly on injured women and girls, due to the reluctance of victims to register their details; difficulty in accessing registration centers; and the large number of IDP survivors, many lacking the official documents required to register.[101]

Medical care and rehabilitation

In 2022, the Ministry of Health and Environment managed most physical rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops in Iraq, providing training for rehabilitation technicians. The Ministry of Defense manages a physical rehabilitation center in Baghdad with ICRC support.[102]

The Ministry of Health, under the Kurdistan Regional Government, provided emergency and long-term medical care and physical rehabilitation services in the Kurdistan region.[103]

Physical rehabilitation centers in Baghdad, Erbil, Fallujah, Mosul, and Nasiriya received support and training from the ICRC. A new center in Erbil opened in March 2022. The Ninawa physical rehabilitation center moved to new, larger premises with ICRC sup­port.[104]

In Anbar, Basra, and Ninewa, HI provided rehabilitation services, technical support, and training, and facilitated renovation work at some health centers to increase accessibility.[105] EMERGENCY provided physical rehabilitation services in Sulaymaniyah.[106]

IKMAA reported that rehabilitation centers in the Kurdistan region lacked equipment, resulting in mine/ERW survivors traveling to the rehabilitation center in Erbil at higher cost.[107]       

Damage to health facilities due to conflict hampered the delivery of services. Ninewa was the most severely affected governate. Where facilities had been rebuilt, access was sometimes prevented by mine/ERW contamination. The inability of victims to pay medical costs also impeded access.[108]

Socio-economic and psychosocial inclusion

The Ministry of Health and Environment facilitates social and economic integration. The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs offers job training, work placements, and monthly salaries to persons with disabilities.[109] IKMAA, through the Ministry of Health and Environment under the Kurdistan Regional Government, provided income-generation projects in 2022.[110]

In September 2022, UNMAS, in partnership with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), facilitated a workshop for the DMA on psychological support for children.[111] 

IADO engages in advocacy for the rights of persons with disabilities. In cooperation with HI, it is responsible for reporting for the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).

The ICRC physical rehabilitation center in Erbil provided mental health and psychosocial support. Cash assistance was provided to more than 70 people to cover their basic needs, and to start small businesses. The IRCS also provided psychological support and economic inclusion services.[112] HI provided mental health and psychosocial support services in Iraq in 2022.[113]

EMERGENCY worked to improve the accessibility of survivors’ homes. It provided professional and vocational training courses through the rehabilitation center in Sulaymaniyah on metalwork, carpentry, tailoring and shoemaking, leatherwork, plumbing, and electronics. EMERGENCY also helped victims establish small businesses, providing financial and managerial support.[114]  

Recent developments and key points

Iraq continued efforts to develop a national referral mechanism and facilitate access to services for mine/ERW victims. This includes the creation and dissemination of a comprehensive directory of services. Iraq reported that it plans to hold a workshop in 2023 to discuss a draft that was prepared by the Department of Rehabilitation and Prevention of Disability under the Ministry of Health and Environment.[115]

Legal frameworks or policies on disability inclusion

The Law for the Care of Persons with Disabilities and Special Needs (2013) was enacted to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities, including mine/ERW victims, through national policies.[116] It prescribes a monthly cash subsidy, based on disability assessments by a medical committee.[117]

Iraq has a National Disability Plan for 2022–2024, which was prepared with support from the Mine Ban Treaty’s Implementation Support Unit (ISU) and the European Union (EU).[118]

Cross-cutting

Treatment for women and girls was available through specialized female staff in rehabilitation and medical centers.[119]



[1] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 3. See, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Database.

[2] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, Directorate of Mine Action (DMA), 5 May 2023.

[3] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023; and Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 deadline Extension Request (revised), 11 April 2023.

[4] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[5] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 69. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[6] Data for cluster munition remnants: Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form F, p. 26. Data for antipersonnel mines and ERW: Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, pp. 20–23; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023. Figures do not match across the three data sources. In addition, DMA identified a further 448.66km² as “confrontation area.” Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[7] Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), “Urban Operations: Case Studies Report: Iraq and Syria,” 2019, p. 7.

[8] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, pp. 18–19.

[9] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, pp. 20–21.

[10] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 3.

[11] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, p. 26; and responses to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023; and by Haitham F. Lafta, National Focal Point for the Convention on Cluster Munitions and Operations Manager, RMAC-South, 24 February 2022.

[12] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[13] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, pp. 20–21.

[14] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[15] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 6 June 2023.

[16] Sarah Nijholt, “Study on Explosive Hazard Victim Reporting and Data Management Processes in Iraq,” Humanity & Inclusion (HI), 30 April 2019.

[17] Data for 2022: Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, p. 37; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, pp. 64 and 73–74; and Monitor analysis of Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) data for calendar year 2022. Data for 2021: Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form J; Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form H; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Director of Planning and Information and Focal Point for the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC), DMA, 10 March 2022; and by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 2 April 2022; and Monitor media monitoring and analysis of ACLED data for calendar year 2021. Data for 2020: Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), Form J, p. 43. Data for 2019: Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019), Form J, p. 66; and data for 2018: Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2018), Form J, p. 33.

[18] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, p. 37; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 64 and 74; and Monitor media monitoring and analysis of ACLED data for calendar year 2022.

[19] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 17; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 20–21 and 74; response to Monitor questionnaire by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 6 June 2023; and Monitor media monitoring and analysis of ACLED data for calendar year 2022.

[20] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, p. 37; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, pp. 64 and 73–74; Monitor media monitoring and analysis of ACLED data for calendar year 2022.

[21] Initial data from Humanity & Inclusion (HI), Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (Brussels: HI, May 2007), p. 104.

[22] HI, Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (Brussels: HI, May 2007), p. 104; and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) press release, “Cluster Munitions Maim and Kill Iraqis – Every Day,” 10 November 2010.

[23] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, March 2017, p. 24; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form J, p. 59; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form E, p. 58; Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, p. 36; DMA, “Departments,” undated; DMA, “Digital Library,” undated; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 10 March 2022 and 5 May 2023; and statement of Iraq, Mine Ban Treaty Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties, held virtually, 16–20 November 2020.

[24] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form F, pp. 29–30; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[25] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, p. 25; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[27] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Haitham F. Lafta, Head of Operations, RMAC-South, 14 April 2020.

[28] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form J, p. 59.

[29] United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), “Iraq: Programme Report 2022,” 6 June 2023, p. 8.

[30] Rana Ali Hameed, “Consultancy Jurisdiction of the Iraqi State Council: A Comparative Study,” The Journal of Social Sciences Research, Issue 1, 2019, pp. 31–43.

[31] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[32] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[33] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form C, p. 23; Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form J, p. 40; and GICHD, “Iraq: Strategic Planning Collaboration Mission,” 6 July 2021.

[34]  Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[35] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 76.

[36] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[37] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, p. 39.

[38] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019), Form C, p. 35.

[39] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[40] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[41] UNMAS, “Iraq: Programme Report 2022,” 6 June 2023, p. 14.

[42] MAG, “Into the Fire: Focusing on MAG’s work in Iraq,” 15 May 2020; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Khatab Omer Ahmed, Planning Manager, IKMAA, 3 April 2022.

[43] National NGOs: Basra Organization for Mine Clearance, Iraqi Health and Social Care Organization (IHSCO), Iraq Mine and UXO Clearance Organization, Insanyon Organization for Demining, and Shareteah Humanitarian Organization. National commercial operators: Al-Fayhaa, Al-Khebra Company for Demining, Al-Saqar Al-Arabi, Alsiraj Almudhia for Mine Removal, Al-Waha Demining Company, Arabian Gulf Mine Action Company, Eagle Eye, Green Land Company for Demining, and Ta’az Demining. Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[44] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, pp. 24–25; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023. IKMAA reported “electronically cleared areas” but no cancelled areas. The Monitor included the 0.65km2 of “electronically cleared areas” in the total area reported as cancelled.

[45] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, pp. 24–25.

[47] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form G, p. 45.

[48] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Director of Planning and Information and Focal Point for APMBC, DMA, 13 April 2021.

[49] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, pp. 24–25; response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form C, p. 20; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), Form C, pp. 19 and 24; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019), Form C, pp. 23–24; and Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2018), Form D, pp. 24–25.

[50] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Director of Planning and Information and Focal Point APMBC, DMA, 13 April 2021 and 10 March 2022.

[51] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, p. 28; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023. The DMA questionnaire response reported the destruction of 8,510 improvised mines. The Monitor assumes that these mines are included within the 10,577 destroyed IEDs that were reported in Iraq’s Article 7 report.

[52] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, p. 28; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[53] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, pp. 26–27. IKMAA reported to have destroyed 188 “miscellaneous explosive devices.”

[54] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, p. 28; response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form C, p. 22; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), Form C, p. 25; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2019), Form C, pp. 26–28; and Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2018).

[55] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[56] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form F, pp. 29–30; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[57] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form F, pp. 29–30; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[58] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form F, pp. 29–30; response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023; Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form F, pp. 30–31; Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), Form F, pp. 16–17, 27, and 29; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Haitham F. Lafta, Head of Operations, RMAC-South, 14 April 2020.

[59] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Haitham F. Lafta, National Focal Point for the Convention on Cluster Munitions and Operations Manager, RMAC-South, 24 February 2022; and Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form F, p. 32.

[60] Iraq has stated that obtaining accurate information about the strike locations of US forces would help speed-up survey, planning, and clearance. Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Haitham F. Lafta, National Focal Point for the Convention on Cluster Munitions and Operations Manager, RMAC-South, 24 February 2022 and 5 March 2021; and Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), Form J, p. 47.

[61] Convention on Cluster Munitions, “Final report of the Eleventh Meeting of States Parties,” 29 September 2023.

[62] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form C, p. 25; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[63] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[64] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form I, pp. 51 and 61.

[65] UNMAS “Iraq: Programme Report 2022,” 6 June 2023, p. 13.

[66] UNMAS “Iraq: Programme Report 2022,” 6 June 2023, p. 13; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[67] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form I, p. 61.

[68] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[69] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 6 June 2023.

[71] International commercial operators: AMACC, Global Clearance Solutions, and Tetra Tech. National operators: Baghdad Mine Clearance Organization, Bostan, Dar Al-Salam, DMA, IHSCO, IKMAA, Shareteah Humanitarain Organization, Al-Khebra Company for Demining, Alsiraj Almudhia for Mine Removal, Al-Waha, Eagle Eye, and Ta’az Demining. Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023, and by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 6 June 2023.

[72] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form I, pp. 51 and 61.

[73] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021) Form I, p. 46; and response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[74] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Head of Information Management Department, DMA, 5 May 2023.

[75] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Alexandra Letcher, Community Liaison Manager Team Leader, MAG, 6 April 2022.

[76] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 6 June 2023.

[77] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Tim Marsella and Andrea Lazzaro, Programme Officers, HALO Trust, 7 April 2022.

[78] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form I, pp. 57–58.

[79] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form I, pp. 57–58; response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Director of Planning and Information and Focal Point for APMBC, DMA, 10 March 2022; and email from Ahmed Al Zubaidi, Director, IHSCO, 15 August 2022.

[80] UNMAS, “Iraq: Programme Report 2022,” 6 June 2023, p. 12.

[81] UNMAS, “Iraq: Programme Report 2022,” 6 June 2023, p. 12.

[82] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Andrea Lazzaro, Programme Officer, HALO Trust, 24 June 2023.

[83] FSD, “Annual Report 2022,” undated, p. 19; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Alexandra Letcher, Community Liaison Manager Team Leader, MAG, 14 March 2021 and 6 April 2022; by Goran Knezevic, Risk Education Technical Coordinator, HI, 2 March 2021; by Sofia Cogollos, Armed Violence Reduction Specialist, HI, 8 April 2022; and by Ismaeel Ahmad Saeed, National Operations Manager, FSD, 23 March 2022.

[84] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 6 June 2023.

[85] UNMAS, “Iraq: Programme Report 2022,” 6 June 2023, p. 12.

[86] ICRC, “Annual Report 2022,” 27 June 2023, p. 441.

[87] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, pp. 38 and 40.

[88] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form H, p. 40; and Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 69.

[89] HI, “No safe recovery: The impact of Explosive Ordnance contamination on affected populations in Iraq,” October 2021, p. 8; and Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 73.

[90] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 70.

[91] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 66; and Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, pp. 36 and 38.

[92] The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs provides compensation under Law No. 20 of 2009, “Compensating the Victims of Military Operations, Military Mistakes and Terrorist Actions.”

[93] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 66; and Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, pp. 36 and 38.

[94] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 6 June 2023.

[96] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Alaa Fadhil, Head of Victim Assistance Department, DMA, 13 April 2021; and by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Director of Planning and Information, DMA, 10 March 2022.

[98] HI, “Towards an effective implementation of the Lausanne Action Plan: operationalizing International Mine Action Standard (IMAS) 13.10 on Victim Assistance in Mine Action: the case of Iraq,” side event, Convention on Cluster Munitions Tenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 12 September 2023.

[99] Email from Muwafaq Al-Khafaji, IADO, 19 April 2018; EMERGENCY, “Sulaymaniyah Rehabilitation and Social Reintegration Centre,” undated; EMERGENCY “War Surgery in Erbil,” undated; HI, “Country Card: Iraq 2022,” September 2022, pp. 6–7; ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme: 2022 Annual Report,” 1 May 2023, p. 42; WHO, “Iraq: Annual Report 2022,” undated; Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, pp. 64–75; Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, pp. 36–40; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Alaa Fadhil, Head of Victim Assistance Department, DMA, 13 April 2021; and by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 6 June 2023.

[100] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form H, p. 40; and Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 69.

[101] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ahmed Al-Jasim, Director of Planning and Information, DMA, 10 March 2022.

[102] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 64.

[103] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, pp. 64–75; Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, pp. 36–40; responses to Monitor questionnaire by Alaa Fadhil, Head of Victim Assistance Department, DMA, 13 April 2021; and by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 6 June 2023.

[105] HI, “Country Card: Iraq 2022,” September 2022, pp. 6–7.

[107] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 73.

[109] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 65.

[110] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 75.

[111] UNMAS, “Iraq: Programme Report 2022,” 6 June 2023, p. 18.

[113] HI, “Country Card: Iraq 2022,” September 2022, pp. 6–7.

[114] Iraq Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form H, pp. 38 and 40.

[115] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J, p. 70.

[116] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form J, p. 51.

[117] Iraq Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2021), Form J, p. 52; and US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, “2022 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Iraq,” February 2023, p. 68.

[118] Statement of Iraq, Mine Ban Treaty Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 18 November 2020.

[119] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Mudhafar Aziz Hamad, Director of Risk Education and Victim Assistance, IKMAA, 15 March 2022.