Niger

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 19 June 2019

Summary: State Party Niger was among the first 30 ratifications to trigger the convention’s entry into force on 1 August 2010. Niger has participated in meetings of the convention, most recently in September 2017. It has elaborated its views on certain important issues related to interpretation and implementation of the convention.

Niger provided an initial transparency report for the convention in June 2017, confirming that it has never produced cluster munitions and does not possess any stocks, including for research and training. Niger has never used or transferred cluster munitions.

Policy

The Republic of Niger signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008 and ratified on 2 June 2009. It was among the first 30 ratifications that triggered the convention’s entry into force on 1 August 2010.

Niger has not adopted any national implementing legislation for the convention. [1]

Niger submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report for the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 8 June 2017. [2] As of 25 June 2019, it had not provided an annual updated report for calendar year 2018.

Niger participated in the Oslo Process that produced the convention and supported a comprehensive treaty without exception. [3]

Niger has participated in every meeting of the convention, except the Eighth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in September 2018. [4]

In December 2018, Niger voted in favor of a United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution urging states to join the Convention on Cluster Munitions “as soon as possible.” [5]

Niger has expressed regret at the use of cluster munitions. [6]

Niger has elaborated its views on certain important issues related to interpretation and implementation of the convention. An official informed the Monitor in 2013 that Niger considered transit and foreign stockpiling of cluster munitions on the territory of a State Party to be prohibited under the convention. Similarly, Niger considers assistance during joint military operations with states not party that may use cluster munitions and investment in the production of cluster munitions to be banned by the convention. [7]

Niger is party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is also party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

Niger reported in 2017 that it has never produced cluster munitions and does not possess any stocks, including for research and training purposes. [8] Niger has stated it has never transferred or used cluster munitions. [9]



 [1] In 2017, Niger reported that “pas encore établi” or “not yet established” under national implementation measures for the convention. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form A, 8 June 2017.

 [2] The report covers the period from 1 January 2011 to 31 May 2017. It was originally due by 28 January 2011.

 [3] For details on Niger’s cluster munition policy and practice through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 133–134.

 [4] It also attended the convention’s First Review Conference in 2015, intersessional meetings in 2012–2015, and regional workshops on the convention.

 [5] “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 73/54, 5 December 2018. It voted in favor of the UNGA resolution in 2015 and 2016, but was absent from the vote in 2017.

 [6] Statement of Niger, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fifth Meeting of States Parties, San Jose, 3 September 2014. Notes by Human Rights Watch.

 [7] Monitor meeting with Allassan Fousseini, CNCCAI, in Geneva, 28 May 2013.

 [8] The Article 7 report contains the following statements: “Le Niger n a pas de stock d’armes à sous munitions,” and “Niger ne produit pas des armes à sous munitions.” Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Forms B, C, D, and E, 8 June 2017.

 [9] Letter No. 001581 from Aïchatou Mindaoudou Souleymane, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Cooperation and African Integration, 3 March 2009.


Impact

Last updated: 07 November 2018

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Treaty Status | Management & Coordination | Impact (contamination & casualties) | Addressing the Impact (land release, risk education, victim assistance)

Country summary

The extent of remaining antipersonnel mine contamination in the Republic of Niger is unclear. In 2020, Niger reported that one mined area, covering less than 0.2km2, was identified next to Madama military base in the northeast of the country. While in recent years, there have been reports of contamination and casualties due to improvised mines (victim-activated improvised explosive devices, IEDs) in western Niger. However, as of end 2020, Niger has yet to clarify whether those reports involved antipersonnel mines.

Historically, from 2002 to 2006, Niger consistently reported the existence of mined areas in the country. However, at the June 2008 Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Niger declared that there were no remaining areas suspected to contain antipersonnel mines. Nonetheless, in May 2012, and more than two years after the expiry of its original clearance deadline, Niger informed States Parties that at least one mined area contained antipersonnel mines in Madama and five areas were suspected of contamination in the Agadez region.[1] There are differing reports of the extent of land cleared from 2014 to 2016, and no clearance was conducted between 2016 and the first half of 2019. Niger has submitted four requests to extend its mine clearance deadline, the most recent of which was submitted in 2020 and requested a four-year extension period until 31 December 2024.

2019 saw a sharp increase in the number of mine/ explosive remnants of war (ERW) casualties, particularly in the regions of Diffa and Tillabéry. The majority of incidents recorded in 2019 were caused by improvised mines.

The security situation has continued to deteriorate in recent years, in particular in the border areas with Burkina Faso, Mali, and Nigeria, and attacks on humanitarian and health workers were reported in 2019. A state of emergency was in force in affected areas. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) supported the surgical treatment and physical rehabilitation of persons injured by mines/ERW. There has been no victim assistance program in the country since 2015.

Treaty status

Treaty status overview

Mine Ban Treaty

State Party

Article 5 clearance deadline: 31 December 2024 (fourth extension)

Convention on Cluster Munitions

State Party

Article 4 clearance deadline: 1 August 2020

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

State Party

 

In May 2020, Niger submitted a fourth Article 5 extension request for a period of four years until 31 December 2024.[2] In its request, Niger did not provide a detailed annual workplan, clearance outputs, or milestones.

The reason provided for not meeting its third deadline of 31 December 2020 was the lack of international assistance.[3] Both the Danish Demining Group (DDG) and Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) reportedly offered to help the country to complete clearance, but Niger did not respond to either organization’s offer. As in its previous extension requests, Niger noted desert environment, insecurity, and a lack of funding as challenges for the implementation of its clearance obligations, along with the remote location of contamination and the need for a weekly military escort to carry out demining.[4]

Under its fourth clearance deadline extension request, Niger has stated that some US$1.1 million would be needed to fulfil its remaining Article 5 obligations, including $400,000 from the national budget and $700,000 to be mobilized from external donors.[5]

Management and coordination

Mine action management and coordination

Mine action management and coordination overview

National mine action management actors

National Commission for the Collection and Control of Illicit Weapons (Commission Nationale pour la Collecte et le Contrôle des Armes Illicites, CNCCAI)

Mine action strategic and operational plans

None

Mine action standards

National Mine Action Standards (NMAS) drafted in 2015, but their status is unknown

 

The national mine action program is managed by the National Commission for the Collection and Control of Illicit Weapons (Commission Nationale pour la Collecte et le Contrôle des Armes Illicites, CNCCAI), which reports directly to the president. All demining has been carried out by Niger’s Armed Forces.

A mine action cluster was set up in 2018 with the participation of the United Nations (UN) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).[6]

The CNCCAI coordinates a consultation framework for physical security and weapons and ammunitions management actors, which holds quarterly meetings.[7]

Legislation and standards

Niger reported that, as of November 2015, it had drafted national mine action standards (NMAS) in accordance with the International Mine Action Standards (IMAS). No information has been provided on whether the draft NMAS have been finalized and adopted.

Risk education management and coordination

Risk education was included in Niger’s 2009–2013 Mine Action Plan. Niger was planning to develop and implement a communication plan, train mine risk educators, and monitor and evaluate the implementation of the communication strategy.[8]

In its Article 7 report submitted in 2012, Niger indicated that the CNCCAI coordinated risk education activities.[9] Niger has not reported on risk education activities since 2012.

Victim assistance management and coordination

Victim assistance management and coordination overview[10]

Government focal points

CNCCAI (but its role largely limited to advocacy within the government on behalf of survivors due to a lack of funds)

Coordination mechanisms

Victim assistance is included within the mine action cluster

Coordination regularity and outcomes

The mine action cluster meets according to needs

 

Plans/strategies

None

Disability sector integration

 

The Ministry of Population is responsible for disability issues, and the Ministry of Public Health is responsible for physical rehabilitation services

Survivor inclusion and participation

None

 

Laws and policies

Persons with disabilities were eligible for free healthcare. Legislation mandates new government buildings to be accessible to persons with disabilities, but the law was not enforced. There were no specific regulations for physical accessibility for persons with disabilities to buildings, transportation, or education.[11] Humanity & Inclusion (HI) found that physical accessibility of infrastructures remained an issue in Diffa and Tillabéry regions.[12]

There is a requirement of a 5% employment quota of persons with disabilities in the public and private sectors.[13] Social stigma regarding disabilities however remained strong and a high percentage of persons with disabilities were forced into begging by their families.[14]

Niger stated that a law on equal opportunities was needed in order to address the gaps in the protection of persons with disabilities, and that such a law was in the process of being adopted as of February 2019.[15] Niger did not report any progress on the adoption of the law.

Impact

Contamination

Contamination overview[16]

Landmines

178,000m²

Extent of contamination: Small

 

Landmine contamination

Niger is contaminated with antivehicle mines and antipersonnel mines as a legacy of colonial occupation and as a result of insurgency, particularly in the north of the country. The extent of antipersonnel mine contamination is unclear although one mined area has been identified next to the Madama military base in the northeast of the country and covering less than 0.2km2. Niger has previously reported clearing some areas adjacent to the Madama military base.

A further five areas were previously identified as suspected hazardous areas in the Agadez region, but Niger reported that non-technical and technical survey conducted in May 2014 had removed the suspicion of the presence of antipersonnel mines in these areas.[17]

Niger’s contamination includes other areas that contain only antivehicle mines, which are the result of rebellion in 1990–2000 as well as fighting in 2007 between the Nigerien army and a non-state armed group (NSAG), the Nigerien Justice Movement (Mouvement des Nigériens pour la Justice), and some splinter factions.

In its most recent Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report, covering the period from January 2013 to April 2018, Niger reported that the region of Diffa has become difficult to operate in for humanitarian agencies because of the fear of mines, ERW, and improvised devices.[18] Tillabéry and Tahoua regions in western Niger were also affected by new contamination from a range of devices, including antivehicle mines, command-detonated devices, and pressure plate victim-operated IEDs.[19] In July 2020, Niger stated that improvised mines (victim-activated IEDs) were being used by NSAG in western Niger, and that it would report on this new contamination in its next Article 7 report.[20]

Casualties

Casualties overview[21]

Casualties

All known mine/ERW casualties (between 1999 and 2019)

506 (147 killed, 342 injured; and 17 survival outcome unknown)

 

Casualties in 2019

Annual total

54 (increase from 12 in 2018)

Survival outcome

29 killed; 25 injured

Device type causing casualties

29 improvised mine; 18 unspecified mine; 6 mine/ERW; 1 ERW

Civilian status

25 civilians; 28 militaries; 1 unknown

Age and gender

30 adults (all men)

4 children (gender unknown)

20 age and gender unknown

 

Casualties in 2019: details

In 2019, the Monitor identified 54 mine/ERW casualties in Niger, a sharp increase from previous years: in 2015 eight casualties were reported, 15 in 2016, 14 in 2017, and 12 in 2018. The vast majority of incidents in 2019 were caused by improvised mines. The Diffa region, bordering Nigeria, and the Tillabéry region, bordering Burkina Faso and Mali, were the most affected.

Mine casualties recorded since 2015 were associated with intensifying activities by NSAG and indicated mines or improvised mines (victim-activated IEDs) as the cause.

From 1999 to 2019, The Monitor has recorded a total of 506 mine/ERW casualties, including 147 killed, 342 injured and 17 for whom the survival outcome was not known. As last reported in April 2014, the CNCCAI had reported a total of 400 mine/ERW casualties in Niger between 2007 and April 2014: 108 killed, 287 injured, five with unknown survival outcome.[22]

Addressing the impact

Mine action

Operators and service providers

Clearance operators

National

Niger Armed Forces

 

Clearance

Land release overview[23]

Landmine clearance in 2019

0.01km²

Ordnance destroyed in 2019

208 antipersonnel mines

Progress

Unclear. Niger did not provide a work plan for 2021–2024 period in its fourth extension request; the Mine Ban Treaty Committee on Article 5 Implementation requested Niger to submit a detailed work plan containing annual milestones by 30 April 2021

 

Land release: landmines

Niger reported clearance of 18,000m² through manual excavation in the area adjacent to the Madama military base in 2016–2020. A total of 323 antipersonnel mines were destroyed.[24] Clearance operations only took place between July 2019 and February 2020. No clearance was conducted between 2016 and the first half of 2019.[25]

It is unclear how much land was cleared in Madama from 2014 to 2016 with reports ranging from 19,697m2 to full clearance of 39,304m2.[26] During NPA’s monitoring mission in December 2017 reports of clearance were ranging from 29,000 m2 to 39,304m2.[27]

Risk education

Operators and service providers

Humanity & Inclusion (HI) reported conducting awareness-raising activities for civilian populations on the risks posed by ERW, small arms and light weapons and their ammunition in the Diffa region.[28]

In 2012, Niger reported that the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Geneva Call, HI and other stakeholders participated in developing a communication strategy on the risk posed by mines/ERW and conducted behavior change communication programs. With their support, the CNCCAI produced awareness-raising materials.[29] Niger has not provided an update on risk education activities since 2012.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) was planning to launch in 2020 risk education activities and training in Diffa, Tahoua, and Tillabéry, in collaboration with CNCCAI and NGOs, including Concern Worldwide, Cooperazione Internationale (COOPI), and Plan International.[30]

Victim assistance

Victim assistance providers and activities

Victim assistance operators[31]

Type of organization

Name of organization

Type of activity

Governmental

Ministry of Population, Gender and Child Protection

Responsible for disability issues

Ministry of Health

Responsible for physical rehabilitation services

National

Humanity & Inclusion (HI)

Support to organization of persons with disabilities; promotion of inclusive education; inclusion of persons with disabilities in humanitarian responses and development initiatives

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

Support to health facilities; first-aid training; capacity-building of physical rehabilitation and support to physical rehabilitation services and assistive devices; support to organizations of persons with disabilities

 

Major developments in 2019

Niger has reported that there has been no victim assistance program in the country since 2015.[32] The security situation remained a concern, particularly in the border areas with Burkina Faso, Mali, and Nigeria.[33] The Diffa and Tillabéry regions have been the most affected by the deteriorating security situation. Attacks on health workers were reported in 2019 in both regions.[34]

Medical care and rehabilitation

Since January 2018, HI has worked on advancing the inclusion of persons with disabilities in humanitarian responses and development initiatives.[35]

In 2019, the ICRC supported two hospitals in Niamey, one in Diffa (until May 2019), and one in Tillabéry. These hospitals treated people injured along Niger’s borders with Mali and Nigeria.

Persons with disabilities received free physical rehabilitation services and assistive devices at two ICRC-supported centers in Niamey and Zinder. For a limited time in 2019, the ICRC run a mobile prosthetics clinic in Tillabéry.[36]

ICRC supported the provision of supplies and equipment to health facilities, including to one hospital in Agadez. It also provided first-aid training, free physical rehabilitation, transportation of patients with disabilities to access physical rehabilitation services, as well as capacity-building of physical rehabilitation personnel.[37]

Socio-economic and psychosocial inclusion

Persons with disabilities in Agadez, Diffa, and Tillabéry received funding and training from the ICRC to start livelihoods or set up small businesses.[38] The ICRC also provided support to organizations of persons with disabilities and social inclusion through support to the Paralympic committee.[39]

HI worked in the promotion of the inclusion of children with disabilities in Niger’s education system, through a West African regional project that also includes Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo[40] HI provided support to the Nigerien Federation of Persons with Disabilities as well as local authorities in Niamey, Maradi, and Tahoua to promote inclusive development processes.[41]

 


[1] Niger Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for the period from January 2009 to December 2011), Form C, p. 4; and Analysis of Niger’s Third Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 25 October 2016, p. 3.

[3] Ibid., p. 5.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid., p. 14.

[6] Interview with Allassan Fousseini, Deputy Permanent Secretary, CNCCAI, Geneva, 27 November 2018; and Response to Monitor questionnaire by Kambiré Sanzan, Country Director, Humanity & Inclusion (HI), 9 April 2019.

[7] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Kambiré Sanzan, Country Director, HI, 9 April 2019.

[8] CNCCAI, “2009-2013 Mine Action Plan,” undated.

[9] Niger Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for the period from January 2009 to December 2011), Form I.

[10] Interview with Allassan Fousseini, Deputy Permanent Secretary, CNCCAI, Geneva, 27 November 2018; and Response to Monitor questionnaire by Kambiré Sanzan, Country Director, Humanity and Inclusion, 9 April 2019. ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programme (PRP), “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, August 2015, p. 41; and Nigerien Federation of Persons with Disabilities, “Alternative report of the Nigerien Federation of Persons with Disabilities relating to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities,” February 2018.

[11] United States (US) Department of State, Bureau of Democracy Human Rights, and Labor, “2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Niger,” 11 March 2020.

[13] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), “The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities examines Niger report,” 13 March 2019; and US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy Human Rights, and Labor, “2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Niger,” 11 March 2020.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), “List of issues in relation to the initial report of the Niger, Addendum, Replies to the list of issues,” 12 February 2019, para. 5; and OHCHR, “The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities examines Niger report,” 13 March 2019.

[16] Niger Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 17 March 2020, p. 5.

[17] Niger Mine Ban Treaty Third Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 15 March 2016, p. 6.

[18] Niger Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (from 2013 to April 2018), Annex I, p. 17.

[19] Armed Conflict Location and Event Data project (ACLED), “Explosive Developments: The Growing Threat of IEDs in Western Niger,” 19 June 2019, p. 4.

[20] Statement of Niger, Individualised Approach meeting on Niger, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings (virtual), 1 July 2020.

[21] Unless otherwise indicated, casualty data for 2019 is based on: Monitor media monitoring from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019; email from Lionel Pechera, Programme Coordinator, UNMAS Nigeria, 29 September 2020; and Monitor analysis of ACLED data for calendar year 2019. Approved citation: Clionadh Raleigh, Andrew Linke, Håvard Hegre, and Joakim Karlsen, “Introducing ACLED-Armed Conflict Location and Event Data,” Journal of Peace Research, Issue 47(5), 2010, pp. 651–660.

[22] Interview with Mamadou Youssoufa Maiga, CNCCAI, and Issoufou Garba, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, in Geneva, 1 April 2014; and email from Allassan Fousseini, CNCCAI, 7 June 2013.

[23] Niger reported clearing almost 11,500m2 between 1 July and 29 December 2019. Niger Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 17 March 2020, pp. 22–24.

[24] Statement of Niger, Mine Ban Treaty Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties, 17 November 2020; and Niger Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 17 March 2020, p. 8.

[25] Niger Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 17 March 2020, pp. 22–24.

[26] Analysis of Niger’s Third Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 25 October 2016, p. 3; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (from 2013 to April 2018).

[27] Email from Jean-Denis Larsen, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Country Director, NPA, 19 July 2017.

[28] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Kambiré Sanzan, Country Director, HI, 9 April 2019.

[29] Niger Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (2009–2011), Form I.

[30] Risk education Strategic Monitoring Questions data for 2019, provided by Hugues Laurenge, Child Protection Specialist, UNICEF, 2 June 2020.

[31] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Kambiré Sanzan, Country Director, HI, 9 April 2019: and ICRC, “Annual Report 2019,” June 2020, p. 207.

[32] Interview with Allassan Fousseini, Deputy Permanent Secretary, CNCCAI, Geneva, 27 November 2018.

[33] Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), “Annual Report 2019,” 26 September 2020, p. 102.

[34] ICRC, “Annual Report 2019,” June 2020, p. 205.

[35] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Kambiré Sanzan, Country Director, HI, 9 April 2019.

[36] ICRC, “Annual Report 2019,” June 2020, pp. 205 and 207.

[37] Ibid. p. 207; and ICRC, “ Physical Rehabilitation Programme: 2019 Annual Report,” June 2020, p. 23. and response to Monitor questionnaire by Kambiré Sanzan, Country Director, HI, 9 April 2019.

[38] ICRC, “Annual Report 2019,” June 2020, p. 205.

[39] Ibid., p. 207.

[40] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Kambiré Sanzan, Country Director, HI, 9 April 2019.

[41] Ibid.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 16 November 2021

Policy

The Republic of Niger signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997 and ratified on 23 March 1999, becoming a State Party on 1 September 1999. National implementation legislation for the treaty, Law 2004-044, entered into force on 15 September 2004.[1]

Niger submits Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 transparency reports infrequently, most recently in June 2018.[2] Previously, Niger last submitted an annual Article 7 report in November 2012.

Niger has attended every Meeting of States Parties since 2011, and most intersessional meetings. During the treaty’s Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties, held virtually in November 2020, Niger received a third Article 5 clearance deadline extension, until 31 December 2024.[3]

Niger is party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Niger is also party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II on landmines. However, it is not party to CCW Protocol V on explosive remnants of war (ERW).

Production, transfer, stockpile destruction, and use

Niger has never produced or exported antipersonnel landmines. In April 2003, Niger reported that it had destroyed its entire stock of 48 antipersonnel mines.[4] Niger did not retain any antipersonnel mines for training or research purposes.[5]

Non-state armed groups (NSAGs) have occasionally used improvised antipersonnel mines in the east and west of Niger, resulting in civilian casualties in 2020 and 2021. In July 2021, near the border with Chad and Nigeria, a civilian was injured by a victim-activated device, placed by either Boko Haram or Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP). In April 2021, near the border with Burkina Faso, one civilian was killed and another injured by a victim-activated device, allegedly laid by Jama'a Nusrat ul-Islam wa al-Muslimin (JNIM). Use of improvised antivehicle mines by NSAGs in Niger has also been reported.[6]

Previously, from 2007 to 2009, an armed insurgency took place in the north of Niger involving the Touareg NSAG and the Niger Justice Movement (Mouvement des Nigériens pour la Justice, MNJ). In late 2009, MNJ suffered a major split, with many of its leaders forming a new armed group, the Nigerian Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Nigérien, FPN), which negotiated an end to the conflict with the government. Niger stated on several occasions that the rebels had not used antipersonnel mines.[7] MNJ representatives also denied any use.[8] A media report in October 2009 stated that FPN handed over some antivehicle mines during official ceremonies, to reaffirm their commitment to the peace process.[9] In 2008 and 2009, Niger reported collecting and destroying antipersonnel mines belonging to other NSAGs.[10] In March 2010, a representative of the national mine action authority in Niger told the Monitor that all antipersonnel and antivehicle mines previously seized or discovered had been destroyed.[11]



[1] Niger Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 26 May 2005, Form A. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database. According to Article 13 of Law 2004-044, use, production, stockpiling, or transfer of antipersonnel mines can be punished with a prison term of between 10 and 20 years, as well as a fine of XOF1million–3 million (US$2,170–$6,510). Average exchange rate for 2009: XOF1=US$0.00217. Oanda, www.oanda.com. Article 16 of the law directs that the National Commission for the Collection and Control of Illicit Weapons (Commission Nationale pour la Collecte et le Contrôle des Armes Illicites, CNCCAI) is responsible for ensuring the law’s application.

[2] Niger Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, June 2018. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[3] At the June 2017 intersessional meetings, Niger announced the discovery of a second minefield adjacent to the first, covering 196,523m2. At the Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties in November 2018, Niger announced that it had not been able to make any progress in demining due to a lack of funding, and stated that it would have to submit a fourth extension request. See, Niger Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 28 May 2020; and Statement of Niger, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 27 November 2018.

[4] Niger Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 4 April 2003, Form G. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database. Previously, Niger reported that it had no stockpile of antipersonnel mines, including for training purposes. See, ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2002: Toward a Mine-Free World (New York: Human Rights Watch, August 2002), pp. 384–385.

[5] In its earlier Article 7 reports, Niger indicated that it was retaining for training purposes 949 antivehicle mines and 146 French “éclairant” (flare) mines. These are not considered antipersonnel mines under the Mine Ban Treaty. In its Article 7 report submitted on 26 May 2009, Niger reported only the 146 flare mines as retained, and that none of the flares contained explosives. Niger Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 29 June 2006, Form D; and Niger Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 26 May 2009. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[6] Both incidents are from Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED) Database. See, Clionadh Raleigh, Andrew Linke, Håvard Hegre, and Joakim Karlsen, “Introducing ACLED-Armed Conflict Location and Event Data,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 47, Issue 5, 28 September 2010, pp. 651–660; and ACLED, “Explosive Developments: The Growing Threat of IEDs in Western Niger,” 19 June 2019.

[7] In November 2008, Niger told the Ninth Meeting of States Parties that insurgents had not used antipersonnel mines, but had used antivehicle mines, causing both military and civilian casualties. It noted that while a previous Article 7 report had listed some suspected mined areas, subsequent investigations by the authorities found no use of antipersonnel mines. Niger confirmed again in May 2009 that no antipersonnel mines had been used by the rebels, but said it could guarantee that they will not be used as the conflict had not ended. See, ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2009: Toward a Mine-Free World (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, October 2009), p. 589.

[8] See, ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2008: Toward a Mine-Free World (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, October 2008), p. 559; and Geneva Call, “Annual Report 2008,” undated, p. 13.

[9] Mohamed Madou and Addine Ag Algalass, “Cérémonie officielle de remise d’armes à Agadez: D’importantes quantités d’armes et de munitions remises aux autorités” (“Official ceremony of handing over of weapons in Agadez: Large quantities of arms and ammunition handed over to authorities”), Le Sahel, 13 October 2009.

[10] See, ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2009: Toward a Mine-Free World (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, October 2009), pp. 588–589; and ICBL, Landmine Monitor 2010 (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, October 2010). The mines reportedly came from two sources. Media reports said that in July 2008 Niger discovered over 1,000 abandoned mines on the border with Chad. The mines were believed to have been lifted from minefields by smugglers for resale. Others were recovered through a government-initiated program to buy mines and other weapons from traffickers to prevent them from falling into the hands of rebels. Niger said in May 2009 that the program had led to the recovery of many mines, all of which had been destroyed, but the program was halted as it actually increased the flow of arms into the country. The head of CNCCAI told the Monitor in May 2009 that the mines acquired were old mines that had been removed from the ground, and were believed to have come from Chad. Interview with Col. Maï Moctar Kassouma, President, CNCCAI, in Geneva, 28 May 2009.

[11] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Allassan Fousseini, Consultant, CNCCAI and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Niger, 10 March 2010.


Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 22 February 2024

In 2022, Niger received a total of €1 million (approximately US$1.1 million) in international mine action assistance from Italy for victim assistance activities implemented by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).[1]

Five-year support for mine action

In the five-year period from 2018–2022, international assistance to mine action in Niger has totaled less than $1.2 million, with less than $0.1 million provided in 2021 and no contributions recorded in 2018–2020.[2]



[1] Italy Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form I. See, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Database. Average exchange rate for 2022: €1=US$1.0534. United States (US) Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 9 January 2023.

[2] See ICBL, Landmine Monitor 2022 (ICBL-CMC: Geneva, November 2022).