Norway

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 10 August 2015

Five-Year Review: State Party Norway was among the first 30 ratifications to trigger the convention’s entry into force on 1 August 2010. Norway adopted implementing legislation two weeks before it signed and ratified the convention in December 2008. Norway hosted and served as president of the convention’s Third Meeting of States Parties in Oslo in September 2012. It has participated in all of the convention meetings and has elaborated its views on several important issues relating to the interpretation and implementation of the convention.

Norway has served as the convention’s co-coordinator on universalization since September 2013, convening regional workshops to encourage new accessions and ratifications. It has repeatedly condemned new use of cluster munitions, including in Ukraine, Syria, and Yemen.

In its initial transparency report for the convention provided in 2011, Norway confirmed that it has never used or produced cluster munitions. It completed the destruction of a stockpile of 52,190 cluster munitions and 3 million submunitions in June 2010, prior to entry into force. Norway has not retained any cluster munitions for research or training.

Policy

The Kingdom of Norway signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008 and ratified that same day. It was among the first 30 ratifications to trigger the convention’s entry into force on 1 August 2010.

On 20 November 2008, Norway adopted legislation allowing it to sign and simultaneously deposit its instrument of ratification.[1] The law prohibits use, development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, or transfer of cluster munitions and provides sanctions for violations.[2] Since 2011, Norway has reported that armed forces personnel are “given appropriate education and training on the Convention” as are all Norwegians officially deployed in international operations.[3]

Norway submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report for the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 27 January 2011 and has provided annual updated reports since then, most recently in May 2015.[4]

Norway was an early supporter of action to deal with the harmful impact of cluster munitions and played an unparalleled leadership role in bringing about the Convention on Cluster Munitions. It initiated the Oslo Process in November 2006 after failed efforts to address cluster munitions within the framework of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW).[5] Norway held the first international diplomatic conference of the process in Oslo in February 2007 and provided crucial support for all of the meetings through to the Convention on Cluster Munitions Signing Conference, which it also hosted in Oslo in December 2008. Norway was key to ensuring the strongest, most comprehensive convention text possible and also promoted a prominent and influential role for the CMC and civil society, including cluster munition survivors.[6]

Norway continues its leadership role in the work of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Its Permanent Representative to the UN in Geneva, Ambassador Steffen Kongstad, served as president of the convention’s Third Meeting of States Parties, which Norway hosted in Oslo in September 2012.[7] Norwayhas participated in every Meeting of States Parties of the convention, including in San José, Costa Rica in September 2014. It has attended all of the convention’s intersessional meetings in Geneva, most recently in June 2015.

Promotion of the convention

Norway has served as the convention’s co-coordinator on universalization since September 2013, together with Ghana, and has undertaken a range of efforts to encourage new accessions, including convening regional workshops.

At the Fifth Meeting of States Parties, Norway affirmed that the convention “has delivered” and cited considerable achievements particularly in stockpile destruction and clearance. Norway found that while “challenges remain…they are no longer of the global urgency and magnitude we were faced with at the start of the process,” and urged a greater focus on addressing challenges that “exist mainly at the national level in affected states,” where it described “political will” as “the crucial enabling or preventing factor.”[8]

At the Fifth Meeting of States Parties, Norway called on all states that are not yet party to the convention to expedite their processes to join.[9] It reported that it continues to engage bilaterally, through meetings and demarches, with signatories and non-signatories and prioritizes its engagement with states where cluster munitions have been used. Norway described universalization workshops on the convention that it convened in Geneva in 2014 and 2015 for diplomats from Francophone African, Anglophone African, and Arabic speaking countries in cooperation with its co-coordinator Ghana, the ICRC, the CMC, and New Zealand as coordinator on national implementation measures.[10] A workshop for Spanish-speaking states took place in San José during the Fifth Meeting of States Parties, while Chile also convened a regional universalization workshop in Santiago in December 2013. Costa Rica, Lebanon, Togo, and Zambia also contributed to the workshops.[11]

Norway has repeatedly condemned new use of cluster munitions and sought to ensure a strong collective response to the use, which has occurred only by states outside the convention.

At a June 2015 side event during the convention’s intersessional meetings, Norway acknowledged research by Human Rights Watch documenting credible evidence of new use of cluster munitions and urged all states to express concern at this new use. At a preparatory meeting for the convention’s First Review Conference held later that week, Norway stated it condemns any use of cluster munitions and is deeply concerned at new use of cluster munitions in Ukraine, Syria, and Yemen.[12] Norway called on States Parties to clearly condemn new use of cluster munitions in order to send a strong political message and strengthen the norms that underpin the convention.[13]

In May 2015, Norway’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, Børge Brende, issued a statement in response to reports of new use of cluster munitions in Yemen that said, “Norway condemns all use of cluster munitions,” and called on “all countries to refrain from using cluster munitions and to join the Convention banning these weapons.”[14] Previously, in February 2014, Brende condemned the use of cluster munitions in South Sudan.[15]

In February 2015, Norway’s State Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Bård Glad Pedersen, cited a report by the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine describing a cluster munition rocket attack on Luhansk on 27 January and said, “It is completely unacceptable that cluster munitions have been used in the conflict in Ukraine. Norway condemns all use of cluster munitions.” Pedersen called on the parties concerned “to make a clear commitment to refrain from all use of cluster munitions” and join the convention.[16]

At the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in September 2014, Norway stated it was “deeply concerned about reports of the use of cluster munitions in Syria, Ukraine and South Sudan and the humanitarian consequences that follow such use” and called on “all parties in these conflicts to make sure that no more use occurs.”[17] It noted the “generally limited” use of cluster munitions since the convention’s adoption and entry into force and observed that “cluster munitions have been thoroughly stigmatised, to the extent that most states, including many outside the Convention, consider their use unacceptable, illegal and unbefitting of responsible members of the international community.”[18] Norway has condemned the use of cluster munitions in Syria repeatedly since September 2012.[19] It has voted in favor of UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions condemning use of cluster munitions in Syria, including Resolution 69/189 on 18 December 2014, which expressed “outrage” at the continued use.[20]

Norway places particular emphasis on the importance of ensuring cooperative partnership between affected states and other states, as well as with international organizations and civil society.[21] Norway remains one of the largest mine action donors providing support to the implementation of the convention in a number of countries, including projects related to victim assistance, clearance, and stockpile destruction. With the support of the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the NGO Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) has continued to clear cluster munition remnants, provide technical support on stockpile destruction, and play a leadership role in the CMC, promoting the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Norway and internationally.[22]

Interpretive issues

Through its statements and its national implementation legislation, Norway has elaborated its views on certain important issues relating to interpretation and implementation of the convention.

According to Norway’s implementation legislation, the convention’s prohibitions, including the prohibition on assistance, apply in all circumstances, even during joint military operations. The preparatory section of the implementation legislation states that “the exemption for military cooperation does not authorize states parties to engage in activities prohibited by the convention.”[23]

In September 2012, Norway stated:

Article 1(1) states the absolute prohibition on any use of all cluster munitions, linked to the unambiguous phrase “never under any circumstances”. This prohibition applies to all kinds of conflicts as well as situations falling below the threshold of armed conflict. The prohibition against use, production, etc., cannot be bypassed or circumvented by creative interpretations of other articles in the Convention. Article 21(4) of the Convention specifies that nothing in the Convention shall authorise a State Party to inter alia use cluster munitions. Article 9 requires that what is prohibited to States Parties must also be prohibited for all individuals.[24]

During the Oslo Process, Norway argued against the inclusion of language on “interoperability” (joint military operations with states not party), stating that it had yet to see any insurmountable difficulties with interoperability in the context of other legal instruments, including the Mine Ban Treaty. As a NATO member, Norway stated that the issue merited discussion, but it was unfounded to automatically assume that a future treaty would be an obstacle to joint military action. Norway noted that it had solved issues regarding criminal liability for its service personnel in its national legislation, which contained “penal provisions regulating issues such as command responsibility, effective control and individual culpability, in relation to international operations.”[25]

Norway’s national implementation legislation bans the transit of cluster munitions under its prohibition on assistance.[26] With regard to the issue of foreign stockpiling of cluster munitions on the national territory of a State Party, Norway stated in 2012 that “it would be contrary to the prohibition on assistance etc. in Article 1 c to allow another state to stockpile cluster munitions on its territory.”[27]

The US stockpiled cluster munitions in Norway until 2010. According to a Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs official, “After the adoption of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Norway discussed with the USA the issue of their stockpile of cluster munitions on Norwegian territory. Norway offered to destroy these cluster munitions together with our own stockpiles. However, the USA decided to remove their stocks, something which happened during the spring of 2010.”[28]

In 2004, the Ministry of Finance decided to include cluster munitions in a category of indiscriminate orinhumane weapons to be excluded from investment under the Norwegian Government Pension Fund’s ethical guidelines, and eight foreign companies involved in the production of cluster munitions were excluded from the fund’s investments in 2005. Additional companies were excluded in 2006 and 2008.[29] A 2012 report by NGOs IKV Pax Christi (now PAX) and FairFin highlighted four Norwegian financial institutions for their policies prohibiting investments in cluster munitions producers.[30]

Norway is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is also party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, production, and transfer

Norway has not used, produced, or exported cluster munitions, but imported them in the past.[31] It obtained Rockeye cluster bombs from the US, which it destroyed between 2001 and 2003.[32] Norway obtained 155mm artillery projectiles with dual-purpose improved conventional munition (DPICM) submunitions from Germany.[33]

Stockpile destruction

On 16 July 2010—two weeks before to the convention entered into force—Norway completed the destruction of a stockpile of 52,190 155mm DPICM artillery projectiles containing 3,087,910 submunitions.[34] The Norwegian Armed Forces and Nammo Demil Division carried out the destruction in 2009 and 2010.[35] The cluster munitions were destroyed 910m below ground in an old copper mine at Løkken Verk in Trøndelag, south of the city of Trondheim.[36]

In November 2003, Norway stated that on the basis of a 2001 parliamentary resolution, “All air-delivered cluster bombs previously in Norwegian stock have been destroyed, because of their low level of precision and high dud-rate.”[37] According to NPA, Norway had 745 Rockeye bombs, each with 247 bomblets.[38]

Norway has not retained any cluster munitions or submunitions for training or other permitted purposes.[39]

In 2009, Norway announced its decision not to retain any cluster munitions for training or research purposes and urged all states to do the same.[40] Norway has reiterated its view that it is unnecessary to retain live submunitions for training and research purposes on a number of occasions.[41] In 2011, Norway described the arguments in favor of retaining cluster munitions as “flawed.”[42] Norway has also stated that retention of large numbers of cluster munitions could be seen as undermining the categorical approach of the prohibitions of the convention.[43]

 



[1] Act relating to the implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Norwegian law of 15 May 2009 No. 28 (adopted 20 November 2008). Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form A, 27 January 2011. Proposition No. 7 (2008–2009) to the Odelsting on a Bill relating to the implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Norwegian law; and Proposition No. 4 (2008–2009) to the Storting on consent to ratification of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

[2] Act relating to the implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Norwegian law of 15 May 2009 No. 28 (adopted 20 November 2008). Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form A, 27 January 2011. The penalty for violating the act is a fine or imprisonment for up to two years for cases where the perpetrator acts intentionally, and a fine or imprisonment for up to six months for negligent acts. The act amends the General Civil Penal Code of Norway to establish criminal jurisdiction over violations of the convention, when committed on Norwegian territory, including Svalbard, Jan Mayen, and other Norwegian dependencies, or on any Norwegian vessel or aircraft, or abroad by any Norwegian national or person with residency in Norway.

[3] Convention on Cluster Munition Article 7 Reports, Form A, 22 May 2015, 30 April 2014, 30 April 2013, 30 April 2012, and 27 January 2011. The 2015 Article 7 report indicates no change from previous reports.

[4] Norway submitted Article 7 reports on 27 January 2011 (for the period from 1 August 2010 to 31 December 2010), 30 April 2012 (for calendar year 2011), 30 April 2013 (for calendar year 2012), 30 April 2014 (for calendar year 2013), and on 22 May 2015 (for calendar year 2014).

[5] In 2011, Wikileaks released a number of US diplomatic cables that show how the US sought to engage with Norway over the course of the Oslo Process, especially with respect to US concerns about “interoperability” (joint military operations with states not party). For example, in a May 2007 cable, US officials noted that Norway had “dismissed U.S. concerns” over the draft text of the ban convention, stating that Norwegian officials “rejected our point that as written the text would have any impact on alliance or coalition activities. They stated that the penal sanctions clause had been copied directly from the land mine treaty and that the land mine treaty did not have any negative effects on alliance interoperability. They also stressed the involvement of many NATO allies in the Oslo process. They requested specific examples of how the land mine treaty impacted alliance operations.” See “Cluster Munitions: Norway asks the U.S. to prove military utility,” US Department of State cable 07OSLO525 dated 18 May 2007, released by Wikileaks on 1 September 2011.

[6] For more details on Norway’s cluster munition policy and practice through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 134–140.

[7] See the official website for the Convention on Cluster Munitions Third Meeting of States Parties, Oslo, 11–14 September 2012. The list of participants is available. During Norway´s presidency of the convention, it issued a working paper to begin discussions aimed at improving implementation of Article 4 clearance obligations, supported efforts to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of meetings of the convention including the convening of nine coordinating committees. It launched an improved official website for the convention and continued consultations on the establishment of an implementation support unit for the convention.

[8] Statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fifth Meeting of States Parties, San José, 2 September 2014.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Intervention by Norway, Side Event hosted by Costa Rica and the CMC on new use of cluster munitions, Geneva, 22 June 2015. Notes by Human Rights Watch (HRW).

[13] Statement of Norway, Second Preparatory Meetings for the First Review Conference of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Geneva, 24 June 2015. Notes by Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA).

[14] Ministry of Foreign Affairs Press Release, “Norway condemns use of cluster munitions in Yemen,” 11 May 2015. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs also tweeted to condemn the use of cluster munitions in Yemen, stating that 116 countries had joined the ban but “more must follow.” Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, @NorwayMFA, “Norway condemns use of ‪#clustermunitions in ‪#Yemen. Civilian population suffering. 116 countries w/ ban, more must follow - FM ‪@borgebrende,” 06:46am, 11 May 2015, Tweet.

[15] See Ministry of Foreign Affairs Press Release, “Norge fordømmer bruk av klasevåpen i Sør-Sudan” (“Norway condemns the use of cluster munitions in South Sudan”), 22 February 2014.

[16] Permanent Mission of Norway to the UN in Geneva Press Release, “Norway condemns use of cluster munitions in Ukraine,” last updated 13 February 2015.

[17] Statement by Amb. Steffen Kongstad, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fifth Meeting of States Parties, San José, 2 September 2014.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Third Meeting of States Parties, Oslo, 11 September 2012; Ministry of Foreign Affairs Press Release, “Norway Condemns use of Cluster Munitions in Syria,” 15 October 2012; statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 16 April 2013; and statement of Norway, UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, New York, 29 October 2013.

[20]Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution A/RES/69/189, 18 December 2014. Norway voted in favor of similar resolutions on 15 May and 18 December 2013.

[21] See, for example: statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fifth Meeting of States Parties, San José, 2 September 2014; statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 16 April 2012; and statement by Gry Larsen, State Secretary, Convention on Cluster Munitions Second Meeting of States Parties, Beirut, 15 September 2011.

[22] For more information, see NPA website.

[23] Proposition No. 4 (2008–2009) to the Storting on consent to ratification of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, p. 23.

[24] Statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Third Meeting of States Parties, Oslo, 11 September 2012.

[25] Statement of Norway, Session on General Obligations and Scope, Vienna Conference on Cluster Munitions, 6 December 2007. Notes by the CMC/Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.

[26] On the subject of transit, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs referred to Norway’s implementation legislation adopted on 20 November 2008 and associated commentary, which explains that the prohibition on assistance encompasses transit. Act relating to the implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Norwegian law of 15 May 2009, No. 28 (adopted 20 November 2008). Email from May-Elin Stener, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to Mary Wareham, HRW, 3 April 2012. See, Proposition No. 7 (2008–2009) to the Odelsting on a Bill relating to the implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Norwegian law; and Proposition No. 4 (2008–2009) to the Stortingon consent to ratification of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, p. 8.

[27] Email from May-Elin Stener, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to Mary Wareham, HRW, 3 April 2012.

[28] Email from Ingunn Vatne, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1 August 2012. A US cable dated 17 December 2008 includes a description of the cluster munitions stored by the US in Norway at that time and states: “Norwegian legal experts are of the opinion that Norway has jurisdiction over all CM [cluster munitions] stored on Norwegian soil, including the US CM stored in the MCPP-N [Marine Corps Pre-positioning Program – Norway] caves.” According to the cable, the US stockpile in Norway was believed to consist of “2,544 rounds” of “D563 Dual Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions (DPICM)” and “2,528 rounds” of “D864 Extended Range Dual Purpose ICM.” See, “Norway Raises question Concerning U.S. Cluster Munitions,” US Department of State cable 08OSLO676 dated 17 December 2008, released by Wikileaks on 1 September 2011.

[29] The fund’s Council on Ethics, an independent council of five people, provides advice to the Ministry of Finance which then makes the exclusion decision. See, Ministry of Finance Press Releases: “A Further Eight Companies Excluded from the Petroleum Fund,” No. 57/2005, 2 September 2005; “South Korean producer of cluster munitions excluded from the Government Pension Fund-Global,” No. 89/2006, 6 December 2006; and “One producer of cluster munitions and two producers of nuclear weapons excluded from the Government Pension Fund-Global,” No. 3/2008, 11 January 2008.

[30] The Norwegian Government Pension Fund-Global, DNB, Storebrand Group, and the KLP. IKV Pax Christi and FairFin, “Worldwide investments in Cluster Munitions: a shared responsibility,” June 2012, pp. 93–94, 96–97, 100, and 136. See also: PAX, “Worldwide investment in Cluster Munitions: a shared responsibility, November 2014 update,” Utrecht, November 2014.

[31] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Forms B and E, 27 January 2011.

[32] Norway, “National interpretation and implementation of International Humanitarian Law with regard to the risk of Explosive Remnants of War,” CCW/GGE/VI/WG.1/WP.3, CCW Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Explosive Remnants of War (ERW), Geneva, 24 November 2003.

[33] Leland S. Ness and Anthony G. Williams, eds., Jane’s Ammunition Handbook 2007–2008 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2007), pp. 674–676. This indicates a contract was awarded in late 2006.

[34] The stockpile was comprised of 37,900 DM-642 155mm artillery projectiles (each with 63 DM-1383 DPICM submunitions) and 14,290 DM-662 155mm artillery projectiles (each with 49 DM-1385 DPICM submunitions). Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form B, 27 January 2011; and presentation by the Norwegian Defense and Logistics Organization/Surplus Material Management Program, Convention on Cluster Munitions First Meeting of States Parties, Vientiane, 10 November 2010. Notes by the CMC.

[35] Ministry of Defence Press Release, “Norwegian cluster munitions soon to be history,” 7 May 2009. At the First Meeting of States Parties, Norway gave a detailed presentation on its stockpile destruction process, which it said cost US$4 million. Presentation by the Norwegian Defense and Logistics Organization/Surplus Material Management Program, Convention on Cluster Munitions First Meeting of States Parties, Vientiane, 10 November 2010. Notes by the CMC.

[36] Statement of Norway, Berlin Conference on the Destruction of Cluster Munitions, 25 June 2009. Notes by Action on Armed Violence (AOAV).

[37] Norway, “National interpretation and implementation of International Humanitarian Law with regard to the risk of Explosive Remnants of War,” CCW/GGE/VI/WG.1/WP.3, CCW GGE on ERW, Geneva, 24 November 2003.

[38] Email from Atle Karlsen, Mine Action Advisor, NPA, 23 April 2009.

[39] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Reports, Form C, 30 April 2014, 30 April 2013, 30 April 2012, and 27 January 2011. The Article 7 reports state “none” on Form C for cluster munitions retained for training and research purposes. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form D, 22 May 2015.

[40] Amb. Steffen Kongstad said, “The minimum number of cluster munitions absolutely necessary is zero.” Statement of Norway, Berlin Conference on the Destruction of Cluster Munitions, 25 June 2009. Notes by AOAV.

[41] Statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Third Meeting of States Parties, Oslo, 13 September 2012; statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 18 April 2012; and statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Second Meeting of States Parties, Beirut, 14 September 2011.

[42] Norway said the accreditation of mine detection dogs was the only situation where there could possibly be a need for training with live munitions, but even then the explosive submunitions required for this type of training would be those used in the area where the dog would work, so the training would best be done in the affected country using submunitions cleared from that contaminated area. Statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 27 June 2011.

[43] Statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 18 April 2012; and presentation of the Norwegian Defense and Logistics Organization/Surplus Material Management Program, Convention on Cluster Munitions First Meeting of States Parties, Vientiane, 10 November 2010. Notes by the CMC.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 18 December 2019

Policy

The Kingdom of Norway hosted the negotiations for the Mine Ban Treaty in September 1997. It signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 9 July 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 March 1999. Legislation to enforce the antipersonnel mine prohibition domestically was passed on 16 June 1998.[1]

Norway has played a crucial role in developing Mine Ban Treaty structures and processes. It served as co-rapporteur and later co-chair of the Standing Committees on the General Status and Operation of the Convention (2000–2002, 2010–2012), Victim Assistance (2003–2005), Mine Clearance (2005–2007), Stockpile Destruction (2013–2014), and Cooperative Compliance (2018). Norway was president of the Second Meeting of States Parties in 2000. Norway also served as president of the Second Review Conference, also known as the Cartagena Summit on a Mine-Free World, held in Cartagena, Colombia in November–December 2009. Norway served as President of the Fourth Review Conference in Oslo, in November 2019.

Norway established and coordinated the Contact Group on Resource Mobilization. At the Tenth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in November–December 2010, Norway agreed that the Contact Group be subsumed into the new Standing Committee on Resources, Cooperation and Assistance.

Norway regularly attends meetings of the treaty, including the Third Review Conference in Maputo in June 2014, and more recently, the Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in November 2018, where it made statements on victim assistance, cooperation and assistance, cooperative compliance, and stockpile destruction.[2] It also attended the intersessional meetings in Geneva in May 2019, where it provided a statement on Article 5 implementation.[3]

Norway is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and its Amended Protocol II on landmines and Protocol V on explosive remnants of war. It is also party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Production, use, stockpiling, and transfer

No significant production of antipersonnel mines is known to have taken place in Norway; some mine components were manufactured in the early 1990s. Mines were previously imported. Norway completed the destruction of its stockpile of 160,000 antipersonnel mines in October 1996; no mines were retained for training and development purposes.



[1] Odelstingsproposisjon nr. 72 (1997–1998), (Parliamentary Bill no. 72, About the law on the implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and On their Destruction), p. 10.

[2] Statement of Norway, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 27 November 2018; statement of Norway, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 29 November 2018; statement of Norway, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 29 November 2018; and statement of Norway, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 30 November 2018.

[3] Statement of Norway, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 24 May 2019.


Mine Action

Last updated: 18 August 2015

(Clearance completed)

Contamination

The Kingdom of Norway has fulfilled its Article 4 obligations to clear cluster munition remnants, having completed clearance of the sole confirmed area containing cluster munition remnants in September 2013.[1]

The area that was contaminated is on the Norwegian mainland, part of the former Hjerkinn shooting range in the Dovre mountain area, in Oppland county. The hazardous area, known as “HFK-sletta,” was used for test firing artillery-delivered cluster munitions (DM 1383 and DM 1385) in the period 1986–2007. It covered a total area of 617,300m2. The shooting range is in the process of being decommissioned, and cluster munition clearance was part of a larger explosive ordnance disposal operation conducted by the Norwegian defence forces.[2] 

In its initial Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 report in 2011, and in subsequent Article 7 reports in 2012 and 2013, Norway reported that the contaminated area contained an estimated 30 unexploded submunitions.[3] However, upon completion of cluster munition survey and clearance, Norway declared that only two bomblets had been destroyed between the start of operations in 2008 and completion in 2013.[4] 

In March 2014, Norway reported under the Convention on Conventional Weapons, that clearance of cluster munition contamination had been completed in late 2013 and that the remaining area contaminated by other unexploded ordinance (UXO) was expected to be cleared by 2020.[5] At the Convention on Cluster Munitions intersessional meetings in April 2014, Norway announced completion of cluster munition clearance,[6] and its April 2014 Article 7 transparency report declared that clearance had been completed by the third quarter of 2013.[7] Cluster munition clearance was conducted by a dedicated explosive detection dog unit, comprising three dog handlers and eight dogs engaged in searching “boxes” of 10m2.[8]

At the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in September 2014, Norway announced it had submitted its formal Declaration of Article 4 Compliance to the UN on 29 August 2014, and, as such, had completed its clearance obligations under the Convention.[9]

Article 4 Compliance

Under Article 4 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Norway was required to destroy all cluster munition remnants in areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 August 2020. Norway completed cluster munition clearance nearly seven years before its deadline.

In its declaration of Article 4 compliance, Norway stated that as of 9 September 2013 it had made every effort to identify all areas under its jurisdiction "and" control[10] contaminated by cluster munitions, and that as of that date it had cleared and destroyed all cluster munitions found, in accordance with Article 4 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.[11]



[1] Declaration of compliance with Article 4.1(a) of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, submitted by Norway, 1 September 2014.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Reports, Form F, 2011, 2012, and 2013 (for 1 August 2010–31 December 2012).

[4] Declaration of compliance with Article 4.1(a) of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, submitted by Norway, 1 September 2014.

[5] Convention on Conventional Weapons Protocol V Report, Form A, 31 March 2014.

[6] Statement of Norway, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, April 2014.

[7] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form F, 30 April 2014.

[8] Declaration of compliance with Article 4.1(a) of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, submitted by Norway, 1 September 2014.

[9] Statement of Norway, Fifth Meeting of States Parties, Costa Rica, 2–5 September 2014.

[10] Norway’s declaration of compliance with Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4.1(a) mistakenly states “jurisdiction and control,” instead of “jurisdiction or control,” which is the wording in Article 4.

[11] Declaration of compliance with Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4.1(a), submitted by Norway, 1 September 2014.


Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 14 November 2023

In 2022, Norway contributed approximately NOK429.2 million (US$44.7 million) in mine action funding to 19 affected states (13 States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty and six states not party), to the West Africa region, and to several non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and institutions for global activities.[1]

Norway’s largest contribution (NOK114.3 million, or $11.9 million) went to Ukraine for clearance and risk education activities. Global activities represented the second highest share of Norway’s funding. Iraq, which received the largest contribution from Norway from 2017–2021, was the next largest country recipient, receiving NOK40.1 million ($4.2 million).

Approximately 97% of Norway’s total contribution in 2022 went to international NGOs.

Contributions by recipient: 2022[2]

Recipient

Sector

Amount (NOK)

Amount (US$)

Ukraine

Clearance, risk education

114,275,067

11,886,566

Global

Advocacy, various

77,810,264

8,093,601

Iraq

Clearance, risk education, victim assistance

40,149,960

4,176,284

Syria

Clearance, risk education, victim assistance

35,107,939

3,651,827

Zimbabwe

Clearance, risk education

18,423,267

1,916,336

Somalia

Clearance

18,170,235

1,890,016

Lebanon

Clearance, risk education

16,495,574

1,715,822

Lao PDR

Clearance, risk education, victim assistance

14,193,386

1,476,355

Cambodia

Clearance, risk education

12,983,475

1,350,504

Yemen

Clearance, risk education, victim assistance

12,390,277

1,288,801

Sri Lanka

Clearance

11,432,000

1,189,124

Afghanistan

Clearance, risk education, victim assistance

11,287,000

1,174,041

Angola

Clearance

10,848,178

1,128,396

Colombia

Advocacy, clearance, risk education, victim assistance

8,870,000

922,632

Tajikistan

Clearance

6,903,386

718,070

Thailand

Capacity-building

5,424,089

564,198

Vietnam

Clearance

5,424,089

564,198

West Africa region

Various

3,400,000

353,658

Palestine

Various

2,958,594

307,744

Myanmar

Various

1,676,537

174,389

Libya

Risk education, victim assistance

1,000,000

104,017

Total

 -

429,223,317

44,646,579

 

Mine action assistance approach

Mine action is one of the key areas for action included in Norway’s Humanitarian Strategy 2019–2023, in which clearance of mined areas is defined as “a concrete, effective way” to support the return of displaced populations and promote socio-economic development.[3]

Norway indicated in April 2022 that it was looking to implement a multiyear funding agreement from 2022 onward, and develop more country coalitions to effectively engage national mine action authorities.[4]

In February 2018, Norway indicated that it would continue to give priority for mine action funding to countries demonstrating strong national ownership and clear progress toward completion.[5]

Five-year support to mine action

From 2018–2022, Norway provided more than $208 million in support to mine action activities, representing a 13% increase from the $184.6 million provided during the previous five-year period, from 2013–2017. In national currency terms, the NOK1.85 billion provided represents an increase of more than 40% from the NOK1.3 billion provided in 2013–2017.

Summary of contributions: 2018–2022[6]

Year

Amount

(NOK)

Amount

(US$)

% change from previous year

(US$)

2022

429,223,317

44,646,579

+26

2021

305,199,000

35,506,836

-5

2020

352,506,000

37,388,076

-13

2019

378,534,870

43,014,836

-10

2018

388,064,000

47,721,784

+22

Total

1,853,527,187

208,278,111

N/A

Note: N/A=not applicable.

 


[1] Average exchange rate for 2022: NOK9.6138=US$1. United States (US) Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 9 January 2023.

[2] Norway Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), pp. 3–4. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[3] Norway Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Norway’s Humanitarian Strategy: An effective and integrated approach,” August 2018.

[4] Mine Action Support Group meeting, “Annex A: Donor Updates, MASG Meeting,” 27 April 2022.

[5] Statement of Norway, Third Annual Pledging Conference for the Implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty, Geneva, 27 February 2018.

[6] See previous Support for Mine Action country profiles. ICBL-CMC, “Country Profiles: Norway,” undated.