Palestine

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 27 July 2019

Summary: Palestine acceded to the convention on 2 January 2015 after participating in meetings of the convention.

In November 2017, Palestine provided an initial transparency report that confirms it has never produced cluster munitions and possesses no stockpiles, including for research and training purposes. Palestine reports that cluster munitions have never been used on its territories.

Policy

The State of Palestine acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 2 January 2015 and became a State Party on 1 July 2015.

Palestine has not adopted national legislation. It has listed a 1998 law on arms and explosives under national implementation measures and reports that a consultative committee attached to the Palestinian Mine Action Center is considering if specific implementing legislation is needed for the convention.[1]

Palestine submitted its initial Article 7 report for the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 15 November 2017 and provided a third annual updated report on 29 April 2019.[2]

Palestine did not participate in any meetings of the Oslo Process that created the Convention on Cluster Munitions. The first time it attended a meeting of the convention was in Santiago, Chile in June 2010.

Palestine has participated in most of the convention’s meetings, most recently the Eighth Meeting of States Parties in September 2018.[3] Palestine acceded after repeatedly expressing its support for the convention’s objectives during earlier meetings of the convention.

Palestine has not elaborated its views on certain important issues relating to its interpretation and implementation of the convention, such as the prohibitions on transit, assistance during joint military operations with states not party that may use cluster munitions, foreign stockpiling of cluster munitions, investment in the production of cluster munitions, and on the retention of cluster munitions for training and development purposes.

Palestine acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 29 December 2017. Palestine is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW).

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

In its transparency reports, Palestine declared that it has never produced cluster munitions and possesses no stockpiles, including for research and training purposes. It, however, warned that it is not in a position to verify if Palestinian territories occupied by Israel, such as Israeli military bases, hold cluster munition stocks.[4]

Previously in 2010, a Palestinian official told the Monitor that Palestine did not possess any cluster munitions and that Israeli forces have never used cluster munitions in the occupied Palestinian territories.[5]



[1] Law 2/1998 prohibits and punishes anyone, except for the state, from producing, stockpiling, transferring, and receiving arms or explosives in the Palestinian territories. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form A, 1 March 2018; and statement of State of Palestine, Convention on Cluster Munitions Sixth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 5 September 2016.

[2] The report was submitted 29 April 2019 and covers calendar year 2018, but was dated 29 April 2019. The initial report was for the period from 6 January 2015 until 15 November 2017, while the annual updates submitted since then have covered activities in the previous calendar year.

[3] Palestine participated in the convention’s Meetings of States Parties in 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2016, as well as the First Review Conference in 2015 and intersessional meetings in 2013 and 2014.

[4] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Forms B and E, 15 November 2017.

[5] Meeting with Col. Mohammad A.M. Ghanayiem, Palestinian Ministry of Interior, Vientiane, 9 November 2010.


Last updated: 15 March 2024

COUNTRY SUMMARY

Palestine has mine contamination in the West Bank and on the border with Jordan, particularly in military training zones and areas of armed confrontation. This contamination includes both antipersonnel and antivehicle landmines. Some of the contaminated areas date back to the Six-Day War in 1967, and are inaccessible to the national authorities.[1] Palestine is a State Party to both the Mine Ban Treaty and Convention on Cluster Munitions, although no cluster munition remnants contamination has been reported.

Hostilities between Israel and Gaza since 2008 have resulted in significant explosive remnants of war (ERW) contamination, along with a severe reduction in the capacity of health facilities in Palestine to provide adequate care for mine/ERW survivors.[2]

Mine/ERW clearance in the West Bank has been constrained by political factors, including a lack of authorization granted by Israel for Palestine to conduct demining operations. In the West Bank, the Palestine Mine Action Centre (PMAC) operates under the Ministry of Interior. Mine action in Gaza is overseen by the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS).[3]

Risk education was conducted in both Gaza and the West Bank in 2022, with safety messaging focused on the threat from ERW and improvised explosive devices (IEDs).[4] 

Gaza’s healthcare and rehabilitation capacity has continued to deteriorate amid ongoing armed conflict. Many hospitals are no longer operational, while the destruction of key infrastructure has severely limited access to emergency medical care for mine/ERW victims.[5]

ASSESSING THE IMPACT

Contamination

      Extent of contamination[6]

 

Antipersonnel landmine

Cluster munition remnant

Antivehicle landmine

Extent of contamination

Small

 

None

 

Small

Reported contamination

CHA: 0.32km2*

N/A

CHA: 0.05km2

Note: CHA=confirmed hazardous area; N/A=not applicable.

*This includes 0.07km² (68,012m²) of reported mixed antipersonnel and antivehicle mine contamination. 

Landmine contamination

The 1995 Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, also known as the Oslo II Accord, divided the West Bank into three areas: Area A, under full Palestinian civil and security control; Area B, under full Palestinian civil control and joint Israeli-Palestinian security control; and Area C, containing areas where Israel has full civil and security control.[7]

Most of the mined areas in the West Bank were located along the border with Jordan, in Area C, which was under full Israeli control and covered approximately 60% of the West Bank. This is legacy contamination from the 1967 Six-Day War.[8] The contamination posed a risk to civilians and restricted socio-economic development. Mined areas were located in, or close to, populated areas, mostly on privately-owned agricultural and grazing land, or along roads.[9] The contaminated areas were either poorly marked or not marked at all.[10]

In its Article 13 reporting for Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), the Israeli Mine Action National Authority (INMAA) reported that “land maps, which are issued by the Israeli Mapping Center (IMC), and which are commercially available, contain clear markings regarding the topographic location of minefields and were updated in 2020.”[11]

Palestine has made progress in understanding and reporting on the type and extent of its mine contamination. As of March 2023, PMAC reported a total of 0.37km² of mine contamination (250,000m² antipersonnel mine contamination; 68,012m² mixed antipersonnel and antivehicle mine contamination; and 55,500m² antivehicle mine contamination).[12]

PMAC reported that, as of March 2023, only 3,012m² of mixed antipersonnel and antivehicle mine contamination was pending clearance in Jenin (Area A). In the Jordan Valley (Area C), 65 minefields were pending clearance, subject to donor approval and political negotiations.[13] This contamination includes approximately 80 mines laid by Israel after the 1967 conflict.[14] PMAC reported that as of 1 March 2023, two task orders to clear antivehicle mines in Taysir and Sokot had been approved.[15]

Other types of contamination

PMAC has mapped 46 areas in the West Bank that have recorded ERW contamination. These areas are either military training sites or areas where demonstrations and armed violence have taken place on a regular basis. [16]

Gaza did not have reported minefields, but was extensively contaminated by ERW. This contamination mostly results from airstrikes and artillery shelling by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) during hostilities since 2011.[17] ERW contamination has a major impact, killing and maiming civilians regularly in Gaza while preventing post-conflict reconstruction, although the full extent of the problem is unknown. The presence of ERW has been reported extensively by UNMAS during 2021–2023 amid escalating hostilities.[18]

Casualties

5-year casualties total: 2018–2022[19]

Year

Injured

Killed

Unknown

Total

2022

21

0

0

21

2021

70

7

0

77

2020

8

2

0

10

2019

9

0

0

9

2018

11

0

0

11

The total number of mine/ERW casualties in Palestine, for all time, is unknown. Defense for Children International-Palestine recorded more than 2,500 mine/ERW casualties from 1967–1998.[20] From 2000 to 2022, the Monitor recorded 1,281 casualties (182 killed; 1,086 injured; and 13 with an unknown survival outcome).

     Casualties in 2022[21]

Injured

Killed

Unknown

Total

Change from previous year

21

0

0

21

Decrease from 77 in 2021

 

Casualty demographics in 2022

Adult

Men

Women

Unknown

7

3

4

0

Children

Boys

Girls

Unknown

14

13

1

0

 

     Casualties by civilian status in 2022

Civilian

Military

Deminer

Unknown

20

0

0

1

 

Casualties by device type in 2022

APM

AVM

Improvised mines

Unspecified mine type

CMR

ERW

Unknown

0

0

0

0

0

20

1

Note: APM=antipersonnel mines; AVM=antivehicle mines; CMR=cluster munition remnants; ERW=explosive remnants of war.

In 2022, a total of 21 mine/ERW casualties were recorded in Palestine. Of these, 19 casualties occurred in Gaza and two in the West Bank.[22]

COORDINATION

Summary table[23]

Mine action

Main Coordination Body    

Coordination Mechanism

Strategy/plan

National Mine Action Standards      

PMAC (West Bank)

UNMAS (Gaza)

 

Direct coordination

 

Mine Action Area of Responsibility

In development

In development

Risk education

Main Coordination Body    

Coordination Mechanism

Strategy/plan    

National Mine Action Standards

PMAC (West Bank)

UNMAS (Gaza)

 

Direct coordination

 

Mine Action Area of Responsibility

Explosive Ordnance Risk Education Strategy (2021)

In development

Victim assistance

Main Coordination Body    

Coordination Mechanism

Strategy/plan    

National Mine Action Standards

PMAC (West Bank)

 

Direct coordination

None

None

Note: PMAC=Palestine Mine Action Center; UNMAS=United Nations Mine Action Service.

ADDRESSING THE IMPACT

Clearance

Highlights from 2022

Progress was reported by PMAC in 2022, with 0.034km2 of contaminated land cleared and 37 antipersonnel mines destroyed. No clearance had taken place in Palestine in 2021.

Management and coordination

Management and coordination overview

PMAC was established by the Ministry of Interior in March 2012, which appointed a director and created the Higher Committee for Mine Action as an interministerial body.[24] The Higher Committee for Mine Action, which serves as the national mine action authority for Palestine, was tasked to develop mine action legislation and allocate resources for the sector.[25]

Based in Ramallah, PMAC was mandated to coordinate all aspects of mine action in the West Bank, with technical support from UNMAS.[26]

In Gaza, UNMAS is responsible for the Mine Action Area of Responsibility, and coordinates mine action activities through the Mine Action Working Group. UNMAS provides explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) to support humanitarian work and reconstruction efforts.[27] It is also the main coordination body for ERW response after airstrikes and military engagements, and has developed Standard Operating Procedures to coordinate ERW risk mitigation and provide safe access for humanitarian responders.[28] The UNMAS Emergency Response Preparedness Plan outlines procedures for the deployment of emergency EOD and medical teams.[29]

INMAA, established in 2011, is responsible for coordinating mine action in Israel.[30]

Legislation and standards

PMAC reported that as of March 2023, national mine action legislation and standards were in development but had not yet been approved.[31]

The HALO Trust reported following INMAA’s national standards during its operations.[32]

Strategies and policies

In 2022, PMAC reported that a mine action strategy was developed and pending approval.

Information management

PMAC reported using the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) Next Generation database in 2022.[33] In Gaza, UNMAS used IMSMA Core, while UNMAS and its implementing partners used the 4Ws reporting system under the Protection Sub-Cluster.[34] 

Gender and diversity

Three PMAC departments—victim assistance, risk education, and external relations—were supervised by women in 2022. UNMAS reported that almost 30% of PMAC staff were women and that it was regularly engaged in training focused on gender issues and inclusivity.[35]

Clearance operators

The HALO Trust is the only clearance operator in the West Bank.[36] It began clearance in the West Bank in April 2014 after being granted authorization by INMAA to clear two minefields identified as high priority by PMAC, and has continued clearance operations since then.[37] The HALO Trust has undertaken clearance in areas A, B, and C of the West Bank.[38] 

UNMAS has an EOD team on stand-by in Gaza to clear and destroy ERW that poses a threat to communities.[39] The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) also reported to have contributed to mapping and marking ERW-contaminated areas in Gaza.[40]

Land release: antipersonnel landmines

2022 land release overview: Landmines[41]

Area cleared

(km²)

Area reduced

(km²)

Area cancelled

(km²)

Total area released

(km²)

APM destroyed

0.034

0

0

0.034

37

Note: APM=antipersonnel mines.

In 2022, a total of 0.034km² (33,679m²) was reported cleared in Palestine and 37 antipersonnel landmines were destroyed, along with four antivehicle mines. The cleared areas were located in Areas A and B of the West Bank, accessible to the Palestinian authorities. This included the task order for “Nur A Shams” in Tul Kareem, which had been assigned in September 2020 before work was suspended amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Clearance operations resumed in 2022 and the task order was completed, with 0.024km² cleared and 13 antipersonnel mines destroyed. Another 0.01km² was cleared elsewhere, with 24 antipersonnel mines destroyed.[42]

Five-year landmine clearance: 2018­–2022[43]

Year

Area cleared (km²)

Area reduced (km²)

Area cancelled (km²)

Total area released (km²)

APM destroyed

2022

0.034

0

0

0.034

37

2021

0

0

0

0

0

2020

0

0

0

0

0

2019

0.01

0

0

0.01

106

2018

0.005

0

0

0.005

17

Note: APM=antipersonnel mines.

In 2021, no clearance took place in Palestine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2019–2020, progress was limited due to the lack of authorization granted by Israel for Palestine to conduct clearance operations.[44] PMAC reported that the pandemic had delayed clearance activities due to frequent lockdowns in the West Bank, compounded by a lack of mine action funding.[45]

In April 2020, the HALO Trust reported completing its clearance project of a large minefield located at Qaser al-Yahud, on the Jordan River.[46] The work was undertaken under the auspices of both INMAA and PMAC.[47] 

Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 clearance deadline

Summary of Article 5 clearance deadline extension requests[48]

Original deadline

Extension period

(no. of request)

Current deadline

Status

1 June 2028

N/A

 

1 June 2028

Progress to target uncertain

 Note: N/A=not applicable. 

Palestine’s Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 clearance deadline is 1 June 2028. PMAC had planned to complete clearance by the end of 2020, but this was not achieved.[49]

Clearance in the West Bank is constrained by political factors, including lack of authorization granted by Israel for Palestine to conduct clearance operations. In May 2020, PMAC informed the Monitor that it believed clearance would be completed by 2023 in Palestinian-controlled areas.[50] However, the majority of mined areas in Palestine are under Israeli control.

In 2022, PMAC and UNMAS reported it was unlikely that the 1 June 2028 deadline would be met, due to ongoing access restrictions related to Area C and the Jordan Valley minefields.[51]

Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 clearance deadline

Palestine is a State Party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions, though has not reported any cluster munition contamination on land under its jurisdiction or control.[52]

Land release: other ordnance

In the West Bank, ERW were cleared along with antipersonnel and antivehicle landmines, but represented only a small proportion of the items cleared. Since 2014, PMAC has reported only 16 items of unexploded ordnance (UXO) cleared, compared to a total of 1,117 mines.[53]

Since 2014, UNMAS responded to requests from humanitarian partners to conduct 1,425 risk assessments in areas contaminated by ERW, including 98 conducted in 2022. This contributed to the safe conduct of infrastructure projects including roads, water and sewage networks, and the reconstruction of buildings.[54] In addition, 21 large aerial deep-buried bombs were assessed by UNMAS, three of which were in schools. As of July 2023, nineteen had been cleared.[55]

Risk education

Highlights from 2022

In April 2022, UNMAS and PMAC jointly launched a mobile application, titled “MineSafe,” consisting of an interactive game aimed at children aged seven or older. The application was specifically designed to be inclusive for children with hearing impairments.[56]

UNMAS reported that it was developing a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey, to measure the effectiveness of risk education among the population in the West Bank.[57]

Management and coordination

Management and coordination overview 

PMAC was responsible for coordinating risk education activities in the West Bank in 2022. It reported on these activities to the Higher Committee for Mine Action.[58]

In Gaza, UNMAS held monthly Mine Action Working Group meetings, within the Protection Cluster. Additional meetings were held on an ad-hoc basis, and topics for discussion included risk education materials and activities.[59] In cooperation with partners, UNMAS facilitated and tasked emergency risk awareness messaging before, during, and after hostilities.[60] 

Legislation and standards

There was no national standard in place for risk education. However, the Explosive Ordnance Risk Education (EORE) Strategy refers to International Mine Action Standard (IMAS) 12.10 on Risk Education.[61]

Strategies and policies

The EORE strategy, adopted in 2021, was developed by PMAC with support from UNMAS.[62] It includes guidance for operators and prioritization of key target groups and locations for risk education delivery in Palestine.[63]

Gender and diversity

Palestine’s EORE strategy includes a gender and diversity component. It establishes that risk education materials targeting women should be developed by women, and that leaflets should be produced in Braille. It also dictates that 50% of risk education providers must be women.[64]

Risk education operators

In 2022, PMAC provided risk education in the West Bank. In Gaza, one national operator, the Safe Youth Future Society (SYFS), provided risk education. International operators providing risk education were UNMAS, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) through its Conflict Preparedness and Protection program. The ICRC and the Palestine Red Crescent Society reported a risk education campaign and in-school sessions for children.[65]

Beneficiary data

Beneficiary data in 2022[66]

Operator

Men

Boys

Women

Girls

Persons with disabilities

PMAC

1,900

1,400

4,100

2,600

N/R

UNMAS*

18,318

22,193

20,022

23,896

N/R

Note: N/R=not reported

*UNMAS data also includes reported beneficiaries from PMAC, SYFS, UNICEF, and NPA.

In 2022, a total of 84,429 risk education beneficiaries were reported, including 10,000 reached in the West Bank by PMAC.

Target groups

In Gaza, children and adolescent boys were key target groups based on recorded casualty data. Most incidents among children occur due to curiosity, a tendency to play in open areas, and a lack of awareness of the danger posed by mines/ERW. [67] Men were also exposed to risks, due to their involvement in agricultural and construction work, and scrap metal collection. Women were targeted by UNMAS to transfer safety messages to other members of their households.[68] Farmers and their families were at risk, as most agricultural activities occur in eastern parts of Gaza where armed attacks have occurred and militant training sites were situated.[69]

UNMAS worked with SYFS to reach remote areas and marginalized groups. It also held focus groups in Gaza, to ensure age- and gender-appropriate targeting of materials and messages.[70]

In the West Bank, as in Gaza, men and boys were most at risk, due to livelihood activities.[71]

Delivery methods

In the West Bank, PMAC delivered risk education through face-to-face sessions, local media, billboards, and a game-based digital application.[72] In 2023, UNMAS reported to have initiated discussions with the Ministry of Education to integrate EORE into the school curriculum, and coordinated with PMAC to train facilitators and increase risk education capacity.[73] 

In Gaza, risk education was delivered through face-to-face sessions held in community-based centers. Street outreach sessions were reported to be useful in engaging hard-to-reach groups such as farmers and men, who rarely attended community sessions. Safety messaging focused on ERW and IEDs.[74] UNMAS also used a cinema bus, designed to be accessible for children with disabilities, to travel throughout Gaza and deliver EORE to children in remote areas.[75]

UNMAS also provided ERW safety training in Gaza for humanitarian staff, service providers, and local workers involved in reconstruction and building projects.[76]

After hostilities in August 2022, UNMAS carried out emergency risk education via safety text and radio messages, reaching an estimated 1.4 million people in Gaza. UNMAS also targeted emergency shelters with messages for IDPs, and distributed ERW awareness posters to  health and distribution centers run by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA).[77] To enhance risk education capacity in Gaza, UNMAS held a training of trainers course in 2022.[78] 

Risk education was coupled with other humanitarian and protection activities by UNMAS and NPA. The ICRC provided safety training and spotlights to assist emergency responders while carrying out their activities.[79]

Victim assistance

Highlights from 2022

Psychosocial support and physical rehabilitation were enhanced via ongoing ICRC assistance to the Artificial Limb and Polio Center (ALPC) in Gaza, and provision of assistive devices by Humanity & Inclusion (HI). The ICRC also provided training on psychosocial support to staff at ALPC and two hospitals in Gaza. The Palestinian medical authorities were reported to have developed minimum standards for physical rehabilitation, and promoted these in Gaza. [80]

Management and coordination

Management and coordination overview

PMAC is responsible for coordinating victim assistance activities in the West Bank, but there were no active programs due to a lack of financial resources.[81] In Gaza, UNMAS reported the inclusion of victim assistance in a meeting of the Mine Action Working Group, but there was no dedicated coordination mechanism.[82]

Legislation and standards

Palestine has no specific victim assistance legislation or standards in place. [83] 

Strategies and policies

PMAC reported to be seeking partners to assist in developing a victim assistance strategy.[84]

Legal frameworks or policies on disability inclusion

Palestinian law, also applicable in Gaza, prohibits discrimination and guarantees persons with disabilities the right to healthcare, work, inclusive education, and access to public institutions. However, this law was poorly enforced in 2022.[85]

In the West Bank, the Ministry of Social Development, via the General Directorate of Persons with Disabilities, worked in conjunction with the Ministry of Health to deliver assistance to mine/ERW survivors. In Gaza, the focal point was the Ministry of Social Affairs.[86] The Higher Council for Persons with Disabilities is tasked with ensuring access to local rehabilitation and welfare services.[87] It is chaired by the Ministry of Social Development, with its membership including government bodies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).[88]

Disability has been increasingly covered within national development plans and strategies.[89]

Victim assistance providers

There were very few providers of victim assistance services in Palestine. The ICRC supported rehabilitation in Gaza, including ALPC, and worked with four local organizations on socio-economic inclusion.[90] UNRWA provided special education for children with disabilities, as well as mental health and psychosocial support.[91] UNMAS reported the referral of survivors to UNICEF and the ICRC.[92] HI continued to provide physical rehabilitation and psychosocial support alongside its local partner, the Palestine Avenir Childhood Foundation.[93]

Needs assessment

The provision of healthcare, rehabilitation, and psychosocial and socio-economic support was affected by ongoing hostilities, which also restricted access to basic services.[94]

Medical care and rehabilitation

The ICRC supported emergency medical services and first-aid responders. The Palestine Red Crescent Society received equipment and training from the ICRC in emergency response and war surgery. The emergency department at the Shifa hospital underwent repairs in 2022.[95]

The ICRC continued to provide free treatment and assistive devices, including at ALPC. ICRC also provided custom-made assistive devices to children with disabilities in Gaza.[96] 

HI launched a one-year project in May 2022 covering physical rehabilitation, the provision of assistive devices, and psychosocial support.[97]

Socio-economic and psychosocial inclusion

The ICRC provided socio-economic inclusion services, including through sports activities that benefited children with amputations, and financial assistance in the form of cash grants.[98]

UNRWA included persons with disabilities in its emergency preparedness plans, and ensured the provision of assistive devices to those in need amid hostilities.[99] HI developed inclusive education and accessible reconstruction projects for persons with disabilities.[100]



[1] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), 2 May 2023; and by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, Palestine Mine Action Center (PMAC), 16 May 2023; and Palestine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report (for calendar year 2022), p. 29. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[2] United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), “Occupied Palestinian Territory: Humanitarian Needs Overview 2023,” 25 January 2023, pp. 18–19; UNMAS, “Where We Work: State of Palestine,” updated September 2023; and UNMAS, “Newsletter: State of Palestine,” undated.

[3] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by UNMAS Palestine and PMAC, 16 May 2020; and by Maj. Wala Jarrar, Information Department, PMAC, 23 March 2021.

[4] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 11 April 2022; by Najwa Jarrar, National Capacity Development Analyst, UNMAS, 8 July 2022; and by Hana Albaioumy, Senior Explosive Ordnance Risk Education (EORE) Advisor, UNMAS Gaza, 22 June 2022.

[5] United Nations Relief And Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), “Health Annual Report for 2020,” 25 May 2021, pp. 44–45; International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), “Annual Report 2020,” 1 July 2021, pp. 473–476; and ICRC, “Annual Report 2022,” 29 June 2023, p. 420.  

[6] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023; and Palestine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report (for calendar year 2022), p. 29.

[7] Email from Celine Francois, Program Officer, UNMAS Jerusalem, 5 July 2012; and Palestine Mine Ban Treaty Voluntary Article 7 Report (for the period 1 August 2012–31 July 2013), p. 10.

[8] Email from Celine Francois, Program Officer, UNMAS Jerusalem, 5 July 2012; and UNMAS, “Annual Report 2012,” August 2013.

[9] Statement of Palestine, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Vienna, 26 November 2018.

[10] PMAC, “Explosive Ordnance Risk Education Strategy for the State of Palestine,” 2021. This document was shared with the Monitor by PMAC in July 2022.

[11] Israel CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report (for calendar years 2019–2020), Forms A and B, pp. 5–6. See, CCW Amended Protocol II Database.

[12] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and Palestine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 29.

[13] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023; and Palestine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 29.

[14] PMAC, “Explosive Ordnance Risk Education Strategy for the State of Palestine,” undated. This document was shared with the Monitor by PMAC in July 2022.

[15] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023.

[16] PMAC, “Explosive Ordnance Risk Education Strategy for the State of Palestine,” undated. This document was shared with the Monitor by PMAC in July 2022.

[17] PMAC, “Explosive Ordnance Risk Education Strategy for the State of Palestine,” undated; UNOCHA, “Palestine: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 25 January 2023, pp. 41–51; and Action on Armed Violence (AOAV), “Gaza,” 6 October 2016.

[18] UNMAS, “Where We Work: State of Palestine,” updated September 2023; UNMAS, “Annual Report 2022,” April 2023, p. 85; and UNOCHA, “Palestine: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 25 January 2023, pp. 41–51.

[19] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 11 April 2022 and 16 May 2023; by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023; by Najwa Jarrar, National Capacity Development Analyst, UNMAS, 8 July 2022; and by Hana Albaioumy, Senior EORE Advisor, UNMAS Gaza, 22 June 2022; Monitor media monitoring and analysis of Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) data for calendar years 2019–2022. See, Clionadh Raleigh, Andrew Linke, Håvard Hegre, and Joakim Karlsen, “Introducing ACLED: An Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 47, Issue 5, September 2010, pp. 651–660; and email from Soula Kreitem, Program and Support Officer, UNMAS, 17 March 2021.

[20] Defense for Children International-Palestine, “The Problem of Landmines, Unexploded Ordnance and Munitions Remnants in the Palestinian Territories,” 26 March 2001, p. 14.

[21] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 11 April 2022 and 16 May 2023; by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023; by Najwa Jarrar, National Capacity Development Analyst, UNMAS, 8 July 2022; and by Hana Albaioumy, Senior EORE Advisor, UNMAS Gaza, 22 June 2022; Monitor media monitoring and analysis of ACLED data for calendar years 2021–2022.

[22] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 11 April 2022 and 16 May 2023; by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023; by Najwa Jarrar, National Capacity Development Analyst, UNMAS, 8 July 2022; and by Hana Albaioumy, Senior EORE Advisor, UNMAS Gaza, 22 June 2022; Monitor media monitoring and analysis of ACLED data for calendar years 2021–2022.

[23] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[24] Emails from Celine Francois, Program Officer, UNMAS Jerusalem, 19 July 2012; and from Imad Mohareb, Planning Department, PMAC, 31 March 2013.

[25] Emails from Celine Francois, Program Officer, UNMAS Jerusalem, 19 July 2012; and from Imad Mohareb, Planning Department, PMAC, 31 March 2013.

[26] Emails from Celine Francois, Program Officer, UNMAS Jerusalem, 5 and 19 July 2012; and UNMAS, “Portfolio of Mine Action Projects 2012,” undated.

[27] UNMAS, “Where We Work: State of Palestine,” updated September 2023; and UNMAS, “Newsletter: State of Palestine,” undated.

[28] UNMAS, “ERW Risk Assessment Request Form,” 15 July 2020.

[29] United Nations (UN), “Gaza Inter-Agency Contingency Plan,” September 2020, pp. 31–32.

[30] Israel Ministry of Defense, “Israel National Mine Action Authority,” undated.

[31] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023.

[32] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and email from Ronen Shimoni, Program Officer, HALO Trust, 3 September 2018.

[33] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023; and Palestine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 29.

[34] UN, “Gaza Inter-Agency Contingency Plan,” September 2020.

[35] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[36] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023.

[37] Email from Tom Meredith, HALO Trust, 11 May 2015; and HALO Trust, “Where We Work: West Bank,” undated.

[38] HALO Trust, “Where We Work: West Bank,” undated; and responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[39] UNMAS, “Annual Report 2022,” April 2023, pp. 85–87; and UNMAS, “Where We Work: State of Palestine,” updated September 2023.

[40] ICRC, “Annual Report 2022,” 29 June 2023, p. 421.

[41] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023; and Palestine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 29.

[42] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and Palestine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), p. 29.

[43] West Bank figures are for Areas A and B only. Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 11 April 2022; and by Najwa Jarrar, National Capacity Development Analyst, UNMAS, 8 July 2022. PMAC had reported to the Monitor 6,000m² cleared and 16 antipersonnel mines destroyed in 2020, but those figures are likely to have been adjusted and merged with PMAC’s reporting for 2022, showing that a task order in Tul Kareem was addressed in late 2020 and finalized in 2022, with total clearance of 0.024km² and 13 antipersonnel mines destroyed.

[44] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, Information Department, PMAC, 23 March 2021.

[45] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, Information Department, PMAC, 23 March 2021.

[46] Israel CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report (for calendar years 2019–2020), Form A and B, pp. 5–6 and HALO Trust, “Special Projects: Making History at the Baptism Site,” undated.

[47] HALO Trust, “Where We work: West Bank,” undated; Israel CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report (for calendar year 2019), Form B; and response to Monitor questionnaire by PMAC, 16 May 2020.

[48] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[49] Statement of Palestine, Mine Ban Treaty Seventeenth Meeting of States Parties, Vienna, 26 November 2018.

[50] Response to Monitor questionnaire by PMAC, 16 May 2020.

[51] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[52] Palestine Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022). See, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Database.

[53] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023.

[54] UNOCHA, “Palestine: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 25 January 2023; UNMAS, “Annual Report 2022,” April 2023, pp. 85–87; and UNMAS, “Where We Work: State of Palestine,” updated September 2023.

[55] UNMAS, “Annual Report 2022,” April 2023, pp. 85–87; and UNMAS, “Where We Work: State of Palestine,” updated September 2023.

[57] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[58] PMAC, “Explosive Ordnance Risk Education Strategy for the State of Palestine,” 2021, p. 11.

[59] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023; by Hana Albaioumy, Senior EORE Advisor, UNMAS Gaza, 22 June 2022; and by Soula Kreitem, Program and Support Officer, UNMAS, 30 April 2020.

[60] UN, “Gaza Inter-Agency Contingency Plan,” September 2020, pp. 31–32.

[61] PMAC, “Explosive Ordnance Risk Education Strategy for the State of Palestine,” 2021, p. 5.

[62] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 11 April 2022; and by Najwa Jarrar, National Capacity Development Analyst, UNMAS, 8 July 2022; and UNMAS, “Annual Report 2020,” April 2021, p. 17.

[63] PMAC, “Explosive Ordnance Risk Education Strategy for the State of Palestine,” 2021, p. 8.

[64] PMAC, “Explosive Ordnance Risk Education Strategy for the State of Palestine,” 2021, p. 9.

[65] ICRC, “Annual Report 2022,” 29 June 2023, p. 421.

[66] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[67] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Soula Kreitem, Program and Support Officer, UNMAS, 30 April 2020; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[68] UNMAS, “Palestine Programme: EORE Portfolio 2019–2020,” undated, p. 9; and responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[69] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Soula Kreitem, Program and Support Officer, UNMAS, 30 April 2020; by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[70] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[71] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[72] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 11 April 2022 and 16 May 2023; by Najwa Jarrar, National Capacity Development Analyst, UNMAS, 8 July 2022; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[73] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[74] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Soula Kreitem, Program and Support Officer, UNMAS, 30 April 2020; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[75] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[76] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Soula Kreitem, Program and Support Officer, UNMAS, 30 April 2020; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[77] UNMAS, “Where We Work: State of Palestine,” updated September 2023; UNMAS, “Newsletter: State of Palestine,” undated; and UNMAS, “Annual Report 2022,” April 2023, p. 87.

[78] UNMAS, “Annual Report 2022,” April 2023, p. 87.

[79] Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 11 April 2022; by Najwa Jarrar, National Capacity Development Analyst, UNMAS, 8 July 2022; by Hana Albaioumy, Senior EORE Advisor, UNMAS Gaza, 22 June 2022; and by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023; and ICRC, “Annual Report 2022,” 29 June 2023, p. 421.

[80] ICRC, “Annual Report 2022,” 29 June 2023, p. 422; and HI, “Country card: Palestine,” updated September 2022, p. 11.

[81] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023.

[82] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[83] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023.

[84] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maj. Wala Jarrar, International and External Relations Officer, PMAC, 16 May 2023.

[86] Harri Lee, Ola Abu Alghaib, and Rabeca Lauriciano, “Disability in Gaza: policy, barriers to inclusion and a mapping of interventions,” Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report, UKAID, 24 May 2019, p. 8.

[87] Harri Lee, Ola Abu Alghaib, and Rabeca Lauriciano, “Disability in Gaza: policy, barriers to inclusion and a mapping of interventions,” Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report, UKAID, 24 May 2019, p. 9; and Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, “Initial report submitted by the State of Palestine under article 35 of the Convention, due in 2016,” 1 November 2019, p. 55.

[88] Harri Lee, Ola Abu Alghaib, and Rabeca Lauriciano, “Disability in Gaza: policy, barriers to inclusion and a mapping of interventions,” Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report, UKAID, 24 May 2019, p. 9

[89] Harri Lee, Ola Abu Alghaib, and Rabeca Lauriciano, “Disability in Gaza: policy, barriers to inclusion and a mapping of interventions,” Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report, UKAID, 24 May 2019, pp. 9–10.

[90] ICRC, “Annual Report 2022,” 29 June 2023, p. 422; and ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme: 2022 Annual Report,” 1 May 2023, p. 42.

[91] UNOCHA, “Palestine: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 25 January 2023, p. 51.   

[92] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Charles Birch, Chief of Mine Action Program, UNMAS, 2 May 2023.

[93] HI, “Country card: Palestine,” updated September 2022, p. 11.

[94] Harri Lee, Ola Abu Alghaib, and Rabeca Lauriciano, “Disability in Gaza: policy, barriers to inclusion and a mapping of interventions,” Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report, UKAID, 24 May 2019, p. 1; UNMAS, “Newsletter: State of Palestine: June 2021,” undated, p. 1; and UNOCHA, “Response to the escalation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories: Situation Report No. 9 (August 2021),” 3 September 2021.

[95] ICRC, “Annual Report 2022,” 29 June 2023, p. 422.

[96] ICRC, “Annual Report 2022,” 29 June 2023, p. 422; and ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme: 2022 Annual Report,” 1 May 2023, p. 42.

[97] HI, “Country card: Palestine,” updated September 2022, p. 11. 

[98] ICRC, “Annual Report 2022,” 29 June 2023, p. 422; and ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme: 2022 Annual Report,” May 2023, p. 42.

[99] UNOCHA, “Palestine: Humanitarian Response Plan 2023,” 25 January 2023, p. 52.

[100] HI, “Country card: Palestine,” updated September 2022, p. 11.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 15 October 2020

Policy

The State of Palestine acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 29 December 2017,[1] and the treaty came into force for Palestine on 1 June 2018.

As a State Party, Palestine submitted its initial Article 7 report in November 2018, which stated that Palestine was working to pass a draft law to implement the treaty, though it did not provide any details on whether such a law has been introduced in the Legislative Council.[2] Palestine submitted a second Article 7 report in April 2019.[3]

Previously, in September 2012, Palestine submitted a voluntary Article 7 report. The report stated that a Higher Committee for Mine Action, within the Ministry of Interior, was established in 2012 as an interministerial body, which is currently developing and adapting legislation with regard to mine action. In February 2012, the committee mandated and allocated resources to the Palestinian Mine Action Center (PMAC) to coordinate all mine action-related activities in the West Bank.[4] The PMAC was established in April 2012.[5] Palestine submitted an additional voluntary Article 7 report in 2013.

Palestine did not attend the convention’s Fourth Review Conference in Oslo in November 2019.

Palestine is State Party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), but not its Amended Protocol II on landmines or Protocol V on explosive remnants of war (ERW).

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

The Monitor has not found any allegations of use of antipersonnel mines or mine-like devices by any Palestinian entity in recent years.[6]

In its 2012 voluntary Article 7 report, Palestine stated that it does not possess a stockpile of antipersonnel mines, would not retain any mines for training purposes, and would only transfer mines for destruction. The report also stated that Palestine has never had production facilities for antipersonnel landmines. The report listed mined areas and provided information on the status of Palestine’s risk education and victim assistance programs.[7]

Clearance efforts in Palestine are ongoing. In May 2016, the HALO Trust began clearing landmines around Christian holy sites in the West Bank.[8]

In February 2012, the Israeli armed forces seized and surrounded land belonging to a Palestinian family in the southern West Bank town of Surif by placing yellow warning signs, claiming that the land was mined and that the area was a closed military zone. The owner claimed that the area had been cleared of mines by the Palestinian Authority more than 20 years previously, adding that the mines had initially been laid by the Israeli army when the area was used for military training.[9]

In June 2012, the United Nations conducted training on landmine removal for three weeks. The training was held in Jericho under the auspices of the PMAC, and trained members of the public security forces.[10]

Israel does not coordinate with the Palestinian Authority on mine clearance, but has been involved in mine clearance around Israel’s illegal settlements in order to expand them.[11]



[1] State of Palestine, Instrument of Accession to the Mine Ban Treaty, Depository Notification, United Nations, 29 December 2017.

[5]The Palestinian Mine Action Center (PMAC),” On the Record, 26 June 2012.

[6] Palestinian militias have produced and used command-detonated improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The Mine Ban Treaty prohibits use of victim-activated IEDs and booby-traps, which function as antipersonnel mines, but does not prohibit use of command-detonated IEDs. Media and other reports are not always clear whether devices involved in explosive incidents in Palestine are victim-activated or command-detonated, and reports often use a number of terms interchangeably, citing the use of bombs, landmines, booby-traps, and IEDs.

[9]Israeli Land Mines Still Pose Problems for Palestinian Communities,” Palestinian Solidarity Project, 29 February 2012.

[10]UN experts train Palestinian security to remove land mines,” TV News Report, Palestine TV (Ramallah), 25 June 2012. An English language translation was re-broadcast on Mosaic News.

[11] Jacob Magid, “Defense Ministry clears minefield near settlement, pledges new housing on site,” The Times of Israel, 3 April 2018. The settlements are generally agreed to be illegal under the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949, which prohibits countries from moving populations into territories occupied during a war.


Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 22 December 2023

In 2022, Palestine received a total of US$3.9 million in international assistance from seven donors. This represents an increase of 51% compared to the $2.6 million received in 2021.[1]

Most of the funding in 2022 ($2.5 million, or 64%) went to the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS). The remaining $1.4 million (36%) went to the HALO Trust, Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), and ITF Enhancing Human Security.

International contributions: 2022[2]

Donor

Sector

Amount

(national currency)

Amount

(US$)

European Union

Various

€1,000,000

1,053,400

United States

Clearance, risk education

US$1,014,000

1,014,000

Japan

Risk education, victim assistance

¥122,494,000

931,805

New Zealand

Capacity-building, risk education

NZ$780,000

496,158

Norway

Various

NOK2,958,594

307,744

Slovenia

Victim assistance

N/R

72,522

Poland

Clearance

N/R

44,434

Total

 -

N/A

3,920,063

Note: N/A=not applicable; N/R=not reported.

Five-year support for mine action

In the five-year period from 2018–2022, Palestine received a total of approximately $15 million in international assistance for mine action. This represents a 25% decrease from the $20.3 million received during the previous five-year period, from 2013–2017.

Summary of international contributions: 2018–2022[3]

Year

International contributions (US$)

% change from previous year

2022

3,920,063

+51

2021

2,600,000

-38

2020

4,200,000

+132

2019

1,810,978

-30

2018

2,592,861

+55

Total

15,123,902

N/A

                  Note: N/A=not applicable.

 


[1] Japan: response to Monitor questionnaire by Akifumi Fukuoka, Deputy Director, Conventional Arms Division, Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 7 September 2023. Netherlands: Netherlands Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form I; and Netherlands Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form I. New Zealand: United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), “Annual Report 2022,” April 2023, pp. 119–120. Norway: Norway Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2022), Form J. Poland: UNMAS, “Annual Report 2022,” April 2023, pp. 119–120. Slovenia: ITF Enhancing Human Security, “Annual Report 2022,” March 2023, pp. 20–21. United States: US Department of State, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA), “To Walk the Earth in Safety: 1 October 2021–30 September 2022,” 4 April 2023. For Article 7 reports, see Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database and Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Database.

[2] Average exchange rates for 2022: €1=US$1.0534; NZ$1=US$0.6361; NOK9.6138=US$1; ¥131.4589=US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 9 January 2023.

[3] See previous Support for Mine Action country profiles. ICBL-CMC, “Country Profiles: Palestine,” undated; ICBL, Landmine Monitor 2022 (ICBL-CMC: Geneva, November 2022); ICBL, Landmine Monitor 2021 (ICBL-CMC: Geneva, November 2021); and ICBL, Landmine Monitor 2020 (ICBL-CMC: Geneva, November 2020).