Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 14 November 2023


The Kingdom of Thailand signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 27 November 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 May 1999.  

Thailand has not enacted domestic legislation to implement the Mine Ban Treaty.[1]

Thailand submitted its latest annual Article 7 transparency report for the treaty in April 2023, covering calendar year 2022.[2]

Thailand has attended all of the Mine Ban Treaty’s review conferences: in 2004, 2009, 2014, and 2019. It has regularly attended Meetings of States Parties and intersessional meetings. Thailand attended the Twentieth Meeting of States Parties held in Geneva in November 2022 and the intersessional meetings in Geneva in June 2023.

Thailand is a member of the Committee on Enhancement of Cooperation and Assistance until the end of the Twenty-First Meeting of States Parties in November 2023. Thailand has regularly co-chaired committees of the treaty.

Previously, in 2019, Thailand undertook two universalization activities alongside Myanmar. Thailand also undertook international cooperation and assistance activities with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Japan, Norway, South Korea, and the United States (US).[3]

Production, transfer, stockpile destruction, and retention

Thailand states that it has never produced or exported antipersonnel mines. Thailand retains no live mines for training purposes. On 6 August 2019, Thailand destroyed all 3,133 antipersonnel mines that it had previously retained for training purposes.[4]

Thailand previously imported antipersonnel landmines from China, Italy, the US, and the former Yugoslavia. Thailand completed destruction of 337,725 stockpiled antipersonnel mines on 24 April 2003. During clearance operations in 2020, Thailand found, for the first time, antipersonnel landmines of Hungarian origin.[5]

Thailand is not known to have undertaken physical modifications of its Claymore mine stockpile to ensure use only in command-detonated mode. Officials have previously stated that all military units received orders that Claymore mines are to be used only in command-detonated mode.[6]


Sporadic use of improvised antipersonnel landmines by Pattani rebel groups in southern Thailand continued in 2022–2023, with multiple incidents reported.

In June 2023, a paramilitary officer was injured after stepping on a landmine while patrolling in Joh Ai Rong district, Narathiwat province.[7]

On 15 August 2022, a woman working in a rubber plantation was injured after stepping on a mine. Later the same day, a Thai soldier was killed and several other people were injured in a second explosion, while searching for more mines near the site of the first incident.[8]

On 15 April 2022, a villager in Sai Buri district, Pattani province, was killed after picking up an explosive device in a rice field. Three responding officials were injured by a second device.[9]

On 3 February 2022, a civilian was injured by an improvised mine when walking along a canal to go fishing in Chana district, Songkhla province, in an area where the Royal Thai Army had clashed with insurgents earlier in the day.[10]

Incidents of improvised antipersonnel mine use by insurgents in the south, often targeting Thai security forces and workers at rubber plantations, have been reported since at least 2006.[11] To date, Thailand has not provided any information to States Parties in its annual Article 7 reports regarding incidents of use, contamination by, or clearance of improvised antipersonnel mines in its southern provinces.[12] The Monitor has recorded almost 60 casualties due to improvised mines laid by insurgents in southern Thailand since 2006. (See Thailand Impact profile for more details).

There have been no allegations of new use of antipersonnel landmines on Thailand’s eastern border with Cambodia since March 2013.[13]

[1] In April 2018, Thailand reported under National Implementation Measures that it had “re-established the National Committee for Mine Action under the Order of the Office of the Prime Minister with the Prime Minister as its Chairperson.” For further detail on national implementation measures, the report directs readers to Thailand’s 2015 Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report, which states, “Thailand continues to consider regulations that will streamline and improve national implementation of the AP [Anti-personnel] Mine Ban Convention.” Thailand provided the same update in its Article 7 report covering calendar year 2018. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[2] Thailand has provided updated annual Article 7 reports every year since its initial transparency report was submitted in November 1999.

[3] During the Fourth Review Conference in November 2019, representatives of the Thailand Mine Action Center (TMAC) briefed the Myanmar delegation on the overall mine action situation in Thailand as well as the positive impacts of becoming a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. This is considered part of Thailand’s universalization efforts in line with Action 11 of the Oslo Action Plan. Earlier in 2019, Thailand hosted a briefing and site visit for senior Myanmar representatives from the Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Home Affairs, to discuss organization for mine action. Thailand also received requests from South Korea to share its experiences on the establishment of a humanitarian mine action organization, resulting in the Director General of TMAC giving a briefing on mine action to South Korean and US delegates to the International Meeting of Mine Action National Directors in February 2019. For details, see, Thailand Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 30 April 2020.

[4] Thailand Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 30 April 2020.

[5] A total of 77 GYATA-64 PMN type mines were found and destroyed during clearance operations in Ubon Ratchathani province. See, Thailand Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 30 April 2021, p. 29.

[6] Interview with Lt.-Gen. Deemongkol, TMAC, Bangkok, 19 March 2009. TMAC stated this in 2007 as well as in 2008. In its Article 7 report for 1999, Thailand reported that it had 6,117 M18 and M18A1 Claymore mines in stock.

[10] Assawin Pakkawan, “Villager steps on bomb, loses leg in Songkhla,” Bangkok Post, 4 February 2022.

[11] Incidents reported by the Monitor from 2018–2021 include the following. On 9 August 2021, a territorial defense volunteer lost a leg after stepping on a landmine at his rubber plantation, and his wife suffered facial injuries, in Su-Ngai Padi district, Narathiwat province. “Defense Volunteer has leg blown off after stepping on landmine in his rubber plantation - wife injured,” ASEAN Now, 10 August 2021. On 9 October 2020, a Thai Ranger was killed after stepping on a landmine while pursuing insurgents in Sai Buri district, Pattani province. “One ranger killed and two injured by suspected insurgents in Pattani province,” Thai PBS, 9 October 2020. On 2 July 2018, a latex tapper in Krong Penang district, Yala province, lost his foot after stepping on a landmine emplaced by insurgents at a rubber plantation. Two other latex tappers were seriously wounded by mines in separate incidents, in Yaha district on 28 June and Muang district on 2 July. See, Teeranai Charuvastra, “Landmine Wounds Deep South Farmer,” Khaosod, 2 July 2018; Mariyam Ahmad, “Thailand: Landmine Injures Fifth Rubber Farm Worker in a Week,” Benar News, 5 July 2018; and Human Rights Watch (HRW), “Thailand: Insurgents Use Landmines in South,” 4 July 2018. Earlier incidents involving improvised mines have been reported in southern Thailand by the Monitor since 2006.

[12] Thailand’s annual Article 7 reports are prepared by TMAC. In response to a request for further information on improvised mine contamination in southern Thailand by the Monitor, TMAC replied that it was set up to address antipersonnel mines remaining from previous armed conflicts and lacks the authority or jurisdiction to address new contamination from the current conflict in the south. Email from Flt.-Lt. Chotiboon Anukulvanich, Interpreter and Coordinator, TMAC, 19 April 2022.

[13] In March 2013, three Thai soldiers were injured by what the Thai military described as newly planted mines near the Ta Kwai Temple in Phanom Dong Rak district, Surin province. Cambodia investigated, and in its report to States Parties, stated that it had found the mines to be old, dating from the Cambodian Civil War. Other allegations made by Thailand of Cambodian use of antipersonnel mines along the Cambodia-Thailand border in 2008 and 2009 were never resolved. In October 2008, two Thai soldiers stepped on antipersonnel landmines while on patrol in disputed territory between Thailand and Cambodia, near the World Heritage Site of Preah Vihear. Thai authorities maintained that the area was previously clear of landmines, and that the mines had been newly emplaced by Cambodian forces. Cambodia denied the allegation, and stated that the Thai soldiers had entered Cambodian territory in an area known to contain antipersonnel landmines, and were injured by mines laid during previous armed conflicts. In April 2009, another Thai soldier was reportedly wounded by an antipersonnel mine at the same location during further armed conflict between the two countries. In September 2009, the then-Commander in Chief of the Royal Thai Army, Gen. Anupong Paochinda, stated that Cambodian troops were laying fresh mines along the disputed areas and close to routes where Thai soldiers make regular patrols. See, ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2009: Toward a Mine-Free World (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, October 2009), pp. 243–244 and 719–720; and ICBL, “Country Profile: Cambodia: Mine Ban Policy,” updated 27 October 2010.