Turkmenistan

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 05 September 2023

Summary: Non-signatory Turkmenistan has never commented on the humanitarian concerns raised by cluster munitions or elaborated its position on joining the Convention on Cluster Munitions. It last participated in a meeting of the convention in 2015. Turkmenistan was absent from the vote on a key United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution promoting the convention in December 2022.

Turkmenistan is not known to have used, produced, or exported cluster munitions, but possesses a stockpile.

Policy

The Republic of Turkmenistan has not acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Turkmenistan did not participate in the Oslo Process that created the convention and has never made a public statement on cluster munitions.

Turkmenistan participated as an observer at the convention’s First Review Conference held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in September 2015. This marked its first and, to date, only attendance at a meeting of the convention. Turkmenistan was invited to, but did not attend, the convention’s Tenth Meeting of States Parties held in Geneva in August–September 2022.

In December 2022, Turkmenistan was absent from the vote on a key UNGA resolution that called on states outside the Convention on Cluster Munitions to “join as soon as possible.”[1] Turkmenistan has been absent from every vote on the annual UNGA resolution promoting the convention since it was first introduced in 2015.

Turkmenistan is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is also party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW).

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

Turkmenistan is not known to have used or produced cluster munitions.

Turkmenistan possesses cluster munitions that it inherited after the breakup of the Soviet Union. It has never shared information on the types and quantities in its stockpile.[2] It is reported to possess Smerch 300mm, Uragan 220mm, and Grad 122mm unguided surface-to-surface rockets, but it is not known if these include versions with submunition payloads.[3] Turkmenistan reportedly received six Smerch rocket launchers from Russia in 2009–2010.[4] It also received 10 Grad rocket launchers from Belarus in 2016–2017.[5]



[1]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 77/79, 7 December 2022.  

[2] As part of its Mine Ban Treaty obligations, Turkmenistan destroyed a stockpile of 5,452,416 PFM-series antipersonnel landmines. See, ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2004: Toward a Mine-Free World(New York: Human Rights Watch, October 2004),pp. 830–832. Turkmenistan may also have stocks of cluster munitions from when the main ammunition storage facility for the Soviet Union’s combat operations in Afghanistan was located in Charjoh (now Turkmenabad), according to Turkmenistan military officers in April 2004.

[3] International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), The Military Balance 2011 (London: Routledge, 2011), p. 279; and Colin King, ed., Jane’s Explosive Ordnance Disposal, CD-edition (Surrey: Jane’s Information Group, January 2008).

[4] Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), “Arms Transfers Database,” Recipient report for Turkmenistan for the period 1950–2011, generated on 4 May 2012.

[5] SIPRI, “Arms Transfers Database,” Recipient report for Turkmenistan for the period 2010–2020, generated on 14 June 2021.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 18 December 2019

Policy

Turkmenistan signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 19 January 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 March 1999. It has not enacted new legislation specifically to implement the Mine Ban Treaty.

Turkmenistan has not attended any recent meetings of the treaty. It did not attend the Third Review Conference in Maputo in June 2014. Turkmenistan submitted its fifth Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report on 7 June 2010, but has not submitted an updated report since.

Turkmenistan is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II on landmines and Protocol V on explosive remnants of war. Turkmenistan is not party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Production, use, transfer, and stockpiling

Turkmenistan has never used, produced, exported, or imported antipersonnel mines. It inherited a stockpile of 6,631,771 antipersonnel mines from the former Soviet Union. This stockpile included 5,452,416 PFM type scatterable mines in 75,718 KSF type cassettes.[1] The presence of such a large stockpile of antipersonnel mines in Turkmenistan was the result of the main ammunition storage facility for Soviet combat operations in Afghanistan being located in Charjoh (now Turkmenabad), according to military officials.[2]

The destruction of Turkmenistan’s stockpile of antipersonnel mines was completed on 11 November 2004.[3] While most of the stockpile was destroyed prior to its March 2003 deadline, it later destroyed 69,200 PFM-type mines (572,200 individual antipersonnel mines) that it had initially planned to retain for training and development purposes.[4]



[1] Turkmenistan reported a total of 102,628 PFM and KPOM cassettes. This equates to 5,560,016 individual mines.

[2] Interviews with officers from the Ministry of Defense of Turkmenistan, Turkmenabad, 8 April 2004.

[3] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, 21 May 2009, p. 3. Translation by the Monitor.

[4] For details see, Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 593–594.