United Arab Emirates

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 05 September 2023

Summary: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has never elaborated its views on cluster munitions or commented on its position on joining the Convention on Cluster Munitions. The UAE participated in the convention’s Tenth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in August–September 2022, yet abstained from the vote on a key United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution promoting the convention in December 2022.

The UAE is not known to have produced cluster munitions, but it has imported them and possesses a stockpile. The UAE may have used cluster munitions.  

Policy

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has not acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

The UAE has never made a public statement elaborating its views on cluster munitions or its position on joining the convention.[1]

The UAE did not participate in the Oslo Process that created the convention.

The UAE has participated as an observer at several meetings of the convention, most recently the Tenth Meeting of States Parties held in Geneva in August–September 2022, where it did not make a statement.[2]

In December 2022, the UAE abstained from voting on a key UNGA resolution that urged states outside the Convention on Cluster Munitions “to join as soon as possible.”[3] The UAE has abstained from voting on the annual UNGA resolution promoting the convention since it was first introduced in 2015.

The UAE is not party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW).

Production, transfer, and stockpiling

The UAE is not known to have produced or exported cluster munitions.

The UAE imported cluster munitions and has a stockpile of ground-fired cluster munition rockets and missiles, as well as air-delivered bombs from Turkey, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US).

The UAE purchased an unknown number of CBU-105 Sensor Fuzed Weapons from the US in 2010.[4]

Following US sales announced in 2006, the UAE received 101 M39A1 ATACMS missiles (each containing 300 M74 submunitions), 104 M26 multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) rocket pods (each pod contains six rockets, while each rocket contains 644 M77 dual-purpose improved conventional munition [DPICM] submunitions), and 130 M30 GMLRS DPICM rocket pods.[5]

The UAE received 1,800 CBU-87 bombs (each containing 202 BLU-97 submunitions) from the US in 1999.[6] The UAE also received 3,020 TRK-122 122mm unguided cluster munition rockets, each containing 56 M85 DPICM submunitions, from Turkey in 2006–2007.[7]

According to Jane’s Information Group, the UAE Air Force possesses UK-made BL-755 bombs and has received Hydra-70 air-to-surface rockets. However, it is not known if these include the M261 multipurpose submunition variant.[8] The UAE is also reported to possess Soviet-made 122mm Type-90 and 300mm Smerch surface-to-surface rockets, but it is not known if they contain submunition payloads.[9]

During the International Defence Exhibition and Conference (IDEX) military trade fair held in Abu Dhabi in February 2017, defense companies from Egypt and Russia advertised cluster munitions for sale.[10]

Use

In 2011, a Ministry of Foreign Affairs official told the Monitor that the UAE has never used or produced cluster munitions.[11]

The UAE participated in a Saudi Arabia-led joint military operation in Yemen, against Ansar Allah (Houthi) forces, which used cluster munitions in 2015–2017.

 



[1] Officials from the UAE have commented favorably on the convention during meetings with campaigners. In 2001, a UAE representative expressed support for the humanitarian aspects of the convention and said the government was studying its position on accession. Interview with Amb. Faris Mohammed al-Mazroui, Assistant for Security and Military Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beirut, 15 September 2011.

[2] The UAE also participated as an observer at the Meetings of States Parties held in 2011 and 2017–2019.

[3]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 77/79, 7 December 2022.

[4] The contract for the sale was signed in November 2007. Textron Defense Systems, “Textron Inc. Q2 2010 Earnings Call,” 21 July 2010; and Textron Defense Systems press release, “Textron Defense Systems and UAE Armed Forces Sign Sensor Fuzed Weapon Contract,” 13 November 2007. Also, the US Congress was notified in June 2007 of a proposed commercial sale of “technical data, defense services, and defense articles to support the sale of the Sensor Fuzed Weapons” to the UAE. Jeffrey T. Bergner, Assistant Secretary for Legislative Affairs, US Department of State, to Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the US House of Representatives, Transmittal No. DDTC 017-07, 7 June 2007.

[5] Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), US Department of Defense, “News Release: United Arab Emirates - High Mobility Artillery Rocket System,” Transmittal No. 06-55, 21 September 2006.

[6] DSCA, US Department of Defense, “Notifications to Congress of Pending US Arms Transfers,” November 1999.

[7] Turkey, United Nations (UN) Register of Conventional Arms, Submission for Calendar Year 2006, 22 March 2007; and Turkey, UN Register of Conventional Arms, Submission for Calendar Year 2007, 7 July 2008.

[8] Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air-Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey: Jane’s Information Group, 2004), p. 847; and Colin King, ed., Jane’s Explosive Ordnance Disposal, CD-edition, 14 December 2007 (Surrey: Jane’s Information Group, 2008).

[9] International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), The Military Balance 2011 (London: Routledge, 2011), p. 334.

[10] For more details, see ICBL-CMC, “Country Profile: Egypt: Cluster Munition Ban Policy,” updated 4 September 2020; and ICBL-CMC, “Country Profile: Russia: Cluster Munition Ban Policy,” updated 17 May 2022.

[11] Interview with Amb. al-Mazroui, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Beirut, 15 September 2011.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 16 October 2020

Policy

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty, although it has, on occasion, expressed interest in joining. In November 2007, a Ministry of Foreign Affairs official told the ICBL that the UAE planned to join the treaty in the near future.[1]

The UAE attended, as an observer, the convention’s Fourth Review Conference in Oslo, Norway in November 2019, but did not make any statements. The UAE last sent observers to a Meeting of States Parties in December 2012. The UAE has never submitted a voluntary Article 7 report.

The UAE voted in favor of annual United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 74/61 in December 2019, calling for universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty, as it has done for all previous pro-ban resolutions since 1996.[2]

The UAE is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and has adopted CCW Protocol V on explosive remnants of war, but not Amended Protocol II on landmines. The UAE is not party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

The UAE has stated that it has not produced, used, or exported antipersonnel mines.[3] While some officials have said that the UAE does not have a stockpile of antipersonnel mines, the Monitor has received conflicting information from another governmental source.[4]



[1] Interview with Abdallah al-Naqbi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mine Ban Treaty Eighth Meeting of States Parties, at the Dead Sea, Jordan, 22 November 2007.

[2] “Implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction,” UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 74/61, 12 December 2019.

[3] Interview with Abdallah al-Naqbi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mine Ban Treaty Eighth Meeting of States Parties, at the Dead Sea, Jordan, 22 November 2007.

[4] The Secretary of Defense stated in September 2004 there were no stockpiles. Email from Amb. Satnam Jit Singh, Diplomatic Advisor, ICBL, 7 October 2004. This was also claimed in a presentation by Ali al-Hosni, UAE military officer, at the Workshop on the Risks of Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War (ERW), Sharjah, 8–9 December 2003, organized by the Arab Network for Research on Landmines and ERW. In 2006, an official who asked not to be identified told the ICBL that there were some stockpiles of antipersonnel mines.


Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 30 October 2013

In September 2011, in its continuing support for the reconstruction of Afghanistan that began in 1997, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) committed US$25.83 million[1] to mine action to conduct community-based mine action services in Kandahar province. The UAE selected the United States-based company EOD Technology (EODT) to implement the project.[2]In 2012 EODT merged with Sterling Global Operations.[3]

The first installment, paid in late 2011, was for $1,999,975.[4] In 2012, the UAE allocated $13,397,300 to EODT to continue clearance operations in Kandahar province.[5]

 



[1] Mine Action Coordination Centre of Afghanistan (MACCA) website, “MACCA Fast Facts: March 2012.”

[2] EODT, “News,” 12 December 2011.

[4] Email from Eugen Secareanu, Resource Mobilisation Assistant, Resource Mobilisation Unit, UN Mine Action Service, 30 May 2012.

[5] MACCA website “MACCA Fast Facts: December 2012.”