Last updated: 10 October 2018



All known casualties (between 1975 and 2017)

105,073 mine/unexploded remnants of war (ERW) casualties: 38,978 killed; 66,093 injured; 2 unknown survival outcome

Casualties in 2017[1] 

Annual total


Increase from
9 in 2016

Survival outcome

8 killed; 6 injured

Device type causing casualties

13 ERW; 1 unexploded submunition

Civilian status

14 civilians


Age and gender

8 adults:
1 woman; 5 men; 2 unknown

6 children:
6 unknown


Casualties in 2017—details

Of the 14 casualties recorded in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 2017, three occurred in Quang Tri province, four in Kon Tom province, and seven in Khanh Hoa province.

All casualties but one in 2017 occurred as a result of dismantling ERW, mainly for use for scrap metal. The remaining incident wasa caused by an unexploded submunition during farming.

The only systematic collection of casualty data occurs in Quang Tri province, where there is a provincial database unit.[2] The casualties in KonTom and Khanh Hoa were identified through media sources.[3] 

The 14 casualties recorded in 2017 is an increase on the nine casualties recorded for 2016 and the seven recorded for 2015. These last three years represented a significant decrease from the 24 casualties reported for 2014,[4] 50 in 2013, and 73 reported in 2012. However, with no nationwide data collection mechanism, it was not possible to confirm if this was in fact a trend of casualties decreasing annually.

At least 105,073 mine/ERW casualties (38,978 killed; 66,093 injured; and two of unknown survival outcome) have been recorded in Vietnam. It was reported that from 1975 to the end of 2007, the Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs (MoLISA) recorded 104,701 mine/ERW casualties (38,849 killed; 65,852 injured).[5] In Quang Tri, the only province where there was a mine action database of casualties, 8,526 casualties (3,425 killed; 5,101 injured) were recorded to May 2016. These casualties may be included in the cumulative total.[6] 

Cluster munition casualties

One unexploded submunition casualty was recorded in 2017, a significant decrease from the nine reported in 2016.

At least 2,135 casualties from incidents involving cluster munition remnants were reported as of the end of 2017. However, one estimate put the likely total of such casualties as high as 34,000.[7] In many cases, the type of explosive remnants causing casualties could not be determined and all these were recorded as ERW casualties, although there were likely many among them caused by unexploded submunitions.[8] In addition, numerous casualties during cluster munition strikes have been reported.[9] A 2012 study of data for the period 1975–2009 found that 1% of the population of Quang Tri province had been involved in mine/ERW incidents and that unexploded submunitions were the main cause.[10] 

[1] Unless otherwise indicated, casualty data for 2017 is based on: email from Le Anh Thu, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), 28 February 2018; Legacy of War Coordination Center (LWCC), Quang Tri province on-line database; and Monitor media scanning.

[3] Two killed by wartime bomb explosion in Vietnam,” Vine Express International, 25 October 2017; and, “Six die in Vietnam, including 4 children, while sawing mortar shell for scrap metal,” Associated Press, 18 August 2017.

[4] Casualty data provided by Toan Quang Dang, Program Manager, Mine & Cluster Victim Assistance Program, Project RENEW, 2 March 2015.

[5] Email from Dang Quang Toan, Project RENEW, 9 August 2008. The additional casualties for 2008 through 2015 were reported by the Monitor. See the Vietnam country reports and profiles on the Monitor website. The Vietnamese government press reports that official figures show that mines/ERW caused 104,000 victims between 1975 and 2000 (42,000 killed and 62,000 injured). See, Socialist Government of Viet Nam online newspaper, “Bomb and mine clearance plan approved,” VGP News,14 May 2013.

[6] Email from Le Anh Thu, MAG, 25 May 2017.

[7] This estimate assumes that some 33% of all mine/ERW casualties reported since 1975 were likely to have been caused by unexploded submunitions. Handicap International (HI), Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (Brussels: HI, May 2007), p. 39; and Monitor analysis of annual casualty data.

[8] Email from Dang Quang Toan, Project RENEW, 28 June 2008.

[9] See for example, documentation on deaths and injuries caused by cluster munitions in the International War Crimes Tribunal, 1967.

[10] Tran Kim Phung, Le Viet, and Hans Husum, “The legacy of war: an epidemiological study of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam,” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, Vol. 43, No. 4, July 2012, pp. 1,036–1,041.