Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 17 November 2021


Ukraine signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 24 February 1999 and ratified it on 27 December 2005, becoming a State Party on 1 June 2006.

At the intersessional meetings in June 2019, Ukraine reported that the law “On Mine Action in Ukraine” was adopted by its parliament on 6 December 2018 and entered into force on 25 January 2019. Ukraine reported that the legislation “defines the legal and organization foundations for the implementation of anti-mine activities in Ukraine.” Ukraine has also adopted two resolutions, on regulations for marking mines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), and on funding procedures.[1]

Similar legislation had been introduced in 2016, but failed to pass.[2] Ukraine has reported existing regulations under national implementation measures, as well as a 2012 law to ratify an agreement with an agency of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to destroy stockpiles.[3]

Ukraine regularly submits updated annual Article 7 transparency reports. Its most recent Article 7 report was submitted on 1 April 2021, covering calendar year 2020.[4]

Since the Mine Ban Treaty’s Second Review Conference in 2009, Ukraine has attended almost all treaty meetings, including the Fourth Review Conference in Oslo in November 2019, the Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties, held virtually in November 2020, and the intersessional meetings, held virtually in June 2021.

Ukraine is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II on landmines, and Protocol V on ERW. Ukraine submitted its latest annual report for CCW Amended Protocol II in November 2016, and submitted an annual report for Protocol V in October 2016. Ukraine is not party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Production and transfer

Ukraine has declared that it “has not made and does not produce antipersonnel mines.”[5] Ukraine has not produced antipersonnel mines since its independence, and is not known to have exported antipersonnel mines.[6] Its 1999 moratorium on the export of antipersonnel mines, formally in place through 2003, stayed in effect until the Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Ukraine in 2006.


Landmines were used in the conflict between government forces and Russian-supported separatists that erupted in early 2014—initially in Crimea, and later in the Donetsk and Luhansk provinces of eastern Ukraine. The government of Ukraine has stated that it has not used antipersonnel mines in the conflict, and has accused Russian-supported insurgent forces of laying landmines in Ukraine.[7]

Landmine Monitor has received no credible information that Ukrainian government forces have used antipersonnel mines in violation of the Mine Ban Treaty since 2014 and into 2020.[8]

Information continues to be received documenting that Russian-supported separatists in eastern Ukraine are using an improvised type of antipersonnel mine, which combines a POM-2 bounding fragmentation mine with the rocket motor of a rocket-propelled grenade, to create a short range remotely-delivered antipersonnel mine system.[9]

Through survey, the HALO Trust identified a total of 1,653 military and civilian casualties on both sides of the current contact line, caused by mines and ERW. Using remote accident mapping technology, the HALO Trust was able to conduct this preliminary technical survey to identify contamination in inaccessible areas. They identified at least 135 villages, out of the 873 assessed, which were contaminated by landmines.[10]

There is significant evidence, at different locations, that antipersonnel mines of Soviet-origin with production markings from the 1980s, and antipersonnel mines with production markings from the 2000s—indicating Russian origin—are stockpiled and used by Russian-supported separatists in eastern Ukraine.[11] The Armed Forces of Ukraine and the security services continue to confiscate caches of antipersonnel mines along the front line, including MON-50 directional mines,[12] MON-90 directional mines,[13] PMN-1 and PMN-2 blast mines,[14] OZM-72 bounding fragmentation mines,[15] and POM-2 scatterable mines.[16]

Stockpiling and destruction

Ukraine missed its 1 June 2010 treaty-mandated deadline for the destruction of all stockpiled antipersonnel mines, and has therefore been in violation of the Mine Ban Treaty ever since.[17] It has not provided a timeline for when it will complete the destruction of its stockpile and comply with its obligation.[18] For years, Ukraine repeated at nearly every formal and informal Mine Ban Treaty meeting that it would depend on international support for the destruction of its stockpiles.[19] Most recently, Ukraine stated at the Fourth Review Conference in November 2019 that it “is determined to destroy the existing antipersonnel landmines inherited from pre-independence time,” citing that it “still manages to direct funds from the State budget to the purpose of the antipersonnel landmine destruction.”[20]

The types and quantities of antipersonnel mines that Ukraine has reported in its stockpile have varied over the years. The highest reported total—6,664,342 mines of nine different types—was detailed in Landmine Monitor 2006.[21]

In its Article 7 report for calendar year 2020, Ukraine declared a stockpile of 3,364,433 antipersonnel mines (3,363,828 PFM-type, and 605 OZM-4 hand-emplaced bounding fragmentation mines).[22] Ukraine destroyed a small number of PFM-type mines in 2020 that were considered to be unstable and unsafe for further storage.

Stockpiled antipersonnel mines destroyed by Ukraine, 2011–2020[23]


APMs destroyed























Note: APM=antipersonnel mine.

The remainder of Ukraine’s POM-2 remotely-delivered antipersonnel mines were destroyed in 2018, by the company Ukroboronprom. A small number were destroyed at the storage facility as their condition made them too hazardous to move. The OZM-4 mines were located in storage facilities in Crimea when that territory was seized in 2014, and are currently under the control of Russia.[24]

From 1999 until 2010, Ukraine destroyed significant quantities of stockpiled antipersonnel mines, using both its own resources and international assistance.[25]

Ukraine remains unable to articulate a timeframe for the completion of stockpile destruction. A previous agreement reached between the Ministry of Defense, the NATO Support and Procurement Agency, and the Pavlograd Chemical Plant for the destruction of stockpiles of PFM-type antipersonnel mines was terminated in 2020. The three parties are currently in the process of tendering a new agreement.[26] As the President of the Nineteenth Meeting of States Parties noted, “Ukraine further indicated that it is doing its best to intensify the interaction with relevant stakeholders on the matter” and added that “as soon as the tender procedure will be completed, Ukraine will inform on the activities carried out under Article 4.”[27]

[1] Statement of Ukraine, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 22 May 2019.

[2] Ukrainian Parliament, “Draft Law on Mine Action in Ukraine,” 9 September 2018; and Ukrainian Parliament, “Draft Law on Mine Action in Ukraine,” 12 October 2016.

[3] Ukraine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 1 April 2014, Form A. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[4] Ukraine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 1 April 2021. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[5] Ibid., Form E.

[6] For example, in May 2009, Ukraine said it “did not produce APL [antipersonnel landmines] in the past, doesn’t produce at present, and will not produce them in the future.” Presentation of Ukraine, Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 25 May 2009.

[7] Submission of Ukraine, Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference, Maputo, 18 June 2014; Statement of Ukraine, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Committee on Cooperative Compliance, Geneva, 26 June 2015; and Statement of Ukraine, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 22 May 2019. In December 2014, Ukrainian government officials stated that “no banned weapons” had been used in the “Anti-Terrorist Operations Zone” by the Armed Forces of Ukraine or forces associated with them, such as volunteer battalions. The Military Prosecutor confirmed that an assessment had been undertaken to ensure that stockpiled KSF-1 and KSF-1S cartridges containing PFM-1 antipersonnel mines, BKF-PFM-1 cartridges with PFM-1S antipersonnel mines, and 9M27K3 rockets with PFM-1S antipersonnel mines are not operational, but rather destined for destruction in accordance with the Mine Ban Treaty.

[8] Russia stated in October 2017, “We note with great regret that the information on alleged violations of Ottawa Convention is not verified at all. As we can see with regard to events in Ukraine the UN Secretary General investigation mechanism envisaged by Ottawa Convention remains inactive. Moreover, at the 2015–2016 State Parties meetings no one even tried to question Kiev’s compliance with Ottawa Convention during the civil war that it unleashed in the South-East of the country.” Statement by Vladimir Yermakov, United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) First Committee, Debate on Conventional Weapons, New York, 20 October 2017. In February 2016, Ukraine informed the Mine Ban Treaty’s Committee on Cooperative Compliance that “its Armed Forces are authorized to use mines in command-detonate mode, which is not prohibited under the Convention. All mines planted in command-detonate mode are recorded, secured and access is restricted.” Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC), “Report and Preliminary Observations: Committee On Cooperative Compliance (Algeria, Canada, Chile, Peru and Sweden): 2016 Intersessional Meetings,” May 2016, p. 4.

[9] See, for example, Schroeder, Matt (MSchroeder77), “Another RPG-delivered POM-2 anti-personnel mine documented in Ukraine.” 30 August 2021, 00:00 UTC. Tweet; Spa, Abraxas (AbraxasSpa), “More and more POM-2 anti-personnel mines delivered via RPG. According to JFO/EODs, drones used to drop these too.” 20 April 2021, 09:28 UTC. Tweet; Schroeder, Matt (MSchroeder77), “More RPG-delivered POM-2 mines in Donetsk.” 13 April 2021, 02:20 UTC. Tweet; and Weapons, Lost (LostWeapons), “Improvised Mine or improvised RPG. Can’t believe I missed these but really I think the best trench warfare weapon. RPGs modified to deploy POM-2 mines when then auto deploy 4 tripwires. Especially cold fronts you could just spam these at an enemy trench line.” 1 December 2020, 12:39 UTC. Tweet. See also, DFRLab, “Long-Range Mining in the Donbas,” 30 October 2020.

[10] Nick Torbet and Patrick Thompson, “21st Century Survey in Eastern Ukraine and the Use of Technology in Insecure Environments,” Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Vol. 21, Issue 2, July 2017.

[11] For evidence of markings from 2003, see, Security Service of Ukraine (SBU), “SBU reveals three hidings with ammunition and Russian mine in ATO area,” 15 November 2016; and for evidence of markings from 2010, see, Ukrainian Military TV, “Prove the presence of Russian mines in Donbas,”, 1 March 2017.

[12] Ukrainian Military TV, “Prove the presence of Russian mines in Donbas,”, 1 March 2017. SBU, “SBU reveals 2 Russian mines in ATO area,” 2 May 2017; SBU, “SBU seizes landmines produced in Russia in the ATO area,” 25 April 2017; and SBU, “SBU reveals cache with explosives in ATO area,” 16 January 2017.

[15] SBU, “SBU removes the military munitions,” 21 September 2018; SBU, “SBU blocks illegal sale of arms,” 19 September 2018; and SBU, “SBU uncovers ammunition of Russian production in ATO area,” 16 December 2017.

[16] Swampy, “Clearance around forward positions,” Beyond the Borders, 27 October 2017 (no longer available online); SBU, “SBU prevents terrorist attacks prepared by Russian secret services in Mariupol,” 17 August 2017; SBU, “SBU deactivates mine of Russian production in ATO area,” 26 April 2017; and SBU, “SBU reveals three hidings with ammunition and Russian mine in ATO area,” 15 November 2016.

[17] On 18 May 2010, Ukraine officially informed States Parties in a note verbale that “it will be unable to comply with its Article 4 obligation to destroy stockpiled anti-personnel mines by 1 June 2010 deadline.” At the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in June 2010, after Ukraine missed its deadline, Ukraine’s representative noted that this is not “unexpected information to States Parties” and that “Ukraine remains open for the fruitful cooperation with States Parties and potential donors and hopes for the practical assistance to make Ukraine territory free from [antipersonnel mine] stockpiles of PFM-type as soon as possible.” See, Statement of Amb. Oleksandr Nykonenko, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 21 June 2010.

[18] The requirement to destroy almost six million PFM-type antipersonnel mines was a key obstacle that prevented Ukraine from rapidly ratifying the Mine Ban Treaty. PFM mines contain a liquid explosive filling (VS6-D) that makes them dangerous and difficult to destroy, and requires sophisticated pollution control measures. In mid-2003, a European Commission (EC) technical study determined that the condition of Ukraine’s PFM stockpiles was good. The mines were consolidated into two sites, from a previous total of 13 storage locations. See, ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2006: Toward a Mine-Free World (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, July 2006), p. 765.

[19] In 2002, the EC launched a project to finance the destruction of Ukraine’s PFM mines, but a contract awarded in December 2005 was cancelled in April 2007. In 2008, Ukraine said that it had decided to make a national financial contribution toward destruction of about 1.6 million of the PFM mines, and also requested a renewal of European Union (EU) assistance. In 2009 and 2010, Ukraine said on multiple occasions that it was unlikely to meet its stockpile destruction deadline. It appealed to States Parties in May 2009 to find a “joint solution” to the problem and to come up with an option that would “prevent Ukraine from violating the Article 4 deadline” including international financial assistance, to modernize destruction facilities and acquire additional equipment. In a statement at the Mine Ban Treaty’s Second Review Conference, in Cartagena on 2 December 2009, Amb. Nykonenko of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that Ukraine could destroy one million mines per year if the destruction facility was upgraded, and that with additional assistance the timeframe might be reduced to three years.

[20] Statement of Ukraine, Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Review Conference, Oslo, 29 November 2019.

[21] For a chart showing reported changes in the quantities and types of antipersonnel mines stockpiled by Ukraine from 2006–2009, see, ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2009: Toward a Mine-Free World (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, October 2009), p. 774.

[22] Ukraine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 1 April 2019, Forms B and G. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[23] Ukraine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 reports, 2012–2015 and 2017–2020, Form G. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[24] Ukraine Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 1 April 2019, Form B. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database.

[25] In a November 2008 presentation, Ukraine indicated it had destroyed its entire stock of 238,010 POMZ-2 and POMZ-2M mines, as well as all 8,060 PMD-6 mines. Ukraine also destroyed more than 400,000 PMN mines in 2002 and 2003, and 101,088 PFM-1 mines in 1999. In June 2008, Ukraine reported that between 2005 and 2007, an experimental program to partially dismantle and destroy 8,000 POM-2 mines was carried out at the Donetsk Chemical Plant, and a further 48 POM-2 mines were destroyed at the Pavlograd Chemical Plant. In its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 reports submitted in 2007, 2008, and 2009, Ukraine also noted that while its MON-type and OZM-type antipersonnel mines could be used in command-detonated mode in compliance with the treaty, these stockpiled mines were excessive and unsuitable for use, and that it had plans to destroy them.

[26] Statement of Ukraine, Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, held virtually, 22 June 2021.