The exact extent of contamination of the area of Western Sahara controlled by the Kingdom of Morocco, on the west side of the Berm, is not known. In the past, Morocco declared, highly improbably, that a total of 120,000km2 of area was contaminated. According to Action on Armed Violence (AOAV) though, “the areas surrounding the Berm are believed to be some of the most heavily mined in the world.” It also has a significant problem with cluster munition remnants and other unexploded ordinance (UXO), though there is no evidence of cluster munition contamination on the west side of the Berm.
Morocco’s contamination is a result of the conflict between the Royal Moroccan Army (RMA) and Polisario Front forces over Western Sahara. Morocco has reported having registered and mapped the minefields it laid, and has pledged to clear them as soon as the conflict over Western Sahara is resolved.
As of April 2013, Morocco identified 10 areas as having been mined by the Polisario Front since 1975: Bir Anzarane, Douiek, Gerret Auchfaght, Gor Lbard, Gor Zalagat, Hagounia, Idiriya, Imlili, Itgui, and Tarf Mhkinza. The area of Glibat Jadiane, which had been listed as contaminated in earlier years, is no longer included on the list of mined areas.
Morocco does not have a national mine action authority or a mine action center.
Morocco initiated major demining efforts in 2007, following an increase in the number of incidents. The RMA conducts land release activities manually. In 2010, Morocco declared it had employed 10,000 deminers, although only 400 detectors were at their disposal at that time. This raised serious questions both about the procedures being used and the accuracy of clearance figures being reported. Morocco has not adopted national mine action legislation or standards, but reported, most recently in April 2013, that “normal safety and environmental protection standard have been followed.”
The UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) coordinates mine action activities with both parties to the conflict.
The UN Secretary-General reported that, between April 2014 and March 2015, the RMA cleared almost 223km2, but did not provide additional details.
Morocco reported clearing a total of more than 268km2 in 2013, destroying 81 antipersonnel mines, 32 antivehicle mines, and 1,693 items of UXO.
According to voluntary Article 7 reports submitted by Morocco since 2008, Morocco “cleared” approximately 2,270km2 between January 2007 and December 2012. At the Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, Morocco claimed that 3,928km2 had been “cleared” between January 2007 and October 2013. These figures must describe primarily land release by means other than physical clearance.
 The Berm refers to the defensive wall built by Morocco between 1982 and 1987 to secure the northwestern corner of Western Sahara. It is constituted of earthen walls some three meters in height. Morocco controls the area located on the west side of the Berm.
 Statement of Morocco, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 25 May 2009.
 AOAV, “Making life safer for the people of Western Sahara,” London, August 2011.
 Voluntary Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form C, April 2013.
 Voluntary Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, April 2011.
 Statement of Morocco, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 23 June 2010.
 Voluntary Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form F, April 2013.
 Report of the UN Secretary-General on Western Sahara, UN doc. S/2015/246, 10 April 2015.
 Convention on Conventional Weapons Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, 2 April 2014.
 Voluntary Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Reports, Form F, 2008; 2009; 2010; 2011; and April 2013.
 Statement of Morocco, Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, 2 December 2013.