Cote d'Ivoire

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 11 July 2016

Summary: State Party Côte d’Ivoire ratified the convention on 12 March 2012. It has expressed its desire to adopt national implementing legislation for the convention, but has not introduced draft legislation for parliamentary approval. Côte d’Ivoire has participated in most of the convention’s meetings and voted in favor of a UN resolution on the convention in December 2015. In its initial transparency report for the convention provided in 2013, Côte d’Ivoire confirmed it has never used or produced cluster munitions. In February 2013, it completed the destruction of its stockpile of 68 cluster bombs and 10,200 submunitions. Côte d’Ivoire is not retaining any cluster munitions for research or training purposes.

Policy

The Republic of Côte d’Ivoire signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 4 December 2008, ratified on 12 March 2012, and the convention entered into force for the country on 1 September 2012.

A National Commission on Small Arms and Light Weapons has been coordinating the preparation of Côte d’Ivoire’s implementing legislation for the treaties banning cluster munitions and antipersonnel landmines. As of June 2016, draft legislation had not been introduced for parliamentary approval. Previously, Côte d’Ivoire said that the legislation would not be finalized until after the presidential election held on 25 October 2015.[1] Since 2013, Côte d’Ivoire has expressed its intent to undertake legal measures to ensure its compliance with the Convention on Cluster Munitions.[2] Côte d’Ivoire has reported its ratification decree and two laws regulating weapons including firearms, ammunition, and explosive substances are existing national implementation measures.[3]

Côte d’Ivoire submitted an initial Article 7 transparency report for the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 29 April 2013.[4] It provided an annual updated report in April 2014 and another on 1 February 2016, which cover the period from 28 February 2013 through February 2016.

Côte d’Ivoire participated in several meetings of the Oslo Process that created the Convention on Cluster Munitions, including the formal negotiations in Dublin in May 2008.[5]

Côte d’Ivoire participated in the First Review Conference of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Dubrovnik, Croatia in September 2015. It has attended every Meeting of States Parties of the convention since 2011, as well as intersessional meetings in Geneva in 2011 and 2013–2014. Côte d’Ivoire has participated in regional workshops on cluster munitions, most recently in Lomé, Togo in May 2013.

Côte d’Ivoire has sought to universalize the convention in West Africa and promoted it in 2013 during its presidency of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).[6] On 7 December 2015, it voted in favor of a UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution on the Convention on Cluster Munitions, which urges states outside the convention to “join as soon as possible.”[7]

Côte d’Ivoire has condemned new use of cluster munitions on several occasions, including use in in South Sudan, Syria, and Ukraine.[8] It has voted in favor of UNGA resolutions condemning the use of cluster munitions in Syria, most recently in December 2015.[9] Côte d’Ivoire has also voted in favor of Human Rights Council resolutions condemning the use of cluster munitions in Syria, most recently in July 2015.[10]

Côte d’Ivoire has not elaborated its views on certain important issues related to the convention’s interpretation and implementation, such as the prohibition on transit, the prohibition on assistance during joint military operations with states not party that may use cluster munitions, the prohibition on foreign stockpiling of cluster munitions, the prohibition on investment in production of cluster munitions, and the retention of cluster munitions for training and development purposes.

Côte d’Ivoire is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It ratified the Convention on Conventional Weapons on 25 May 2016.

Use, production, and transfer

Côte d’Ivoire has stated that it has never used or produced cluster munitions.[11] Its Article 7 reports confirm Côte d’Ivoire has never produced cluster munitions.[12]

Stockpiling and destruction

Côte d’Ivoire once possessed a stockpile of 68 RBK-250-275 cluster bombs containing a total of 10,200 AO-1SCh submunitions.[13] The cluster munitions were acquired between 2003 and 2005, years before the Convention on Cluster Munitions was adopted.[14]

Article 3 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions required that Côte d’Ivoire declare and destroy all stockpiled cluster munitions under its jurisdiction and control as soon as possible, but no later than 1 September 2020.

Côte d’Ivoire destroyed the entire stockpile between 28 January 2013 and 6 February 2013, with the assistance of the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS).[15] The destruction was carried out at Lomo Nord, approximately 250 kilometers northwest of the capital of Abidjan. Côte d’Ivoire reported that national public health and environmental standards were observed in the destruction process.[16]

Côte d’Ivoire has reported that no additional stocks of cluster munitions have been discovered since the completion of the stockpile destruction in 2014.[17]

Côte d’Ivoire is not retaining any cluster munitions for training or research purposes. In May 2013, it stated that it would not retain cluster munitions because “we don’t want to have these types of arms in our arsenal.”[18]



[1] Interview with Dodo Basile Junior Gouali, Research Officer, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dubrovnik, 8 September 2015.

[2] Statement by N’Vadro Bamba, Counsellor, Permanent Mission of Côte d’Ivoire to the UN in Geneva, Lomé Regional Seminar on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Lomé, Togo, 23 May 2013. Notes by Action on Armed Violence (AOAV).

[3] Law no. 98-749 of 23 December 1998 and Law no. 99-183 of 24 February 1999. Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form A, 29 April 2013; Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form A, 30 April 2014; and Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form A, 1 February 2016. Côte d’Ivoire referred to these laws in its remarks to the Fourth Meeting of States Parties, but stated “we can still go further” to adopt national implementation measures specific to the Convention’s provisions. Statement by Ladji Meite, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Lusaka, 11 September 2013.

[4] The initial report was due on 28 February 2013 and covers the period from 1 September 2012 to 28 February 2013. The report provided in April 2014 is also for the same reporting period, but more likely covers calendar year 2013.

[5] For details on Côte d’Ivoire’s cluster munition policy and practice during the Oslo Process, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), p. 64.

[6] Statement by Ladji Meite, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Lusaka, 11 September 2013.

[7]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 70/54, 7 December 2015.

[8] Statement of Côte d’Ivoire, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fifth Meeting of States Parties, San Jose, 3 September 2014. Notes by the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC).

[9]Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution 70/234, 23 December 2015. Côte d’Ivoire voted in favor of a similar resolution on 15 May and 18 December 2013, and 18 December 2014.

[11] Interview with Patrick-Alexandre M’Bahia, Officer, Ministry of Defense, in Geneva, 23 June 2010.

[12] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Reports, Form E, 29 April 2013, 30 April 2014, and 1 February 2016.

[13] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Reports, Form B, 29 April 2013, 30 April 2014, and 1 February 2016.

[14] Email from Marlène Dupouy, Physical Security and Stockpile Management Junior Specialist, UNMAS Côte d'Ivoire, 18 June 2013.

[15] Statement of Côte d’Ivoire, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 17 April 2013; and meeting with Col. Guiezou Assamoua, Ministry of Defense, in Geneva, 16 April 2013. Côte d’Ivoire stated that it first approached French forces stationed in the country for assistance, but then asked UNMAS as it previously provided support for the destruction of antipersonnel landmines. Statement by N’Vadro Bamba, Permanent Mission of Côte d’Ivoire to the UN in Geneva, Lomé Regional Seminar on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Lomé, Togo, 23 May 2013. Notes by AOAV.

[16] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Reports, Form B, 29 April 2013 and 30 April 2014.

[17] Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Reports, Form B, 30 April 2014 and 1 February 2016.

[18] Statement by N’Vadro Bamba, Permanent Mission of Côte d’Ivoire to the UN in Geneva, Lomé Regional Seminar on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Lomé, Togo, 22 May 2013. Notes by AOAV. See also, statement of Côte d’Ivoire, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 17 April 2013; and meeting with Col. Guiezou Assamoua, Ministry of Defense, in Geneva, 16 April 2013.

Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 30 October 2014

Policy

The Republic of Côte d’Ivoire signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified on 30 June 2000, and became a State Party on 1 December 2000.

Côte d’Ivoire has declared existing legislation under national implementation measures and has not enacted specific national legal measures to implement the treaty.[1]

Côte d’Ivoire submitted its eighth Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report on 14 May 2014.[2]

Côte d’Ivoire attended most Meetings of States Parties of the Mine Ban Treaty, including the Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in December 2013, and has participated in intersessional meetings in Geneva. It attended the treaty’s Third Review Conference in Maputo in June 2014.

Côte d’Ivoire is a State Party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

Côte d’Ivoire has reported that it has never used, produced, or exported antipersonnel mines.[3]

In 2011, Côte d’Ivoire experienced six months of post-election armed conflict between forces loyal to former president Laurent Gbagbo and then-president-elect Alassane Ouattara.[4] Media articles reported allegations of mine use by both Gbagbo’s and Ouattara’s forces. Each side accused the other of use of antipersonnel mines,[5] but the Monitor has found no evidence of antipersonnel mine use during the conflict.[6]

In its initial Article 7 report provided in 2004, Côte d’Ivoire stated that it possessed no stockpile of antipersonnel mines, including for training purposes.

In its 2014 transparency report, however, Côte d’Ivoire declared stocks of antipersonnel landmines found during an inventory check after the 2011 elections crisis.[7] It reported that 1,526 mines were destroyed in 2012 and another 277 mines were destroyed between 27 July 2013 and 28 February 2014.

 



[1] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 14 May 2014, Form A. Previously, in 2005 and 2006, Côte d’Ivoire reported that it was preparing draft implementation legislation, but the bill was never submitted to the National Assembly.

[2] The report covers the period from 30 April 2010 to 30 April 2014. Previously, Côte d’Ivoire submitted reports on 14 November 2012 (for the period from 30 April 2010 to 30 April 2012); in 2010 (for the period from 1 May 2009 to 30 April 2010); July 2009 (for the period from 1 May 2008 to 30 April 2009); 2008 (for the period 1 May 2007 to 30 April 2008); 2007 (for the period 9 August 2006 to 30 April 2007, indicating that all areas of reporting were unchanged); 25 April 2006; 27 April 2005; and 27 May 2004. Its initial report was three years late.

[3] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Forms B, D, and E, 27 May 2004; and interview with Capt. Patrick-Alexandre M’Bahia, National Gendarmerie, Abidjan, 22 March 2006.

[4] For more details, see Human Rights Watch Press Release, “Côte d’Ivoire: Crimes Against Humanity by Gbagbo Forces: As Crisis Deepens, Grave Abuses Committed by Both Sides,” Abidjan, 15 March 2011.

[5] Mine use accusations were found in a pro-Gbagbo’s website: Ivoire Blog,“Les rebelles installent des mines anti-personnelles au Golf” (“The rebels install anti-personnel mines in Golf [The Hotel du Golf]”), 23 January 2011; and other accusations in an anti-Gbagbo newspaper:“Crime de guerre: Gbagbo positionne des mines anti personnelles” (“War Crime: Gbagbo positions anti-personnel mines”), Le Mandat,28 January 2011.

[6] In an interview with the Monitor, an officer from Côte d’Ivoire’s gendarmerie stated that the allegations of mine use were false, and that what media reports described as landmines were actually plastic packaging caps from containers for P17 rockets. Interview with Capt. Patrick-Alexandre M’Bahi, Gendarmerie, in Geneva, 21 June 2011.

[7] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, 14 May 2014, Form B.

Mine Action

Last updated: 16 December 2012

Contamination and Impact

Mines

Côte d’Ivoire is not known to be contaminated with mines. Allegations of use of antipersonnel mines were made by both main political factions against each other in January 2011, but it is not known whether these allegations have any basis in fact. Côte d’Ivoire’s latest Article 7 report, dated 28 May 2010, reported no mined areas under its jurisdiction or control containing antipersonnel mines.[1] An assessment mission by HALO Trust in May 2011 found no evidence of antipersonnel mines.[2]

Cluster munition remnants

Côte d’Ivoire is no longer believed to be contaminated with cluster munition remnants. It was initially listed as such after its statement in June 2011 that it was contaminated.[3] It appears, however, that this reference was to stockpiles held by the government and not to abandoned stockpiles; this is considered a stockpile destruction obligation in accordance with Article 3 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.  

Other explosive remnants of war

Côte d’Ivoire is newly contaminated with explosive remnants of war, especially following combat in late March 2011.[4] The extent of the contamination is, however, said to be limited.[5]

In addition, on 29 September 2008, an ammunition storage area belonging to the Armed Forces of the New Forces exploded near the commercial center in Bouaké, injuring seven soldiers. It is not known whether this created an unexploded ordnance problem in the vicinity.

Compliance with Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Côte d’Ivoire was required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 December 2010. Côte d’Ivoire has never declared a problem with antipersonnel mines and did not request an extension to its Article 5 deadline.

 



[1] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form C, 28 May 2010.

[2] HALO Trust, “HALO assessment mission to Ivory Coast,” Press release, 1 July 2011, http://www.halotrust.org/media/news/halo_assessment_ivory_coast.aspx

[3] Statement of Côte d’Ivoire, Convention on Cluster Munitions intersessional meetings, Session on Other Implementation Measures, Geneva, 30 June 2011.

[4] See, for example, “Ivory Coast: Pro-Ouattara forces ‘to seal border,’” BBC News online, 28 March 2011, www.bbc.co.uk.

[5] Statement of Côte d’Ivoire, Convention on Cluster Munitions intersessional Meeting, Session on Clearance and Risk Reduction, Geneva, 28 June 2011; and HALO Trust, “HALO assessment mission to Ivory Coast,” Press release, 1 July 2011.

Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 10 September 2012

Support for Mine Action

In 2011, the SwedishInternational Development Cooperation Agency provided SEK4.5 million (US$746,786) to Côte d’Ivoire through the Voluntary Trust Fund (VTF) of the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) to conduct explosive ordnance disposal operations.[1]

UNMAS also used $638,531 for coordination and $2,055,769 for operations from the UN peacekeeping assessed budget to address an unexploded ordnance problem as a result of an explosion at an ammunition storage facility.[2]

The contributions in 2011 for Côte d’Ivoire totaled $3,441,086.

 



[1] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Maria Linderyd Linder, Deputy Director, Head of Section, Department for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Sweden, 24 April 2012. Sweden Average exchange rate for 2011: SEK6.4878=US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2012. UNMAS, “2011 Annual Report,” p. 45.

[2] UNMAS, “2011 Annual Report,” p. 106.

Casualties

Last updated: 05 May 2017

Casualties Overview

All known casualties by end 2016

42 mine/explosive remnants of war (ERW) casualties (9 killed; 33 injured)

Casualties in 2016

8 (2015: 0)

2016 casualties by outcome

8 injured

2016 casualties by device type

8 ERW

 

In 2016, nine ERW casualties were reported in the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. A young boy was injured when the grenade he had picked up on his way to school exploded in his hand.[1] Seven workers were also injured in another incident when a grenade, which one of them had found behind a trash dump, exploded in his hands.[2] Media reports also indicated that in 2016 there were several casualties due to hand grenades being thrown, but it was not always reported if those grenades were used as attacks or found as ERW.

The casualty total for 2016 marked a significant increase in the number of ERW casualties reported in Côte d’Ivoire compared to previous years. No new casualties were reported in Côte d’Ivoire in 2015. In 2014, the Monitor identified one ERW casualty in Côte d’Ivoire; while farming, a man struck a grenade believed to have been left-over from a conflict in 2011.[3]

The Monitor identified a total of 42 ERW casualties in Côte d’Ivoire from 1999 to 2016 (nine people were killed and another 33 injured). The vast majority of casualties, 25, were children, another 12 casualties were adults and for five casualties the age was not recorded.[4]



[1]Côte d’Ivoire: Yopougon, une grenade explose dans la main d’un écolier” (“Côte d’Ivoire: Yopougon, a grenade explodes in the hand of a schoolchild”), koaci.com, 19 September 2016.

[2]Yopougon: Une grenade a encore explosé !” (“Yopougon: one more grenade exploded!”), ivoirematin.com, 30 December 2016.

[3]Une grenade explose dans son champ et lui arrache le bras” (“A grenade exploded in his farm and severed his arm”), linfodrome.com, 30 May 2014.

[4] See, ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2009: Toward a Mine-Free World (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada: October 2009).