Sudan

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 25 June 2019

Summary: Non-signatory Sudan has expressed interest in joining the convention but has not taken any tangible steps to accede. Sudan has participated as an observer in several meetings of the convention, most recently in September 2018. It voted in favor of a key United Nations (UN) resolution on the convention in December 2018.

There is no evidence to indicate that Sudan has produced or exported cluster munitions, but it has imported and stockpiles them. Sudan sporadically used cluster bombs in Southern Kordofan province in 2012–2015, but the Monitor is unaware of any reports or allegations of cluster munition use since then. Government and military officials from Sudan have denied the country possesses and uses cluster munitions.  

Policy

The Republic of Sudan has not acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Sudan has expressed its desire to join the convention since 2010 but has not taken any steps towards accession. [1] It did not comment on its position on accession during the convention’s Eighth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in September 2018.

Sudanese officials have indicated that Sudan may only join “if bordering countries follow suit.” [2] In 2016, an official said “the regional security situation” was “unfavorable” for joining the convention. [3]

Sudan participated in the Oslo Process that produced the Convention on Cluster Munitions and joined in the consensus adoption of the convention in Dublin in May 2008. [4] At the convention’s Signing Conference in Oslo in December 2008, Sudan expressed its intent to sign as soon as possible after completing logistical and other measures. [5]

Sudan has participated as an observer in almost every Meeting of States Parties of the convention, including the Eighth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in September 2018. [6]

In December 2018, Sudan voted in favor of a key UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution that calls on states outside the Convention on Cluster Munitions to “join as soon as possible.” [7] It has voted in favor of the annual UNGA resolution promoting the convention since it was first introduced in 2015.

Sudan is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It signed the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) on 10 April 1981, but never ratified the annexed protocols.

Production, transfer, and stockpiling

There is no evidence that Sudan produced or exported cluster munitions, but it has imported them and maintains a stockpile. [8]

A 2016 report by a UN Panel of Experts found “clear evidence” of “current possession by the Sudanese Air Force of cluster munitions.” [9] A 2014 UN Panel of Experts report published photographs showing RBK-500 series cluster bombs at El Fasher airport in North Darfur state, where Sudan’s armed forces maintain a forward operating base. [10]

Jane’s Information Group reports that KMGU dispensers, which deploy submunitions, are also in service with the country’s air force. [11] Sudan also possesses Grad, Egyptian-produced Sakr, and Chinese-produced Type-81 122mm surface-to-surface rockets, but it is not known if these include versions with submunition payloads. [12]

Use

There were no reports or allegations of Sudanese government forces using cluster munitions in 2018 or the first half of 2019.

Sudan has repeatedly denied using cluster munitions, but there is strong evidence that it used the weapon in Southern Kordofan province bordering South Sudan in 2012–2015. [13] The province has experienced fighting between Sudanese armed forces and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army North (SPLM-N) since mid-2011.

Cluster munition incidents in Southern Kordofan, 2012–2015

  • According to Sudan Consortium, a civil society monitoring project, at least 23 cluster bombs were dropped in Delami, Umdorein, and Alburam (Tobo) counties in 2015. [14]
  • Video taken after a government air attack on the town of Kauda on 27 May 2015 shows remnants of RBK-500 cluster bombs containing AO-2.5 RT submunitions. [15]
  • Human Rights Watch (HRW) has reported evidence that the Sudanese air force used the same type of cluster bombs in attacks on Tongoli village in Delami county on 6 March 2015 and Rajeefi village in Um Durein county in late February 2015. [16]
  • Sudanese air force used at least two RBK-500 cluster bombs in Karigiyati in June or July 2014 according to the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS). [17]
  • Nuba Reports alleged that Sudanese government aircraft used two cluster bombs in an attack on the village of Lado on 18 April 2013. [18]
  • According to The Independent, government aircraft used an RBK-500 cluster bomb containing unexploded AO-2.5RT submunitions in Ongolo on 15 April 2012. [19]
  • Chinese Type-81 dual-purpose improved conventional munitions (DPICM) were fired during a government of Sudan attack on Troji village on 29 February 2012. [20]

The reported use of cluster munitions in Sudan was widely condemned. [21] In June 2015, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution “expressing concern at evidence of possible government use of two cluster bombs near Kirigiyati in North Darfur.” [22]

Sudan has repeatedly denied evidence that its forces have used cluster munitions and that consistent stance is a good example of the growing norm stigmatizing such weapons. [23] Sudanese army officials have also denied evidence of use. [24] Geneva-based representatives also denied Sudan government use of cluster munitions. [25]

Use before 2010

Numerous independent sources have documented the presence of cluster munitions remnants that indicate Sudanese government forces sporadically used air-dropped cluster munitions in southern Sudan between 1995 and 2000, including Chilean-made PM-1 submunitions. [26] Landmine Action photographed a Rockeye-type cluster bomb with Chinese language external markings in Yei in October 2006. Additionally, clearance personnel in Sudan have identified a variety of submunitions, including the Spanish-manufactured HESPIN 21, United States-produced M42 DPICM and Mk-118 (Rockeye), and Soviet-manufactured PTAB-1.5. [27]

Other use

Since March 2015, Sudan has participated in a Saudi Arabia-led joint military operation in Yemen against Houthi forces, also known as Ansar Allah, which has used cluster munitions. Sudan has not commented on evidence that the Saudi-led coalition has used cluster munitions in Yemen, while a December 2016 statement by the coalition forces did not deny the use of cluster munitions and argued that “international law does not ban their use.” [28]



 [1] In August 2010, State Minister to the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Dr. Mutrif Siddiq, expressed Sudan’s intent to join the convention by its First Meeting of States Parties in November 2010. See, “Sudan Joins Enforcement of Convention on Cluster Munitions,” Sudan Vision (Khartoum), 3 August 2010. In April 2010, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Sudan, Gen. Mohamed Abd al-Qadir, stated that Sudan was ready to join the convention. See, statement by Gen. Abd al-Qadir, Armed Forces of Sudan, Sudan Mine Action Day Celebration, Khartoum, 1 April 2010.

 [2] Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) meeting with Dr. Ahmed E Yousif, Victim Assistance Officer, National Mine Action Office, Geneva, 8 April 2014. Previously, in 2012, an official said that the government of Sudan was consulting internally as well as with neighboring countries on the matter of joining the convention. Statement of Sudan, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 19 April 2012.

 [3] ICBL-CMC meeting with Gamal Omer Mohamed, Head of Delegation of Sudan to the Convention on Cluster Munitions Sixth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 5 September 2016.

 [4] For details on Sudan’s policy and practice regarding cluster munitions through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 243–244.

 [5] Statement of Sudan, Convention on Cluster Munitions Signing Conference, Oslo, 3 December 2008. Notes by Landmine Action. Officials told the CMC that Sudan intended to sign, but the Minister of Foreign Affairs was unexpectedly unable to come and no one else had authorization to sign.

 [6] Sudan also attended the convention’s First Review Conference in 2015 and intersessional meetings in 2011–2015..

 [7]Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 73/54, 5 December 2018.

 [8] A mine action official reiterated in 2014 that Sudan does not produce, stockpile, or use cluster munitions. CMC meeting with Dr. Yousif, National Mine Action Office, Geneva, 8 April 2014.

 [9] The report states that the UN panel “is certain that at least four RBK-500 cluster bombs were deployed on the weapon loading area at the Nyala forward operating base of the Air Force” in April 2015. UN Security Council, “Final report of the Panel of Experts on the Sudan established pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005),” S/2016/805, 22 September 2016, pp. 3 and 194.

 [10] The panel reported that it “observed fluctuating stock levels at the ammunition storage area, indicative of the routine use (for either operations or training) and resupply of ammunition into Darfur by the national armed forces. The report stated that the “Panel has evidence of previous use of cluster munitions in Darfur. Render-safe operations have taken place on such munitions as recently as 2012. The Panel does not, however, have evidence of the exact dates of use of the munitions. It continues to investigate.” UN Security Council, “Report of the Panel of Experts on the Sudan established pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005),” S/2014/87, 11 February 2014, pp. 23 and 147.

 [11] Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2004), p. 846; and Colin King, ed., Jane’s Explosive Ordnance Disposal 2007–2008, CD-edition, 10 January 2008 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2008).

 [12] International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2011 (London: Routledge, 2011), p. 443.

 [13] In 2010, the Ministry of Defense stated that Sudan does not possess any stockpiles of cluster munitions, does not produce the weapon, and has “never used cluster munitions, not even in the wars that have occurred in the south and east of the country and in Darfur.” Statement of Sudan, Convention on Cluster Munitions First Meeting of States Parties, Vientiane, 10 November 2010. Notes by the CMC. In April 2010, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Sudan stated that Sudan does not possess cluster munitions. Statement by Gen. al-Qadir, Armed Forces of Sudan, Sudan Mine Action Day Celebration, Khartoum, 1 April 2010. See also, “Sudan armed forces deny possession of cluster bombs,” BBC Monitoring Middle East (English), 2 April 2010, citing original source as Akhir Lahzah (Khartoum newspaper in Arabic), 2 April 2010. In May 2012, a spokesperson for Sudan’s armed forces, Col. al-Sawarmi Khalid Sa‘ad, was quoted in the local media stating with respect to cluster munitions: “We never use them in our military operations and we don’t have them to begin with.” “Sudan’s army denies using cluster munitions in South Kordofan,” Sudan Tribune (Khartoum), 28 May 2012.

 [15] Nuba Reports is a network of local journalists in the Nuba Mountains where Southern Kordofan is located. Its report described Kauda as “the rebel capital” and base for the SPLM-N, the political opposition movement in Southern Kordofan. According to Nuba Reports, the Sudanese air force dropped four cluster bombs on Kauda at around 7:30am, but none exploded on impact, leaving failed munitions and unexploded submunitions. Two days later SPLM-N soldiers removed and “rolled the bomblets into a hole, covered them with dirt, and marked them with thorn bushes.” “Cluster bombs hit homes in May,” Nuba Reports, 15 June 2015.

 [16] HRW documented remnants of the RBK-500 cluster bombs containing AO-2.5 RT submunitions, which also failed to function as intended. HRW press release, “Sudan: Cluster Bombs Used in Nuba Mountain,” 15 April 2015.

 [17] UN Security Council, “Final report of the Panel of Experts on the Sudan established pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005),” S/2016/805, 22 September 2016, pp. 3 and 194.

 [18] According to the report “some of the internal explosives in the cluster bombs did not explode” and were scattered in the village. Nuba Reports, 22 April 2013.

 [20] HRW press release, “Sudan: Cluster Bomb Found in Conflict Zone,” 25 May 2012.

 [21] At the convention’s intersessional meetings in June 2015, more than two-dozen states expressed concern at or condemned new use of cluster munitions in Sudan, including Austria, Burundi, Canada, Costa Rica, Croatia, Ecuador, Ireland, New Zealand, and Norway. The UN, the ICRC, and the CMC also condemned the use of cluster munitions in Sudan.

 [22] The five permanent members of the UN Security Council voted for the resolution as did non-permanent members Angola, Chad, Chile, Jordan, Lithuania, Malaysia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Spain, and Venezuela. UNSC Resolution 2228, 29 June 2015.

 [23] At the convention’s First Review Conference in 2015, Sudan described evidence of use as inconclusive “accusations” and “false information that is biased against Sudan.” Statement of Sudan, Convention on Cluster Munitions Review Conference, Dubrovnik, 7 September 2015.

 [24] In 2015, Army spokesperson Col. Alswarmy Khalid denied responsibility for reported cluster munition use and described evidence as “fabricated and baseless.” Mohammed Amin, “Sudan denies using cluster bombs in war areas,” Anaduka Agency, 17 April 2015; and Bassem Abo Alabass Mohammed, “Sudan Used Cluster Bombs in Rebel-Held Mountains, Group Says,” Bloomberg News, 16 April 2015.

 [25] CMC meeting with Khalid Musa Dafalla, Minister Plenipotentiary, Permanent Mission of Sudan to the UN in Geneva, Geneva, 26 May 2015. In an April 2015 letter, the CMC called on Sudan to stop using cluster munitions and accede to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Letter from the CMC, to President Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir of Sudan, 17 April 2015.

 [26]  Virgil Wiebe and Titus Peachey, “Clusters of Death: The Mennonite Central Committee Cluster Bomb Report,” Ch. 4, July 2000.

 [27] Handicap International, Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (Brussels: HI, May 2007), p. 55.

 [28] “International law does not ban the use of cluster munitions. Some States have undertaken a commitment to refrain from using cluster munitions by becoming party to the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions. Neither the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia nor its Coalition partners are State Parties to the 2008 Convention, and accordingly, the Coalition’s use of cluster munitions does not violate the obligations of these States under international law.” See, “Coalition Forces supporting legitimacy in Yemen confirm that all Coalition countries aren't members to the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” Saudi Press Agency, 19 December 2016.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 27 October 2015

Policy

The Republic of the Sudan signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997 and ratified on 13 October 2003, becoming a State Party on 1 April 2004.[1]

Sudan adopted the Sudan Mine Action Law by Presidential Decree #51 on 31 March 2010.[2] The act is comprised of 29 articles divided into four chapters. Chapter four includes Mine Ban Treaty obligations, including the prohibition on antipersonnel mine use and stockpiling, clearance of contaminated areas, risk education, victim assistance, and transparency reporting. It also includes penalties for violations.[3]

Sudan submitted its twelfth Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report in April 2015.[4]

Sudan attended the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in June 2015, where it spoke on victim assistance. Sudan attended the Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference in Maputo, Mozambique in June 2014, where it provided detailed information about its mine clearance operations.

Sudan is not party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Sudan signed the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) on 10 April 1981, but has not ratified it.

Production and transfer

Sudan has declared that it “never produced” antipersonnel mines.[5] It has repeatedly stated that it has not produced or exported antipersonnel mines.[6]

Use

There have been no confirmed instances of government forces using antipersonnel mines since Sudan became a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty in 2004, but there were several reports of use of antipersonnel mines in Sudan in 2011, 2012, and 2013 that the Monitor has been unable to confirm.

It is clear from evidence and testimony from various sources that in the southern part of the country antipersonnel mines are available for use, but the Monitor has not seen definitive evidence about what forces may have used antipersonnel mines. There is also a lack of clarity about whether antipersonnel mines or antivehicle mines, or both, have been used. In its Article 7 reports and statements the government of Sudan has provided little to no official information on the mine use allegations, which it has denied responsibility for.

On 22 July 2014, Mustafa Tambur, spokesperson for the Sudan Liberation Movement (Abdel Wahid al-Nur, SLM-AW), told Radio Dabanga that the Sudanese government had planted landmines in the Kutum locality in North Darfur. Heavy rainfall allegedly revealed 23 antipersonnel mines in the Fonu area near Kutum. Tambur also demanded that the international community call on the Sudanese Government to stop using landmines.[7]

On 14 August 2014, the Leaders of the both factions of the Sudan Liberation Movement—Mini Minawi, leader of the SLM-MM[8] and Abdol Wahid, leader of the SLM-AW[9]—met in Geneva to sign Geneva Call’s Deed of Commitment to ban antipersonnel landmines. Abdol Wahid told Radio Dabanga that this agreement brought Sudan closer to fighting the deadly landmine contamination in Darfur. Mini Minawi also told the radio station that this commitment was “an importance step” within this humanitarian framework.[10] With the two main factions of the SLM signing Geneva Call’s Deed of Commitment, all four main non-state armed groups actively operating in Sudan have pledged to refrain from using antipersonnel landmines.[11]

On 29 August 2013, a delegation of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), comprised of Deputy Chairman Abdelaziz Alhilu and Secretary General Yasir Arman, signed Geneva Call’s Deed of Commitment, thereby agreeing to prohibit the use, production, and transfer of antipersonnel mines, to cooperate in humanitarian mine action activities, and to destroy its stockpiles. Upon signing, Alhilu said, “In compliance with our pledge, we will destroy all [antipersonnel] mines in our possession as soon as possible. These mines were captured during military operations.”[12] During Geneva Call’s third meeting of signatories to the Deed of Commitment, spokesperson of the SPLM-N’s delegation, Mubarak Ardol, stated that the SPLM-N will invite all interested parties to witness the public destruction of the landmines the group has acquired during “military operations over the past four year[s].” He also added that the SPLM-N’s delegation proposed adding a fourth protocol to the Deed of Commitment concerning humanitarian assistance in war zones.[13]

Stockpiling and destruction

Sudan reported completion of destruction of its stockpile of 10,566 antipersonnel mines on 31 March 2008, just ahead of its 1 April 2008 treaty-mandated deadline. The reported size and composition of Sudan’s stockpile, as well as the number of mines to be retained for training purposes, have varied.[14] At the Second Review Conference in 2009, Sudan stated that a total of 10,656 stockpiled antipersonnel mines were destroyed (possibly a typographical error from the 10,566 mentioned above).[15] However, Sudan declared in April 2012 and again in April 2013 that a total of 13,371 stockpiled antipersonnel mines were destroyed in Khartoum in 2007.[16]

In 2009, Sudan reported the discovery of arms caches including antipersonnel mines at various locations of southern Sudan that were subsequently destroyed in Blue Nile state in 2008.[17]

Mines retained for training purposes

In its April 2015 Article 7 report, Sudan stated that it is retaining a total of 1,938 mines, the same amount as reported since 2009.[18] In 2009, Sudan reported a reduction in the number of mines retained for training from 4,997 to 1,938 mines.[19] Each year since 2009, Sudan has reported the transfer of 75 “Type 35” plastic mines from the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) to the UN Mine Action Office “for training purposes,” but the total number of mines retained for training has remained unchanged.[20] Sudan has not disclosed the intended purposes or actual uses of its retained mines, as agreed by States Parties at Mine Ban Treaty Review Conferences held in 2004 and 2009.



[1] South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011; see the separate entry on South Sudan.

[2] Interview with Adil Abdelhamid Adam, Legal Advisor, National Mine Action Center, Khartoum, 28 March 2011. The Monitor has copies of the law and the decree in Arabic.

[3] Ibid., 31 March 2010. In April 2009, Sudan reported that draft national implementation legislation had been cleared by the Government of National Unity (GONU) Ministry of Justice and “endorsed by the concerned committee of the National Assembly responsible for the validations of humanitarian laws.” Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A, 13 April 2009.

[4] Sudan has prepared Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 reports submitted or dated 1 October 2004, 30 April 2005, 20 May 2006, 30 April 2007, August 2008, 13 April 2009, 28 April 2010, April 2011, April 2012, April 2013, April 2014, and April 2015 (no date provided for the most recent submissions).

[5] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form E, April 2013.

[6] Previous editions of the Monitor have noted no evidence of production of antipersonnel mines by Sudan but have cited allegations of transfer to militant groups in neighboring countries prior to Sudan becoming a State Party. See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 223. Sudan has consistently reported that it “has never produced AP [antipersonnel] mines.” See, for example, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form E, April 2012.

[7]Landmines exposed by rain in North Darfur,” Radio Dabanga, 22 July 2014.

[9] Ibid.

[10]Last two Sudan rebel groups sign landmine ban,” Radio Dabanga, 15 August 2014.

[11] Geneva Call, “Sudan,” undated.

[12] Geneva Call Press Release, “Major Sudanese armed group commits against anti-personnel mines,” 29 August 2013.

[14] See Landmine Monitor Report 2009, pp. 675–676. In its February 2006 Article 7 report, Sudan declared a total of 14,485 antipersonnel mines of eight types held in army and Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) stockpiles, and stated that 5,000 mines of various types would be retained for training purposes by the Engineer Corps of the SAF. In its Article 7 reports submitted in May 2006 and April 2007, Sudan declared a total of 4,485 stockpiled antipersonnel mines of 18 types, all under GONU control, and an additional 10,000 mines of unspecified types to be retained for training purposes, with GONU and the government of South Sudan each retaining 5,000 mines. Sudan destroyed a total of 10,556 mines on 30 April 2007 in northern Sudan and 31 March 2008 in Southern Sudan. In an April 2008 letter, Sudan stated that, of a total stockpile of 15,566 antipersonnel mines, it had destroyed 10,566 and retained 5,000. Sudan stated that the adjusted figure of 15,566 mines (rather than the 14,485 mines previously reported) was the result of additional mines stockpiled by SPLA forces not being previously included in inventories. In its 2009 Article 7 report, Sudan revised its number of mines retained for training purposes, this time reporting a total of 1,938 mines of six types. In a presentation during the May 2009 intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Sudan revised its total number of stockpiled mines, reporting that in spite of its original declaration of 14,485 stockpiled mines, only 12,513 were “accounted for” during physical stock-taking. It is likely that number is supposed to be 12,504 (the 10,566 destroyed mines plus the 1,938 retained mines). Sudan noted, “As no proper records have been maintained, determining the exact number and types of APMs [antipersonnel mines] was a challenge.” In its 2011 Article 7 report, Sudan declared the destruction of 10,656 stockpiled mines (4,488 mines destroyed in Khartoum in April 2007 and 6,078 in Juba, South Sudan on 31 March 2008). Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form G, April 2011.

[15] Statement by Dr. Abdelbagi Gailani, State Minister of Humanitarian Affairs and Secretary-General of the National Mine Action Authority, Mine Ban Treaty Second Review Conference, Cartagena, 3 December 2009.

[16] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form G, April 2012; and Form G, April 2013.

[17] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form G, 13 April 2009. At the Ninth Meeting of States Parties in November 2008, Sudan said that it had found “additional abandoned caches” of mines and would destroy them. In March 2008, Sudan indicated that it expects additional stockpiled antipersonnel mines will be identified and destroyed, given the difficulties of doing a comprehensive inventory and collection of all the stockpiled antipersonnel mines belonging to all former combatants in Sudan. See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 634.

[18] The 1,938 mines consist of PMN (176), Type 14 (130), “Desert plastic” (85), Type 35 (1,194), Valmara (46), and PPM mines (307). Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, April 2015.

[19] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D, 13 April 2009.

[20] Ibid.; and in reports submitted 13 April 2009, 28 April 2010, April 2011, April 2012, April 2013, April 2014, and April 2015.


Mine Action

Last updated: 24 July 2018

Treaty status

Mine Ban Treaty

State Party. Article 5 deadline: 1 April 2019
Second extension request submitted March 2018

Convention on Cluster Munitions

Non-signatory

Mine action management

National mine action management actors

National Mine Action Authority (NMAA)
National Mine Action Center (NMAC)

UN agencies

United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS)
In Darfur, under the umbrella of the African Union-UN Mission in Darfur (UNAMID), UNMAS works under the name of the Ordnance Disposal Office (ODO)

Mine action strategic plan

National Mine Action Plan for 2016–2019

Mine action standards

National Mine Action Standards (NMAS). Review ongoing in 2018

Operators in 2017

National:
JASMAR for Human Security
National Units for Mine Action and Development (NUMAD)
Friends of Peace and Development Organization (FPDO)

 

International:
Dynasafe MineTech Limited (DML)

Extent of contamination as of end 2017

Landmines

18.73km(2.40km2 CHA and 16.33kmSHA) antipersonnel mine contamination[1]
Extent of contamination: medium

Cluster munition remnants

Extent of contamination unknown. 2km2 recorded

Other ERW contamination (as of February 2018)

Extent of contamination unknown
2.19km(2.05km2 CHA and 0.14kmSHA)[2] recorded

Land release in 2017

Landmines

0.7km2 cleared, 0.26kmreduced, and 0.07kmcancelled
144 antipersonnel mines and 59 antivehicle mines destroyed[3]

Cluster munition remnants

None

Other ERW

2.85km2 battle area clearance

Progress

Landmines

In March 2018 Sudan submitted a request for an extension of its Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 clearance deadline for a period of four years to 1 April 2023

Cluster munition contamination

Ongoing conflict and a lack of access to significant areas of remaining contamination, along with a lack of recent data or records of cluster munition remnants contamination disaggregated from UXO, make it difficult to estimate when Sudan could complete cluster munition remnants survey and clearance

Notes: CHA = confirmed hazardous area; SHA = suspected hazardous area; ERW = explosive remnants of war; UXO = unexploded ordnance.

Contamination

The exact extent of contamination from cluster munition remnants in the Republic of Sudan is not fully known. According to the NMAC, at the start of 2018, only two areas were suspected to contain cluster munition contamination in Sudan, one in South Kordofan and the other in West Kordofan state, each with an estimated size of 1km2.[4]

Previously, in April 2017, the African Union-United Nations Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) reported the presence of two AO-1Sch submunitions in North Darfur (at Al Mengara village in Al Liet locality). The villagers reported that the bombs were dropped in 2008, had been identified by UNAMID at that time, and that the military had stated that they would dispose of the items.[5] The Sudanese Armed Forces Engineers destroyed the items in February 2018 and no further cluster munitions were reported or identified.[6]

Previously, the most recent estimate of contamination dated back to June 2011, when the UN Mine Action Office (UNMAO), which was overseeing mine action operations at the time, reported nine areas suspected to be contaminated with unexploded submunitions. UNMAO asserted that 81 areas had been released (see table below).[7]

Cluster munition-contaminated areas as of June 2011[8]

State

Open

Closed

Total

Kassala

7

2

9

South Kordofan

2

68

70

Blue Nile

0

9

9

Northern Darfur

0

1

1

Southern Darfur

0

1

1

Total

9

81

90

 

In 2017, NMAC, which assumed full national ownership for implementing mine action activities upon UNMAO’s closure in June 2011, reported that of the nine open areas reported by UNMAO in 2011, seven were cleared in 2011–2013.[9] In March 2018, NMAC reported that the size of the seven areas cleared during this period totaled 15,318mand that 13 PM-1 submunitions were found and destroyed during clearance.[10]

NMAC has not reported any survey or clearance of cluster munition remnants since 2013. It stated that no new cluster munition contamination was recorded in 2016–2017.[11]

In the 1990s, Sudanese government forces are believed to have sporadically air-dropped cluster munitions during its civil war with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). Government forces were reported as having used several types of cluster munitions, including Spanish-manufactured HESPIN 21; US-manufactured M42 and Mk118 (Rockeye), and a Brazilian copy; Chinese Type-81 dual-purpose improved conventional munitions (DPICM); Chilean-made PM-1; and Soviet-manufactured PTAB-1.5 and AO-1SCh submunitions.[12]

In 2012 and 2015, use of cluster munitions was recorded in five separate attacks on villages in South Kordofan state. Each attack involved air-dropped RBK-500 cluster munitions containing AO-2.5RT submunitions.[13] In 2013–2015, the UN published reports of evidence of previous use of cluster munitions in Darfur, the stockpiling of RBK-500 cluster munitions and AO-2.5RT submunitions by the Sudanese Air Force, and fluctuating stock levels indicative of use for operations or for training.[14] (See Sudan’s Cluster Munition Ban profile for more details.)

Other explosive remnants of war and landmines

Sudan also has a significant problem with antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines, and UXO, primarily as a result of the more than 20 years of civil war that led to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005 and South Sudan’s independence in July 2011 (see the 2017 Sudan Mine Action profile for details).

As of June 2018, eight of Sudan’s 18 states were contaminated with mines/ERW, with Blue Nile and South Kordofan states the most heavily affected.[15] Mines and ERW continued to exacerbate the humanitarian crisis, where in parts of South Kordofan, chronic malnutrition surpassed emergency levels, and in Blue Nile state, more than 40% of households were severely nutritionally insecure.[16]

While limited cluster munition contamination has, in the past, been identified in Darfur, there is significant contamination from other ERW, which continue to pose a serious threat to civilians, UNAMID peacekeepers, and to the delivery of humanitarian aid.[17]

As of April 2018, Sudan’s three eastern states had been declared free of mines and ERW, following 12 years of clearance efforts. Clearance in Gadaref state was completed in May 2016 and in Red Sea state in May 2017, while Kassala state was declared clear of mines and ERW on 4 April 2018.[18] In Darfur, two localities in West Darfur have been declared free of ERW: Forobaranga in April 2017 and Kereinik in February 2018.[19]

Since South Sudan’s independence, new conflicts in Abyei and in Blue Nile and South Kordofan states have resulted in increased UXO contamination in Sudan.[20] In 2018, the extent of mine and ERW contamination in areas of Abyei and the border area between Sudan and South Sudan remained unknown due to persistent conflict and ongoing restrictions on access.[21]

Program Management

The Sudanese National Mine Action Authority (NMAA) and NMAC manage Sudan’s mine action program.

In 2015, UNMAS resumed its lead in supporting UN mine action efforts in Sudan and its role in providing assistance and technical support to NMAC following an invitation from the Sudanese government.[22]

In Darfur, under the umbrella of UNAMID, UNMAS works under the name of the Ordnance Disposal Office (ODO) in direct support of UNAMID priorities.[23] In 2017, Dynasafe MineTech Limited (DML), a commercial company, was awarded a new UN contract for the Fiscal Year 2017–2018 to conduct ERW rapid-response clearance and to provide mentoring support to national Multi-Task Teams (MTTs) in Darfur.[24]

Strategic planning

As of March 2018, NMAC reported that it was coordinating with the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) to review its national strategic mine action plan, which is set to expire in 2019.[25] The current National Mine Action Plan for 2016–2019 to meet Sudan’s obligations under the Mine Ban Treaty does not specifically address cluster munition remnants.[26]

Standards

In March 2018, NMAC reported that the review of the National Mine Action Standards (NMAS) was in its final stages but had not yet been completed.[27] According to NMAC, draft standards are shared with all partners and mine action operators during their accreditation process. They do not contain a specific chapter on cluster munitions.[28]

Information management

In March 2018, NMAC reported that a process of upgrading the software of its International Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database to a newer version, IMSMA-NG, remained in progress, with assistance from the GICHD. Significant efforts to correct errors in the database were also ongoing.[29] The database does not contain information on the disputed Abyei area.[30]

Operators

National demining operators are JASMAR for Human Security, National Units for Mine Action and Development (NUMAD), and FPDO. In 2017, a total of eight manual clearance teams (MCTs), 11 MTTs, two mechanical teams, and two mine detection dog (MDD) teams were deployed for mine action operations.[31] This was a significant increase compared with 2016, when a total of five MCTs, nine MTTs, four mine action teams, one mechanical team, and two MDD teams were deployed.

Commercial operator DML, contracted to clear ERW in Darfur and to provide support for national MTTs, deployed two seven-strong rapid-response teams and a mentoring capacity of six persons, for a total staff of 29.[32]

In 2017, no international NGO was demining in Sudan. Since 2015, NMAC has made repeated calls for other international NGO operators to undertake mine action in Sudan.[33] Previously, two international demining NGOs with programs in Sudan closed operations owing to government restrictions that impeded their operations.[34] DanChurchAid (DCA) ended its operations in 2012.[35] In June 2012, the Sudanese government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) ordered Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and six other NGOs that provided humanitarian aid to leave Gadaref, Kassala, and Red Sea states in eastern Sudan.[36] Following months of negotiations with HAC and donors, MAG ended its operations in Sudan, leaving in early 2013.[37]

Land Release

Cluster munition remnants

NMAC reported that no cluster munition-specific survey or clearance took place in 2017.[38] NMAC does not distinguish between different types of ERW in its reporting on clearance and has not reported any survey or clearance of cluster munition contamination since 2013. As noted above, however, it clarified in 2018 that in 2011–2013, seven areas with a size of just over 15,300mwere cleared with the destruction of 13 PM-1 submunitions.[39]

Other explosive remnants of war

In 2017, a total of just under 2.85kmof battle area was released in Sudan, an increase from close to 1.52kmin 2016. Overall, reported land release fell in 2017, however, to a total of just under 3.9km2, compared to just over 6.4kmin 2016.[40] NMAC reported that the increase in battle area clearance (BAC) in 2017 was due to a shift in focus to clearing high-impact ERW contamination in Blue Nile state close to communities where accidents were being reported. This amounted to just over 2kmout of the total 2.85kmof battle area cleared, whereas the focus in 2016 was on clearance of mines from Sudan’s three eastern states.[41]

2018 progress

In June 2018, NMAC stated that it had deployed a team to address the remaining cluster munition hazardous area in West Kordofan state, located in Aghabish village, Lagawa locality.[42]

Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 4 Compliance

Ongoing conflict and a lack of access to significant areas of remaining contamination, along with a lack of recent data or records of cluster munition contamination disaggregated from UXO, make it difficult to estimate when Sudan could complete cluster munition survey and clearance.

Significant progress has, though, been made to address remaining mine and ERW contamination. Notably, in 2018, Kassala state was officially declared free of mines and ERW on 4 April, joining Red Sea state in 2017 and Gadaref state in 2016, to make all three of Sudan’s formerly contaminated eastern states free of contamination. In March 2018, Sudan submitted a request for an extension of its Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 clearance deadline for a period of four years to 1 April 2023. The 2018 extension request does not contain any mention of remaining cluster munition contamination or plans for survey and clearance of these areas.

 

 

The Monitor acknowledges the contributions of the Mine Action Review (www.mineactionreview.org), which has conducted the primary mine action research in 2018 and shared all its country-level landmine reports (from“Clearing the Mines 2018”) and country-level cluster munition reports (from “Clearing Cluster Munition Remnants 2018”) with the Monitor. The Monitor is responsible for the findings presented online and in its print publications.



[1] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2017), Form C, p. 8. As of March 2018, Sudan reported 19.29kmof antipersonnel mine contamination (2.42kmCHA and 16.87kmSHA), and 4.99kmof antivehicle mine contamination (3.30kmCHA and 1.69km2SHA). Second Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Extension Request, March 2018, p. 49.

[2] Second Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Extension Request, March 2018, p. 49.

[3] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report (for calendar year 2017), Form F, p. 13. The amount of land confirmed as contaminated in 2017 is not reported in the transparency report.

[4] Email from Hatim Khamis Rahama, Technical Advisor, NMAC, 3 March 2018.

[5] Email from Dandan Xu, Associate Programme Management Officer, UNMAS, 12 July 2017.

[6] Email from Colin Williams, Deputy Programme Manager, ODO, UNAMID, 1 June 2018.

[7] The locations are based on a review of sites in the UNMAO database by Mine Action Review.

[8] Emails from Mohamed Kabir, Chief Information Officer, UNMAO, 27 June 2011; and from Hatim Khamis Rahama, NMAC, 14 June 2018. NMAC reported in June 2018 that the 1kmarea reported remaining in 2018 in West Kordofan state was discovered in May 2009 by Mechem; however, at that time West Kordofan state had not yet been divided from South Kordofan.

[9] Emails from Hatim Khamis Rahama, NMAC, 14 June 2017; and from Ali Abd Allatif Ibrahim, NMAC, 18 May 2017. In June 2016, however, NMAC had reported that no cluster munition-contaminated areas were “recorded as remaining hazards to be cleared” and that no separate survey or clearance operations for cluster munition remnants occurred in 2015, and further stated that no cluster munitions had been found in all mine action activities “to date.” Email from Ahmed Elser Ahmed Ali, Chief of Operations, NMAC, 8 June 2016.

[10] Email from Hatim Khamis Rahama, NMAC, 3 March 2018.

[11] Ibid.; and from Ali Abd Allatif Ibrahim, NMAC, 18 May 2017.

[12] V. Wiebe and T. Peachey, “Clusters of Death: The Mennonite Central Committee Cluster Bomb Report,” July 2000, ch. 4; Handicap International, Circle of Impact: The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (May 2007), p. 55; and Cluster Munition Monitor, “Country Profile: Sudan: Cluster Munition Ban Policy,” updated 23 August 2014. See also UNMAS, “Reported use of Cluster Munitions South Sudan February 2014”, 12 February 2014; and UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), “Conflict in South Sudan: A Human Rights Report,” 8 May 2014, p. 26.

[13] See, Cluster Munition Monitor, “Country Profile: Sudan: Cluster Munition Ban Policy,” updated 23 August 2014.

[14] “Report of the Panel of Experts on Sudan established pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005),” UN doc. S/2014/87, 11 February 2014, pp. 23 and 91; and “Report of the Secretary-General on the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur,” UN doc. S/2015/378, 26 May 2015, p. 12.

[15] Email from Hatim Khamis Rahama, NMAC, 14 June 2018.

[16] “Sudan: First Convoy of Sudanese Refugees from Chad,” AllAfrica, 26 April 2018.

[18] Ibid.; and “Sudan: First Convoy of Sudanese Refugees from Chad,” AllAfrica, 26 April 2018.

[20] Human Rights Watch, “Under Siege: Indiscriminate Bombing and Abuses
in Sudan’s Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States,” 6 December 2012; “Unexploded Ordnance Kill 13 People in South Kordofan,” AllAfrica, 10 August 2013; and UN, “UNMAS Annual Report 2012,” New York, August 2013, p. 10.

[21] UNMAS, “2018 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects, Sudan,” January 2018.

[22] UNMAS, “About UNMAS in Sudan (Excluding Darfur),” March 2018; and email from Javed Habibulhaq, Programme Manager, UNMAS, 13 June 2016. UNMAS reassumed its lead in UN mine action efforts in Sudan and its role in providing assistance and technical support to NMAC after a one-year handover to the UN Development Programme (UNDP) in 2014.

[23] UNMAS, “2017 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects, Sudan,” January 2017.

[24] Email from Dandan Xu, UNMAS, 12 July 2017. Previously, in 2012–2015, commercial operator The Development Initiative (TDI) was contracted by UNAMID to assess, survey, identify, mark, and clear contamination in all five Darfur states.

[25] Email from Hatim Khamis Rahama, NMAC, 3 March 2018.

[27] Email from Hatim Khamis Rahama, NMAC, 3 March 2018.

[28] Emails from Ahmed Elser Ahmed Ali, NMAC, 9 May and 8 June 2016.

[29] Ibid.; and Third Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 deadline Extension Request, March 2018, pp. 37–38.

[30] Email from Javed Habibulhaq, UNDP, 11 May 2015.

[31] Email from Hatim Khamis Rahama, NMAC, 3 March 2018.

[32] Email from Jeffrey McMurdo, UNAMID, 14 June 2017.

[33] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), p. 22; NMAC, “Updated Work Plan to Meet Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention Article Five Extended Deadline by April 2019,” 29 April 2016; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2014), Form A, p. 16.

[34] ICBL, “ICBL Comments on Sudan’s Article 5 Extension Request,” May 2013.

[35] DCA, “Previous Programmes: Sudan,” undated.

[36] “Sudan causes frustration among NGOs,” News 24, 13 June 2012.

[37] MAG, “MAG departs Sudan after six years of work to remove remnants of conflict,” 7 March 2013.

[38] Email from Hatim Khamis Rahama, NMAC, 3 March 2018.

[39] Ibid.

[40] NMAC, “IMSMA Monthly Report,” January 2018.

[41] Email from Hatim Khamis Rahama, NMAC, 14 June 2018.

[42] Ibid.


Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 19 November 2018

In 2017, three donors contributed US$1.6 million for mine action operations in the Republic of the Sudan through the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS).[1]

Additionally, in 2017, the government of Sudan reported contributing $2 million to its mine action program.[2]

International contributions: 2017[3]

Donor

Sector

Amount

(national currency)

Amount

(US$)

Japan

Various

¥112,100,000

1,000,000

Italy

Clearance and victim assistance

€300,000

339,030

Sudan Humanitarian Fund

Various

N/A

247,200

Total

   

1,586,230

Note: N/A=not available

Since 2013, Sudan received more than $6 million in international support to mine action activities, with contributions fluctuating from less than $70,000 in 2013 to more than $2 million in 2015.

Summary of contributions: 2013–2017[4]

Year

International contributions (US$)

2017

1,586,230

2016

1,713,800

2015

2,377,400

2014

382,423

2013

66,405

Total

6,126,258

 



[1] Italy, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form I, April 2018; Japan, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form I, 30 April 2018; and UNMAS, “Annual Report 2017,” March 2018, p. 32.

[2] Sudan, Mine Ban Treaty Article 5 Extension Request, March 2018.

[3] Average exchange rate for 2017: €1=US$1.1301; ¥112.1=US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 11 January 2018.

[4] See previous Monitor reports.


Casualties

Last updated: 21 October 2018

 

Casualties[1]

All known casualties (between 2002 and 2017)

2,111 mine/unexploded remnants of war (ERW) casualties: 603 killed and 1,498 injured

Casualties in 2017

Annual total

53

Increase from
23 in 2016

Survival outcome

12 killed; 41 injured

Device type causing casualties

11 antivehicle mine; 15 ERW; 27 unknown devices

Civilian status

53 civilians (including 10 peacekeepers)

Age and gender

19 Adults:
0 women; 19 men

32 children:
27 boys; 5 girls

2 unknown

 

Casualties in 2017—details

In 2017, accidents resulting in casualties in the Republic of Sudan occurred in Blue Nile, Kassala, and the four states of Darfur—Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western.

The National Mine Action Center (NMAC) reported 43 casualties, and the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) reported 10 peacekeeper casualties from one antivehicle mine incident.

The 53 casualties reported in 2017 was a significant increase on the 23 reported in 2016, but a decrease on the 130 reported in 2015. The 2017 annual casualty total was more than the 40 casualties reported in 2014.

NMAC registered 2,101 casualties to the end of 2017. An additional 10 casualties were recorded in GICHD-Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) antivehicle mine database data for 2017.

Cluster munition casualties

A total of 39 casualties from cluster munitions were recorded in Sudan by the Monitor from 2000 through the end of 2013.

Casualties from unexploded submunitions were reported in 2013 in Western Darfur; in 2012 in Southern Darfur and South Kordofan; and in 2011 in Blue Nile. Prior to 2009, casualties occurred in South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and Kassala.



[1] Unless otherwise indicated, casualty data for 2017 is based on: email from Sahar Mustafa Mahmoud, VA-MRE Associate, National Mine Action Center, 6 March 2018; and Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining(GICHD)-Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) antivehicle mine database provided by email from Ursign Hofmann, Policy Advisor, GICHD, 22 February 2018.


Casualties and Victim Assistance

Last updated: 21 October 2018

Victim assistance planning and coordination[1]

Government focal points

Nationwide: National Mine Action Center (NMAC)
Darfur: NMAC and Ministry of Social Affairs

Other focal points

National Council of Persons with Disabilities (NCPD) Sudan

Coordination activities

Victim Assistance Working Group (VAWG), chaired by NMAC were held monthly; victim assistance/disability coordination working group (VACWG) in Darfur

Plans/strategies

The Victim Assistance Strategic Framework and National Multi-year Work Plan adopted during 2016–2017, with a timeframe until 2019.[2] The objectives of the plan include: the development of a system for data collection and management of victim data; effective and sustainable services, including enhancing medical services coverage of affected areas; promoting psychological rehabilitation; establishing a psychological support system; development and implementation of economic-inclusion programs; and promoting effective coordination, advocacy, legislation, and policies[3]

Disability sector integration

Details not reported

Survivor inclusion and participation

10 advocacy workshops for persons with disabilities were conducted by the NCPD and the states council for persons with disabilities, including implementation of the Sudan Disability Act 2017, the building code, and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)[4]

Reporting

Sudan included victim assistance in its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report for calendar year 2017 and made statements at the Mine Ban Treaty Sixteenth Meeting of States Parties in 2017 and the intersessional meetings in 2018

 

International commitments and obligations

Sudan is responsible for a significant number of landmine survivors, cluster munition victims, and survivors of other explosive remnants of war (ERW) who are in need. Sudan has made commitments to provide victim assistance as a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty

Mine Ban Treaty

Yes

Convention on Cluster Munitions

No

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

Yes

 

Laws and policies

The Sudan Act for the Persons with Disabilities for the year 2017 was adopted by the Republic of Sudan’s National Assembly in session No 41 in January 2017, and was signed by the president by in February 2017. The NCPD published 4,000 copies of the Sudan Act for persons with disabilities with NMAC support. Three additional state disability acts were adopted in Central, North Darfur, and South Kordofan states, consistent with the newly adopted federal disability act. That raised the number of states with disability acts to 14 out of 18 states.[5] An informal coalition of Sudanese disabled people’s organizations (DPOs) and civil society organizations submitted an alternative CRPD report for Sudan that provides an independent assessment of the implementation of convention.[6]

The labor law of Sudan reserves 5% of all government jobs for persons with disabilities, but it is unclear how well this measure is enforced or what the actual rate of employment for persons with disabilities in the government is.[7]

Major Developments in 2017–2018

Needs assessment

No needs assessment was reported for Sudan in 2017.

Medical care and rehabilitation

In the first half of 2017, while negotiations with the authorities for having independent and direct access to people affected by armed conflict and other situations of violence were ongoing, the ICRC donated emergency medical supplies to local institutions or other international organizations in Khartoum and Darfur. Following dialogue with the authorities, in July, the ICRC wasallowed to increase its assistance activities.[8]

Socio-economic and psychosocial inclusion

The United Nations Assistance Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Ordnance Disposal Office (ODO) supported 20 survivors or family members with income-generation projects across Darfur. The financial support provided changed from support to organizations of persons with disabilities to directly focus on explosive remnants of war (ERW) survivors.[9] Friends of Peace & Development Organization (FPDO) implemented a project in Kassala state in eastern Sudan, including socio-economic integration, assistive devices, and psychosocial support to 20 beneficiaries.[10]

JASMAR Human Security Organization was contracted by UNOPS to implement Victim Assistance project in Blue Nile and South Kordofan states for the period September 2017–February 2018. All 50 project beneficiaries of them received psychological support and were trained on their rights and small business project management. All beneficiaries were covered by health insurance.[11]

Victim assistance providers and activities

Name of organization

Type of activity

Government

National Authority for Prosthetics and Orthotics (NAPO)

Seven rehabilitation centers with mobile workshops, includes limited psychological counseling

NCPD

Coordination, monitoring and funding programs for DPOs

National

Elfasher Association of the Disabled (FSD)

Data collection economic inclusion, psychosocial support; prosthetics repair center in Darfur; referrals to ICRC facilities

Friends of Peace & Development Organization (FPDO)

Economic integration, assistive devices, and psychosocial support in Kassala state, eastern Sudan

Sudan Association for Combating Landmines (JASMAR)

Economic reintegration targeting disabled former combatants, including mine/ERW survivors; community-based healthcare in Kassala state

Cheshire Home for Disabled Children

Prosthetic and orthotic services for children with disabilities

Friends of Peace and Development Organization & AAR Japan

Partnership between national NGOs and international NGOs June 2016 to March 2017; mobility devices, prosthetic support, small business grants, and psychosocial support

Name of organization

Type of activity

International

ICRC

NAPO rehabilitation centers (main center in Khartoum, six satellite centers, and one mobile clinic) with materials and training; repair center in Darfur and a facility in North Kordofan state

 



[1] Statement of Sudan, Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 3 December 2013; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2013), Form J; and Preliminary Observation of the Committee on Victim Assistance, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, 8–9 June 2017.

[2] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2017), Form J.

[3] Preliminary Observation of the Committee on Victim Assistance, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, 8–9 June 2017.

[4] The workshops were held in Khartoum, Kassala, Eastern Darfur, Western Darfur, Southern Darfur, and Northern Darfur states.

[5] NCPD, “Sudan National Council Annual report, 2017,” by Abdulrahman Esmael Ghani,Director of Planning, Policies and Research, NCPD, Khartoum, 17 May 2018.

[6] “Implementation of the CRPD, Alternative report – The Republic of Sudan,” Alradi Abdalla, ADD, Khartoum Sudan, 24 August 2017.

[7] Preliminary Observation of the Committee on Victim Assistance, Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Meetings, 8–9 June 2017.

[8] ICRC, “Annual Report 2017,” Geneva, 2018, p. 205.

[9] Response to Monitor questionnaire from Emeka Nwadike, Programme Officer, Ordnance Disposal Officer, UNMAS, 29 May 2018.

[10] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2017), Form J.

[11] JASMAR Final Report, VA project funded by USAID through UNMAS by Sami Ibrahim, Programs Manager, JASMAR, 30 April 2018.