For 2002, Landmine Monitor has identified $309 million in mine action funding by more than 23 donors. This represents a very significant increase of about $72 million, or 30 percent, from the previous year. The increase is particularly welcome in that last year, Landmine Monitor reported that funding in 2001 had for the first time stagnated rather than grow. It is noteworthy that well over half of the increase is attributable to one donor, Japan, and that more than two-thirds of the increase went to a single country, Afghanistan. Even greater increases in mine action funding will be needed in the future to cope fully with the global landmine problem and to enable Mine Ban Treaty States Parties to meet their ten-year deadlines for mine clearance.
As before, Landmine Monitor has not included funds for research and development into demining technologies and equipment in these totals, instead listing R&D funding separately, when known. While many donors devoted some resources to mine action R&D, only a small number of donors reported precise R&D funding for 2002 (Belgium, Canada, EC, Norway, UK, and US), totaling about $19.7 million. From 1992-2001, mine action R&D spending totaled at least $199 million, including at least $21 million in 2001.
R&D aside, these figures likely understate global mine action funding to a significant degree, for a number of reasons. Funding for victim assistance programs is included where possible, but for some major donors landmine victim assistance funding cannot be separated out from other non-landmine-specific programs. Also, in some cases, donors do not report the value of in-kind (as opposed to cash) contributions.
The totals also do not reflect mine action funding provided by non-governmental organizations or the private sector. Landmine Monitor has collected detailed information on NGO funding in only a limited number of countries. Landmine Monitor has data for seven countries, indicating NGOs donated about $6.5 million to mine action in 2002.
Moreover, these totals do not include the contributions of the mine-affected countries themselves. Following are some examples. Croatia reports that it provided $33.8 million for mine action in 2002, from its State budget and public companies. Bosnia and Herzegovina reports spending about $5.1 million. In September 2002, Angola said it has made available $5.3 million to support mine action activities. The Ethiopian government provided $3.5 million for mine action in 2002, through a World Bank loan. Vietnam states it invests hundreds of billions of dong (tens of millions of US dollars) for mine clearance each year. In Thailand, the government and foundations provided about $1 million. Perú indicated that it allocated $371,000 to mine clearance in 2002, through financial loans by public companies. Azerbaijan reports it provided $259,000 for mine action in 2002. Yemen provided approximately 3 million Yemeni Rials for its national mine action program.
Finally, the totals for this year and past years do not include the UN Oil for Food program funding of mine action in northern Iraq. Between 1998 and 2002, this amounted to approximately $95 million, including $27.3 million in 2002.
Contributions in 2002
By far, the biggest increase in mine action funding came from Japan, which went from $7.2 million in 2001 to $49.4 million in 2002—an increased of $42.2 million. Almost half of Japan’s 2002 funding went to mine action programs in Afghanistan. The European Commission increased mine action funding by about $13.4 million, Germany by about $7.1 million, Norway by about $5.5 million, Italy by about $3.7 million, the Netherlands by about $2.1 million, and Australia by about $2.1 million. Increases were also registered in Belgium ($1.2 million), Austria ($1.1 million), France and Switzerland. Moreover, there were notable increases from two non-traditional donors. Greece, a treaty signatory, provided $1.5 million in mine action funding in 2002, compared to $80,000 in 2001. China, a treaty non-signatory, donated $3 million in demining equipment in 2002, compared to donations valued at $1.26 million in 2001. It is also notable that Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have made significant mine action contributions the past two years.
Mine action funding fell for four of the biggest donors: the United States (down $5.5 million); Denmark (down $3.8 million); Sweden (down $2.6 million); and the United Kingdom (down $1.4 million). For the US, Sweden, and UK, this is the third consecutive year that mine action funding has decreased. Ireland, Canada and Finland also registered decreases in mine action funding in 2002.
Three major five-year (1998-2002) mine action funding commitments came to an end in 2002. Canada exceeded its five-year pledge of C$100 million, contributing nearly C$128 million (about US$83 million). In November 2002, the Canadian Landmine Fund was renewed, with C$72 million to be spent over the next five years. At the end of 2002, Norway had spent about $110.5 million of its five-year pledge of $120 million, and indicated the outstanding $9.5 million would be spent early in 2003. Norwegian officials have given assurances that Norway intends to maintain the same level of support in the coming years. Japan exceeded its five-year pledge of ¥10 billion, contributing ¥10.34 billion ($91.3 million). It has not yet made a renewed multiyear commitment.
Mine Action Funding in 2002: $309 million
United States $63.7 million Japan $49.4 million European Comm. $38.7 million Norway $25.2 million Germany $19.4 million Netherlands $16 million Canada $15.1 million United Kingdom $14 million Denmark $10.6 million Switzerland $9.1 million Australia $8.7 million Italy $8.7 million Sweden $7.3 million Finland $4.6 million France $3.6 million Belgium $3.1 million China $3 million Austria $2 million Ireland $1.6 million Greece $1.5 million New Zealand $1.1 million Luxembourg $1.1 million Saudi Arabia $1 million Others $1 million
Note: Does not include funding for research and development
Mine Action Funding Reported to Date: $1.7 billion
USA $439.2 million EC $242 million Norway $152.4 million Japan $121.3 million UK $108.1 million Sweden $91.9 million Netherlands $83.2 million Canada $82.5 million Germany $82.1 million Denmark $72.9 million Australia $51.9 million Switzerland $48.7 million Italy $44.7 million Finland $32.5 million France $20.4 million Belgium $14.9 million Austria $10 million Ireland $9.4 million New Zealand $7.6 million Others $12.7 million
Note: Does not include funding for research and development
Reported Mine Action Funding by year
2002 $309 million 2001 $237 million 2000 $241 million 1999 $220 million 1998 $180 million (plus an estimated $9 million) 1997 $105 million (plus an estimated $35 million) 1996 $99 million (plus an estimated $34 million) 1992-95 $218 million (plus an estimated $41 million)
Note: Does not include funding for research and development
Mine Action Donors
Unless otherwise noted, figures are in US dollars. Figures include victim assistance funding, where known. Figures do not include funds for mine action research and development, which are identified separately.
United States of America -- $439.2 million
- Figures do not include mine victim assistance funding; however, funding for war victims programs totaled an additional $10.7 million in FY2002.
- R&D totaled an additional $13.2 million in FY2002, and $94.4 million from FY1995-2001.
European Commission – $242 million
2002 $38.7 million (€40.7 million) 2001 $25.3 million (€28.1 million) 2000 $14.3 million (€15.9 million) 1999 $15.5 million (€17.3 million) 1998 $21.4 million (€23.8 million) 1992-1997 $126.8 million (€141.2 million)
- Figures do not include additional mine action funding by individual EU Member States.
- R&D totaled an additional €1.39 million ($1.32 million) in 2002, and €48.1 million from 1992-2001.
Norway -- $152.4 million
2002 $25.2 million (NOK 200.1 million) 2001 $19.7 million (NOK 176.9 million) 2000 $19.2 million (NOK 178.6 million) 1999 $21.7 million (NOK 185 million) 1998 $20.8 million 1997 $16.7 million (NOK 125 million) 1996 $13.5 million (NOK 101 million) 1995 $11.6 million (NOK 87 million) 1994 $4.0 million (NOK 30 million)
- R&D totaled an additional NOK 2.83 million ($353,465) in 2002. R&D totals for previous years are not known.
Japan -- $121.3 million
2002 $49.4 million (¥5,499 million) 2001 $7.2 million (¥764 million) 2000 $12.2 million (¥1,422 billion) 1999 $14.7 million (¥1,750 million) 1998 $7.8 million (¥900 million)
- Prior to 1998, Japan contributed approximately $30 million to mine action.
- Japan has funded a number of R&D programs, but the total value is not known.
United Kingdom -- $108.1 million
2002-2003 $14 million (£9.3 million) 2001-2002 $15.4 million (£10.7 million) 2000-2001 $21.5 million (£15 million) 1999-2000 $19.5 million (£13.6 million) 1998-1999 $6.5 million (£4.57 million) 1997-1998 $6.6 million (£4.6 million) 1996 $6.3 million 1995 $6.9 million 1994 $6.3 million 1993 $5.1 million
- Figures do not include victim assistance funding.
- R&D totaled an additional £1.4 million ($2.1 million) in 2002-2003, and $5.3 million from 1997-98 to 2001-2002.
Sweden -- $91.9 million
2002 $7.3 million (SEK 71 million) disbursed 2001 $9.9 million (SEK 95.9 million) disbursed; SEK 91.6 million allocated 2000 $11.1 million (SEK 107.9 million) disbursed; SEK 76.7 million allocated 1999 $11.5 million (SEK 94.5 million) allocated 1998 $16.6 million (SEK 129.5 million) allocated 1997 $11.9 million allocated 1996 $10.4 million allocated 1995 $5.1 million allocated 1994 $2.6 million allocated 1990-93 $5.5 million allocated
- Figures do not include victim assistance funding.
- Sweden has devoted considerable additional funds to R&D, totaling more than $24 million from 1994-1999; no figures are available for recent years.
The Netherlands -- $83.2 million
2002 $16 million 2001 $13.9 million (Dfl 32 million, €15.5 million) 2000 $14.2 million (Dfl 35.4 million) 1999 $8.9 million (Dfl 23 million) 1998 $9.3 million 1997 $10.2 million 1996 $10.7 million
- Figures include some but not all victim assistance funding.
- Figures prior to 1996 are not available.
- The Netherlands spent Dfl 12.8 million ($5 million) on the HOM 2000 research project into new demining techniques from 1997 until its termination in 2001.
Canada -- $82.5 million
2002 $15.1 million (C$22.3 million) 2001 $15.5 million (C$24 million) 2000 $11.9 million (C$17.7 million) 1999 $15.2 million (C$23.5 million) 1998 $9.5 million 1997 $3.0 million (C$4.6 million) 1996 $4.0 million (C$6 million) 1995 $1.5 million (C$2.2 million) 1994 $2.9 million (C$4.4 million) 1993 $2.2 million (C$3.4 million) 1989 $1.7 million (C$2.5 million)
- R&D totaled an additional C$1.93 million (US$1.3 million) in 2002, and US$7.8 million from 1998-2001.
Germany -- $82.1 million
2002 $19.4 million (€20.4 million) 2001 $12.3 million (DM 26.8 million, €13.7 million) 2000 $14.5 million (DM 27.5 million) 1999 $11.4 million (DM 21.7 million) 1998 $10.1 million 1997 $4.9 million 1996 $7.9 million 1995 $0.8 million 1994 $0.5 million 1993 $0.3 million
- Germany has devoted considerable additional funds to R&D, totaling more than $6 million from 1993-1999; no figures are available for recent years.
Denmark -- $72.9 million
2002 $10.6 million (DKK 83.5 million) 2001 $14.4 million (DKK 119.4 million) 2000 $13.4 million (DKK 106.7 million) 1999 $7 million (DKK 54.9 million) 1998 $6.2 million (DKK 44.3 million) 1997 $5.4 million (DKK 38.6 million) 1996 $8 million (DKK 57 million) 1995 $2.3 million 1994 $2.0 million 1993 $1.7 million 1992 $1.9 million
- Figures for 1992-1995 do not include bilateral contributions.
- Denmark has funded a number of R&D programs, but the total value is not known.
Australia -- $51.9 million
2002-2003 $8.7 million (A$14.5 million) 2001-2002 $6.6 million (A$12.5 million) 2000-2001 $6.7 million (A$12.6 million) 1999-2000 $8 million (A$12.4 million) 1998-1999 $7 million (A$11.1 million) 1997-1998 $5.9 million (A$9.9 million) 1996-1997 $4.5 million (A$7.5 million) 1995-1996 $4.5 million (A$7.5 million)
- Australia has funded a number of R&D programs, but the total value is not known.
Switzerland -- $48.7 million
2002 $9.1 million 2001 $8.4 million 2000 $8.5 million 1999 $5.8 million 1998 Unknown 1997 $4.0 million 1996 $2.6 million 1995 $4.1 million 1994 $3.5 million 1993 $2.7 million
- Funding for victim assistance is not included in these figures because it is integrated into other funding for victims of war, post-conflict reconstruction and long-term development.
- The totals include $4.35 million for the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining in 2002, $3.3 million in 2001 and $2.3 million in 2000; some or all of these funds could be counted as R&D.
Italy -- $44.7 million
2002 $8.7 million (€9.91 million) 2001 $5 million (L 11.2 billion, €5.6 million) 2000 $2 million (L 4.3 billion) 1999 $6.5 million (L 13.9 billion) 1998 $12 million (L 20 billion)
- Italy contributed 18 billion lire ($10.5 million) from 1995-1997.
- Italy has funded a number of R&D programs, but the total value is not known.
Finland -- $32.5 million
2002 $4.6 million (€4.8 million) 2001 $4.5 million (FIM 30 million, €5 million) 2000 $4 million (FIM 26.9 million) 1999 $5 million (FIM 28.7 million) 1998 $6.6 million 1997 $4.5 million 1996 $1.3 million 1995 $0.7 million 1991-94 $1.3 million
France -- $20.4 million
2002 $3.6 million (€3.8 million) 2001 $2.7 million (€3 million) 2000 $1.2 million 1999 $0.9 million 1995-98 $12 million
- France has devoted considerable additional funds to R&D, but the value of R&D relevant to humanitarian mine action is not known.
Belgium -- $14.9 million
2002 $3.1 million (€3.2 million) 2001 $1.9 million (€2.2 million) 2000 $2.5 million (BEF 111 million) 1999 $2.3 million (BEF 93 million) 1994-1998 $5.1 million
- R&D totaled an additional €1.5 million ($1.4 million) in 2002, and $6.7 million from 1994-2001.
Austria -- $10 million
2002 $2 million (€2.1 million) 2001 $0.9 million (ATS 13.7 million) 2000 $1.9 million (ATS 30 million) 1999 $1 million (ATS 15 million) 1994-1998 $4.2 million
Ireland -- $9.4 million
2002 $1.6 million (€1.7 million) 2001 $2 million (Ir£ 1.8 million, €2.2 million) 2000 $1.4 million (Ir£ 1.3 million) 1999 $1.8 million (Ir£ 1.6 million) 1994-1998 $2.6 million
New Zealand -- $7.6 million
2002 $1.05 (NZ$1.85 million) 2001 $0.95 million (NZ$2.3 million) 2000 $0.7 million (NZ$1.8 million) 1999 $0.9 million (NZ$1.8 million) 1992-1998 $4 million (NZ$6.9 million)
Four other countries provided at least $1 million in mine action funding in 2002:
- China donated $3 million worth of demining equipment to Eritrea and Lebanon.
- Greece provided $1.5 million, mostly for demining in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Lebanon.
- Luxembourg provided $1.1 million for mine action in seven countries. It provided another $1.1 million for eight health care and disability projects, which include support for landmine survivors.
- Saudi Arabia provided Yemen with $1 million as the second part of a donation of $3 million for mine action activities.
Other contributions to mine action in 2002 included:
- The Czech Republic provided about $71,000 for mine action in Croatia, Albania, and Lebanon.
- Hungary donated $30,000 for victim assistance in Afghanistan.
- Monaco contributed $15,000 to the UN Voluntary Trust Fund.
- Slovakia donated demining equipment valued at $185,000 to the International Trust Fund for use in Croatia.
- Slovenia donated $362,534 to the International Trust Fund.
- South Africa provided $50,000 for landmine victims in Angola.
- South Korea contributed $100,000 to the UN Voluntary Trust Fund, for mine action in Laos, Cambodia and Sri Lanka.
- Spain did not report comprehensive mine action funding for 2002 to Landmine Monitor or the UN. Assistance related to its International Demining Training Center was valued at about $770,000. Spain provided $4.2 million in mine action assistance from 1995-2001.
- Turkey contributed $23,750 for the destruction of stockpiled antipersonnel mines in Ukraine.
- The United Arab Emirates in 2001 pledged up to $50 million to mine action in South Lebanon. It is not known how much of that total the UAE contributed in 2002, but under the program known as “Operation Emirates Solidarity,” it has funded mine clearance, survey and risk education activities. In 2002, UAE contributed $10,000 for mine action in Sri Lanka.
States and Victim Assistance
The Mine Ban Treaty obligates, in Article 6.3, that “Each State in a position to do so shall provide assistance for the care and rehabilitation, and social and economic reintegration, of mine victims....” In many mine-affected countries the assistance available to address the needs of survivors is inadequate and it would appear that additional outside assistance is needed to provide for the care and rehabilitation of mine survivors.
The following chart is based on information provided to Landmine Monitor by donors, as reported in the individual country reports in this Landmine Monitor Report 2003.
Contributions to Mine Victim Assistance (US$)
2002 2001 Australia $534,250 $1,282,680 Austria $912,553 $340,427 Belgium $316,503 $638,555 Canada $2,194,063 $4,973,485 Croatia $0 $9,844 Denmark $0 $251,277 Finland $479,335 $605,228 France $433,777 $95,829 Germany $2,650,253 $964,959 Hungary $30,000 $0 Ireland $240,350 $409,381 Italy $95,000 $1,735,812 Japan $2,792,623 $668,000 Luxembourg $1,444,631 $356,788 Netherlands $454,000 $591,575 New Zealand $57,000 $109,200 Norway $5,372,750 $3,978,112 Portugal $9,500 $56,080 Slovenia $0 $165,807 South Africa $50,000 $20,000 Switzerland $46,000 $0 United States of America $10,738,873 $11,414,576 Total $28,851,461 $28,667,615
Although some States reported significant increases in 2002 – Austria, France, Germany, Japan, Luxembourg and Norway – in 12 out of 22 donor countries victim assistance funding decreased. It should also be noted that while the US contribution appears to be the largest, this includes the total contribution of the Leahy War Victims Fund, which supports programs for all victims of war; the percentage of funding that goes to support programs assisting landmine victims is not available.
Precise, comprehensive and comparable figures on resources available for mine victim assistance are difficult to obtain. Some governments do not provide specific funding for victim assistance, but rather consider victim assistance as an integrated part of humanitarian mine action. In other instances, some countries, for example Sweden and the United Kingdom, do not provide specific funding for victim assistance at all with the view that landmine victims are reached through bilateral development cooperation and other contributions.
Equally, if not more important, are the activities of mine-affected states in providing resources for facilities and services within the public health system to address the needs of landmine victims. Information on this area is not readily available. In addition, many if not the majority of victim assistance programs are carried out by NGOs who receive funding from various sources including governments, private donors and charitable foundations. Therefore, the information obtained for the Landmine Monitor Report 2003 cannot be taken as fully representative of the total resources available to provide assistance to mine victims and other persons with disabilities.
An analysis prepared for the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration indicated that there had been no significant increase in victim assistance funding since 1999. Victim assistance as a percentage of total mine action funding had remained relatively constant at around 11.6 percent. In 1999, identifiable victim assistance funding amounted to $28.5 million or 11.9 percent of total mine action funding. In 2000, the figure rose to $29.7 million but the percentage dropped slightly to 11.5 percent of mine action funding. In 2001, victim assistance funding dropped to $28.7million but the percentage rose marginally to 11.6 percent of total mine action funding. In 2002, victim assistance funding increased to $28.9 million but the percentage of total mine action funding decreased to around 9 percent.
In 2002, the ICRC Special Appeal for Mine Action expended CHF 20.3 million ($13 million), or 85 percent of its total expenditure, on victim assistance activities including emergency care, continuing medical care, and physical rehabilitation in 34 mine-affected countries. This compares with CHF 19.1 million ($11.4 million), or 83 percent, in 2001. In 2002, nine countries and the European Commission contributed CHF 8,154,587 ($5.2 million) as compared to eleven countries contributing CHF 8.6 million ($5.1 million) in 2001. National Red Cross Societies from Australia, Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway and Portugal provided an additional CHF 2,648,548 ($1.7 million), together with CHF 1,264,935 ($810,856) from other organizations including Rotary, UEFA, Soroptimist International, and other donors. An additional CHF 11,546,333 ($740,495) was funded out of contributions to the ICRC Emergency Appeals 2002 and CHF 642,686 ($411,978) from the ICRC Headquarters Appeal 2002. Total expenditure in 2002, including victim assistance, mine awareness and humanitarian diplomacy, amounted to CHF 24 million ($15.4 million).
The ICRC Special Fund for the Disabled expended CHF 2.6 million ($1.8 million) on physical rehabilitation programs for persons with disabilities, including landmine survivors in 2002. This compares with CHF 2.8 million ($1.7 million) in 2001. In 2002, three countries contributed CHF 2,263,760 ($1.45 million) as compared to three countries contributing CHF 2.6 million ($1.5 million) in 2001. National Societies in Germany, Liechtenstein, Monaco, New Zealand, and Norway provided an additional CHF 254,871 ($163,379), together with CHF 14,365 ($9,208) from other organizations.
In 2002, of the $25,418,121 expended by the Slovenian International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF) only $1,118,539 (4.4 percent) was for victim assistance programs, well below the ITF’s target of 15 percent. This compares to $1.3 million in 2001 (5 percent) and $1.4 million in 2000 (6.4 percent). Nine countries contributed to mine victim assistance programs through the ITF: Austria, Canada, Croatia, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Norway, Slovenia, and the United States of America. The ITF describes mine victim assistance programs as “still grossly underfunded.”
Although support for landmine victim assistance is included in the Mine Action Policy of the European Commission, no funding was provided for programs from the mine action budget in 2002. However, funding has been provided from other budget lines, including those of the European Commission Humanitarian Office (ECHO), to support programs that assist all persons with disabilities in mine-affected countries. The total value of these contributions is not available.
Major Mine Action Recipients
Accurate, complete, and comparable figures for major mine action recipients are even more elusive than those for mine action donors. According to the information available to Landmine Monitor, the biggest mine action funding recipients, cumulatively since the early 1990s, are Afghanistan ($254 million), Mozambique ($177 million), Cambodia ($173 million), Bosnia and Herzegovina ($119 million), northern Iraq ($111 million), Angola ($92 million), Kosovo ($86 million), and Laos ($50 million).
Vietnam ($31 million), Croatia ($29.8 million), Eritrea ($25 million), and Lebanon (more than $24 million) have emerged as major recipients in the past few years.
In 2002, the top recipients were Afghanistan ($64.3 million), northern Iraq ($30.6 million), Cambodia ($27.3 million), Angola ($21.2 million), Vietnam ($17.7 million), Mozambique ($16.9 million), Bosnia and Herzegovina ($15.8 million), Eritrea ($11.1 million), Croatia ($10.3 million), and Laos ($8 million).
Other notable recipients included Sri Lanka ($6 million), Nicaragua ($5.9 million), Yemen ($5.6 million), Somaliland ($5.6 million), Lebanon (more than $5.1 million), and Sudan ($5.1 million).
The biggest increases in mine action funding in 2002 were registered in Afghanistan ($50 million), Vietnam ($12 million), Angola ($7.7 million), Cambodia ($6.3 million), and Sri Lanka (about $5.5 million).
Among the major recipients, no significant decreases were reported except in Kosovo ($7 million) and Lebanon ($7.5 million). The decline was expected in Kosovo, following the UN’s December 2001 declaration that clearance was successfully completed. The total for Lebanon does not include figures from the United Arab Emirates, which is now likely to be the major donor for Lebanon.
Since the ouster of the Taliban in late 2001, mine action funding for Afghanistan has skyrocketed. Mine action funding for 2002 totaled approximately $64.3 million, more than four times the 2001 total of $14.1 million. The 2001 total had represented the smallest amount of mine action funding since 1992. Afghanistan received more than 20 percent of global mine action funding in 2002, and the $50 million increase in funding for Afghanistan accounts for more than two-thirds of the large global increase in mine action funding for 2002. There were 15 identified donors in 2002, compared to nine in 2001. Funding for mine action in Afghanistan from 1991 through 2002 amounted to some $254 million.
According to the National Demining Institute, seventeen donors contributed $16.9 million for mine action in 2002. In 2001, thirteen donors reported to Landmine Monitor a total of about $15.1 million in mine action contributions to Mozambique. It is estimated that mine action funding for Mozambique totaled about $177 million from 1993 to 2002.
In 2002, fifteen donors reported providing approximately $27.3 million in mine action funding for Cambodia, a significant increase from $21 million in 2001. Total funding for mine action in Cambodia is estimated to exceed $173 million from 1994 through 2002.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Twelve donors reported contributions of about $15.8 million to mine action in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2002. That is thought to be an incomplete tally, with donations from others not yet recorded. The government reports that it provided national mine action funding of $5.06 million in 2002. Donor funding amounted to about $16.6 million in 2001 and $16.2 million in 2000. Mine action funding for Bosnia and Herzegovina totaled approximately $119 million from 1995 to 2002.
Prior to the occupation of Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority in 2003, mine action only took place in northern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan). The Iraq Mine Action Program (MAP), under the jurisdiction of the United Nations, has been funded entirely through the UN Oil for Food Program. The MAP expended $27.3 million in 2002, and over $28 million in 2001. Two key mine action NGOs, Mines Advisory Group and Norwegian People’s Aid, received funds apart from the UN program, totaling about $3.3 million in 2002 and $2.4 million in 2001. It is estimated that funding for mine action in northern Iraq totaled about $111 million from 1993 to 2002.
In 2003, mine action is spreading to the rest of the country. Oil for Food funding is expected to be about $35 million in 2003. In addition to that, by July 2003, donors had provided or pledged more than $20 million in mine action funding for all of Iraq.
In 2002, fifteen donors reported contributions to mine action in Angola totaling approximately $21.2 million. That is a very significant increase over the estimated $13.5 million in mine action funding in 2001. It is estimated that mine action funding for Angola totaled about $92 million from 1993 to 2002.
Additionally, the government of Angola allocates funds for mine action from its national budget. In September 2002, the government said it has made available $5.3 million to support mine action activities.
Kosovo (Serbia and Montenegro)
With the UN declaration in December 2001 that Kosovo was mine-free, the previous high levels of international mine action funding fell dramatically. Total funding for mine action in Kosovo in 2002 was $1.4 million. Landmine Monitor recorded about $8.4 million in mine action funding in 2001. According to an independent study by the Praxis Group carried out on behalf of UN Mine Action Service, mine action funding for Kosovo totaled about $85 million from mid-1999 when operations began until to the end of 2001.
Fifteen donors reported contributions of more than $8 million to mine action in Laos in 2002. In mid-2002, a funding crisis led to significantly scaled-back clearance operations and to the lay-off of nearly half of UXO LAO’s operational capacity. According to UXO LAO, mine action funding for Laos in 2001 amounted to an estimated $7.5 million. Mine action funding for Laos totaled an estimated $50 million from 1994 to 2002.
Four donors contributed about $17.7 million for mine clearance and victim assistance in Vietnam in 2002, more than three times the previous year. This included $11.9 million from Japan. In 2001, some $5.7 million in mine action funding was provided. According to reports from donors, more than $31 million has been provided for mine action in Vietnam in recent years. In addition, the government maintains that it invests hundreds of billions of dong (tens of millions of US dollars) for mine clearance each year.
Central America -- Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua
Funding for the Organization of American States (OAS) Assistance Program for Demining in Central America (PADCA), which involves mine and UXO clearance in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, totaled $3.95 million in 2002, a decrease from $4.7 million in 2001. Funding totaled $31.3 million from 1992 to 2002.
Croatia has paid for most of its mine clearance from domestic financial resources, but has also received substantial international support. Croatia reports that in 2002, mine clearance activities cost $44.2 million, a 48 percent increase from 2001 ($29.8 million), which in turn was a large increase from the previous year. Of the 2002 total, $24.3 million came from the Croatian State budget, $9.5 million from public companies and $10.4 million from foreign and domestic donations.
According to Croatia, foreign donations totaled $8.7 million in 2002, mostly from the International Trust Fund (ITF), and $5.8 million in 2001. The ITF reports that it provided $10.3 million to Croatia for mine action in 2002, a significant increase from $5.7 million in 2001. Total foreign contributions to mine action in Croatia from 1994 to 2002 are estimated to be $29.8 million.
Since the Israeli withdrawal from South Lebanon in May 2000, mine action funding and activities have increased greatly. Seven donors reported contributions totaling $5.1 million for mine action in Lebanon in 2002. Landmine Monitor estimates that $12.6 million was provided by 13 donors in 2001, and nearly $6 million in 2000. In addition, in 2001 the United Arab Emirates pledged up to $50 million for mine action in South Lebanon. It is not known how much of that total the UAE contributed in 2001 or 2002, but under the program known as “Operation Emirates Solidarity,” it has funded mine clearance, survey and risk education activities. Thus, in the past three years, mine action contributions have totaled about $24 million, not including funds from the UAE.
Since the end of its border conflict with Ethiopia in June 2000, and its accession to the Mine Ban Treaty in August 2001, Eritrea has received significant amounts of mine action assistance. Eleven donors have reported providing $11.1 million to mine action in Eritrea in 2002. In addition, China donated a significant amount of demining equipment. For 2001, ten donors reported contributions totaling $8.4 million. Total mine action funding for Eritrea from 1994-2002 is estimated at $25 million.
Other Mine Action Recipients in 2002
- Sri Lanka: Since the cease-fire took effect in February 2002, significant amounts of mine action funding have been provided. Eleven donors reported contributions to mine action in Sri Lanka in 2002 totaling about $6 million. Mine action projects were mostly suspended in 2000 and 2001.
- Nicaragua: Eight donors reported providing about $5.9 million.
- Yemen: Twelve donors reported providing about $5.6 million, up from about $4 million in 2001. In 2002, the government of Yemen provided approximately 3 million Yemeni Rials for the national mine action program.
- Somaliland: Eight donors reported providing about $5.6 million. Funding in 2001 was about $4.3 million.
- Sudan: In the wake of the January 2002 Nuba Mountains cease-fire, mine action assistance has increased. Twelve donors reported providing about $5.1 million in mine action support in 2002. This compares to six donors providing some $2.2 million in 2001.
- Ethiopia: Eight donors reported providing about $4.9 million. In addition, the Ethiopian government provided $3.5 million, through a World Ban loan. Ethiopia received about $2 million in 2001.
- Azerbaijan: Five donors reported providing about $4.5 million in mine action assistance to Azerbaijan in 2002. In addition, the government reports it provided $259,000 for mine action in 2002. In 2001, Landmine Monitor recorded mine action funding totaling $5.5 million for Azerbaijan.
- Armenia: The United States provided $4.5 million, including a one-time donation of $1.8 million from the US Embassy. In 2001, the US provided $850,000.
- FYR Macedonia: About $3 million was provided by the EC and ITF. Funding in 2001 was about $530,000.
- Albania: The government reports mine action funding totaled $2.8 million. In 2001, about $2.2 million was donated.
- Georgia: Four donors reported providing about $2.1 million, mostly for HALO Trust clearance in Abkhazia. Funding in 2001 totaled about $1.8 million.
- Thailand: Foreign donors provided about $1.7 million, compared to $2.6 million in 2001. In 2002, the Thai government and Thai foundations provided about $1 million.
- DR Congo: Handicap International Belgium received about $1.5 million for its mine action work in the DRC.
- Chad: Five donors reported providing about $1.3 million, the same amount as in 2001.
- Jordan: Three donors reported providing about $1.1 million
- Ecuador: The US and OAS provided about $1.1 million.
- Perú: The US and OAS provided about $1.1 million. The government provided $371,000.
Funding for mine action in each of the following countries totaled less than $1 million in 2002: Benin, Burma, Burundi, Colombia, Djibouti, Estonia, Guinea-Bissau, Namibia, Oman, Pakistan, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, and Zambia.
 In some cases, donors are not reporting for the calendar year 2002. Among the countries reporting for different fiscal years are the US (October 2001-September 2002), Japan (March 2002-February 2003), Canada (April 2002-March 2003), UK (April 2002- April 2003), and Australia (July 2002-June 2003).
 The seven countries are Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, and United Kingdom.
 Figures for years prior to 2002 are taken from the Executive Summary of Landmine Monitor Report 2002, although in a few cases, corrections to earlier years have been received. In most but not all instances, the figures for earlier years are calculated at the exchange rates for those years.
 Landmine Monitor used an exchange rate of €1 = $0.95 for 2002. It is the average rate for 2002 as identified in US Government, Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 6 January 2003. Exchange rates with the US dollar fluctuated greatly for many currencies during the year and some donors used a different rate in their reporting than Landmine Monitor.
 Figures for 2001 taken from “Reflections on Funding Sustainability,” presentation by Sheree Bailey, Landmine Monitor Victim Assistance Research Coordinator, to the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 4 February 2003, available at www.gichd.ch.
 See, “Reflections on Funding Sustainability,” presentation by Sheree Bailey, Landmine Monitor Victim Assistance Research Coordinator, to the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 4 February 2003, available at www.gichd.ch. The sources of information used to compile the figures were annual Landmine Monitor Reports for 2000, 2001 and 2002, the Mine Action Investment database, the Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance to Mine Action, reports of the Slovenian International Trust Fund for Mine Clearance and Mine Victims Assistance, ICRC Mine Action Special Reports, the Leahy War Victims Fund, and other relevant documents available to Landmine Monitor.
 ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2002,” Geneva, August 2003; see also ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2001,” Geneva, July 2002, p. 51. Exchange rates used are US$1 = CHF1.56 for 2002, and US$1 = CHF1.67 for 2001.
 In 2002, total funding received from States as reported in the ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2002,” Geneva, August 2003, was: Australia ($463,160), Austria ($755,897), Canada ($203,019), Finland ($540,315), Italy ($472,436), Japan ($234,173) Netherlands ($429,055), Norway ($1,969,116), South Africa ($19,744) and the European Commission ($140,385). In some instances country contributions differ from those reported by States in the Landmine Monitor Report 2003. In the amounts listed for each State only 85 percent of total contributions to the ICRC Special Appeal are for mine victim assistance with the balance being allocated to mine awareness and humanitarian diplomacy activities. See also ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2001,” Geneva, July 2002, p. 51.
 ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2002,” Geneva, August 2003.
 Ibid.; see also ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2001,” Geneva, July 2002, p. 51.
 In 2002, total funding received from States as reported in the ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2002,” August 2003, was: Australia ($106,327); Norway ($1,182,471); and the United States of America ($162,330). See also, ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2001,” Geneva, July 2002, p. 51.
 Not all funds received by the ITF are expended in the year of receipt. Victim assistance expenditure in 2002 was provided by Austria ($34), Canada ($122,583), Croatia ($11,717), Denmark ($48,663), France ($21,562), Luxembourg ($16,941), Norway ($12,080), Slovenia ($140,143), United States of America ($738,873), and private donors ($5,934). Email to Landmine Monitor (HIB) from Sabina Beber, ITF, 4 August 2003.
 International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 19.