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The Issues

Frequently Asked Questions

Most Common Questions
  1. What is Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor?
  2. Where can I find the most up-to-date information about mines, cluster munitions and other explosive remnants of war?
  3. How can I get involved?
  4. What is the difference between a landmine, cluster munition, and explosive remnant of war?
  5. Which countries are affected by landmines, cluster munition remnants and other explosive remnants of war (ERW)?
  6. How many mines are planted in the ground?
  7. Which countries are most severely affected by mines and cluster munition remnants?
  8. How much land is contaminated by mines and cluster munition remnants?
  9. How many countries use mines or cluster munitions?
  10. How many countries produce mines or cluster munitions?
  11. How many people are killed or injured by mines or cluster munitions?
Mine Ban Treaty
  1. How does a country join the Mine Ban Treaty, and what must it do to comply with it?
  2. How many countries have signed and ratified or acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty?
  3. What are the current challenges and successes of the Mine Ban Treaty?
Convention on Cluster Munitions
  1. How does a country join the Convention on Cluster Munitions, and what must it do to comply with it?
  2. How many countries have signed and/or ratified the Convention on Cluster Munitions?
  3. When did the Convention on Cluster Munitions enter into force?
  4. How is the Convention on Cluster Munitions related the negotiations for a protocol on cluster munitions within the Convention of Conventional Weapons?
Clearance
  1. How many mines, cluster munitions, and other explosives were cleared in 2012?
  2. Have Mine Ban Treaty States Parties finished clearing all the mines in their country?
Stockpiling and Retention
  1. How many stockpiled mines have been destroyed and how many remain?
  2. How many mines have been retained for training purposes?
  3. How many stockpiled cluster munitions have been destroyed and how many remain?
  4. How many cluster munitions have been retained for training purposes?
Casualties
  1. How many people were injured or killed by mines, cluster munitions, and other explosive remnants of war in 2012 compared to previous years?
  2. Who was injured or killed by mines, cluster munitions and other ERW in 2012?
  3. Which type of explosive devices cause the most casualties?
  4. Which countries and regions had the most new casualties in 2012?
Victim Assistance
  1. Which States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty and/or the Convention on Cluster Munitions are responsible for providing victim assistance to the greatest number of survivors?
Mine Action Funding
  1. How much international funding was provided for mine action in 2012 and which countries provided funding?
  2. How much national funding was provided for mine action in 2012 and which countries provided funding?
  3. Which countries received funding for mine action in 2012?

Most Common Questions
What is Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor?

Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor is an initiative providing research for the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC), now the ICBL-CMC. It is the de facto monitoring regime for the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

The Monitor is a civil society-based program providing research and monitoring on progress made in eliminating landmines, cluster munitions, and other explosive remnants of war.

The Monitor produces the following research products:

The Monitor has published an annual Landmine Monitor Report since 1999, and published its first report on cluster munitions, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice in May 2009. The first annual Cluster Munition Monitor Report was published in 2010.

Where can I find the most up-to-date information about mines, cluster munitions and other explosive remnants of war?

Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor produces a variety of research products and resources.

Country Profiles include summaries of developments in each country related to mine ban policy, cluster munition ban policy, mine action, casualties and victim assistance, and support for mine action, as well as country maps and links to key resources. Major new developments are updated regularly, and programmatic information (for example casualties and mine clearance statistics) are updated annually. Annual updates are made to online Country Profiles between June and October. Visit the profile of your choice to sign up to receive a notification as soon as it is updated.

Landmine Monitor is released annually and provides a global overview of developments in mine ban policy, use, production, trade, and stockpiling, and also includes information on contamination, clearance, casualties, victim assistance, and support for mine action.The most recent report is Landmine Monitor 2013.

Cluster Munition Monitor provides a global overview of developments in cluster munition ban policy, use, production, trade, and stockpiling for every country in the world, and also includes information on cluster munition contamination, casualties, clearance, and victim assistance. The most recent report is Cluster Munition Monitor 2013. The next report will be released in September 2014.

Monitor factsheets are issued several times per year, usually surrounding major international meetings. Factsheet content is primarily drawn from most recent report findings.

The Monitor's online Treaty Status Table provides up-to-date information about the latest ratifications of the Mine Ban Treaty, Convention on Cluster Munitions, UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

How can I get involved?

Donations to support the important work of the ICBL-CMC and Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor can be made here.

The Monitor is a research and reporting initiative. If you wish to contribute to our work please see our Opportunities section to find out how you can be involved.

The International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) are advocacy and campaigning organizations with many opportunities to take action for a world free of landmines and cluster munitions. Visit the ICBL and CMC websites to get started.

The Monitor, the ICBL and the CMC do not carry out any mine clearance operations. If you are looking for opportunities to be involved in mine clearance activities, please directly contact an organization engaged in field projects.

What is the difference between a landmine, cluster munition, and explosive remnant of war?

Antipersonnel landmines are explosive devices designed to injure or kill people. Antivehicle or antitank mines are designed to explode when triggered by a vehicle.

Cluster bombs, or cluster munitions, are weapons containing from several to hundreds of explosive submunitions. They are dropped from the air or fired from the ground and are designed to break open in mid-air, releasing submunitions and saturating an area that can be as wide as several football fields.

Unexploded ordnance (UXO) are weapons that for some reason fail to detonate as intended, thereby becoming unexploded ordnance. These unstable explosive devices are left behind during and after conflicts and pose dangers similar to landmines.

Abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO) is explosive ordnance that has not been used during armed conflict and has been left behind and is no longer under control of the party that left it behind. It may or may not have been primed, fuzed, armed, or otherwise prepared for use.

Explosive remnants of war (ERW) are explosive munitions left behind after a conflict has ended. They include unexploded artillery shells, grenades, mortars, rockets, air-dropped bombs, and cluster munitions. Under the international legal definition, ERW consist of UXO and AXO, but not mines.

Which countries are affected by landmines, cluster munition remnants and other explosive remnants of war (ERW)?

Some 59 states and four other areas were confirmed to be mine-affected as of October 2013. A further eight states have either suspected or residual mine contamination. Click here for a list of affected countries.

As of August 2013, at least 26 states and three other areas are believed to have cluster munition remnants on their territory. Click here for a list of affected countries.

How many mines are planted in the ground?

There is no credible estimate of the total number of mines emplaced worldwide. Looking at the quantity of mines in the ground is not the best measure when trying to determine the impact of mines and ERW on people. To get a better indication of the impact of mines it is better measure the amount of area that is contaminated, and in addition, it is important to consider what type of land is contaminated, whether it is land that is needed for people to live on, farm, or travel through to reach services.

Which countries are most severely affected by mines and cluster munition remnants?

There are several different factors to be considered when measuring the severity of mine or cluster munition contamination. Some countries have a large number of mines located in areas that are not heavily populated or traveled, meaning that the impact of mines on people is minimal. In other countries, a relatively small number of mines can have a disproportionately high impact on people if they are located in areas that are densely populated or on land that is needed for livelihood activities like farming and grazing animals.

One way to assess the impact of mines or cluster munition remnants is to look at the number of people killed or injured by these weapons. This gives a rough picture, but it is important to keep in mind that many victims of mines, cluster munition remnants and other explosive remnants of war (ERW) are not included in these figures because of poor data collection. Additionally, risk education programs may reduce the number of casualties, while communities continue to suffer grave consequences of mine contamination, such as an inability to work, farm, go to school, access healthcare, and many other vital activities.

To read the latest information about mine, cluster munition remnant and other ERW casualties click here.

How much land is contaminated by mines and cluster munition remnants?

Landmines

The Monitor does not publish a global table of the estimated size of mine contamination by state because it believes that many of the estimates cited by states are far higher than the true extent of contamination. Instead, an order of magnitude for contamination as of October 2013 is given in the table below, which lists states with very heavy (more than 100km2) and heavy contamination (10–100km2), as well as those with suspected or residual contamination. More information is available here.

Estimated extent of mine contamination in affected states as of October 2013

States with very heavy contamination 
(more than 100km2)

Afghanistan

Angola

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Cambodia

Chad

Croatia

Iran

Iraq

Morocco (Western Sahara)

Thailand

Turkey

States with heavy contamination (10–100km2)

Algeria

Colombia

Chile

Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

Egypt

Eritrea

Lao PDR

Libya

Mauritania

Myanmar

Russia

Somalia(Somaliland)

South Sudan

Sudan

Sri Lanka

Vietnam

Yemen

Zimbabwe

States with suspected or residual contamination as of October 2013

Africa

Asia-Pacific

Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia

Middle East and Northern Africa

Djibouti

Namibia

Palau

Philippines

Moldova

Montenegro

Jordan

Oman

Note: States Parties are indicated in bold, other areas in italics.

Cluster Munitions

The extent of contamination across affected states varies significantly. Seven states and one other area have the greatest contamination from cluster munition remnants (more than 10km²), particularly unexploded submunitions (see table below). Click here for the latest information on cluster munition contamination.

Extent of contamination in cluster munition-affected states and other areas
(as of July 2013)

State/Area

Estimated extent of contamination (km2)

No. of confirmed and suspected hazardous areas

Lao PDR

No credible estimate

Not known

Vietnam

No credible estimate

Not known

Iraq

No credible estimate

Not known

Cambodia

489.23*

990

Nagorno-Karabakh

88.40

241

Lebanon

13.42

166

BiH

12.18

669

Mauritania

10

8

Serbia

9.01

26

Afghanistan

7.64

22

Croatia

4.47

7

Germany

4

1

Note: Convention on Cluster Munition States Parties and signatories are indicated in bold and other areas in italics. 
*This figure is likely to rise following additional survey.

How many countries use mines or cluster munitions?

Landmines

Locations of New Use of Antipersonnel Mines: 2012–2013

Use by government forces

Use by Non-State Armed Groups

Myanmar, Syria

Afghanistan, Colombia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, Yemen

In this reporting period, September 2012 through October 2013, the Monitor has confirmed the new use of antipersonnel mines by forces of the governments of Syria and Myanmar. New use of antipersonnel mines by non-state armed groups in Afghanistan, Colombia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, and Yemen is also detailed here. Additionally, it was reported in July 2013 that forces in the internationally unrecognized breakaway area of Nagorno-Karabakh emplaced new antipersonnel mines. This is an increase in the number of countries previously cited by the Monitor and is more countries than was reported in the past five years.

Cluster Munitions

At least 20 government armed forces have used cluster munitions since the end of World War II, detailed in the following table.

Summary of states using cluster munitions and locations used

User state

Locations used

Colombia

Colombia

Eritrea

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Eritrea

France

Chad, Iraq, Kuwait

Georgia

Georgia, possibly Abkhazia

Iraq

Iran, Iraq

Israel

Lebanon, Syria

Libya

Chad, Libya

Morocco

Western Sahara, Mauritania

Netherlands

Former Yugoslavia (Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia)

Nigeria

Sierra Leone

Russia

Chechnya, Afghanistan (as USSR), Georgia

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

South Africa

Has admitted past use, location unknown

Sudan

Sudan

Syria

Syria

Thailand

Cambodia

UK

Falklands/Malvinas, Iraq, Kuwait, former Yugoslavia (Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia)

US

Afghanistan, Albania, BiH, Cambodia, Grenada, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lao PDR, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Vietnam, Yemen, former Yugoslavia (Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia)

Yugoslavia (former Socialist Republic of)

Albania, BiH, Croatia, Kosovo

How many countries produce mines or cluster munitions?

Landmines

The Monitor identifies 12 states as potential producers of antipersonnel mines, none of which have joined the Mine Ban Treaty: China, Cuba, India, Iran, Myanmar, North Korea, South Korea, Pakistan, Russia, Singapore, the US, and Vietnam.

Countries on this list may actively produce or maintain the ability to produce mines.

Cluster Munitions

The Monitor reports that it is likely that 17 states are producers of cluster munitions, none of which have joined the Convention on Cluster Munitions: Brazil, China, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Israel, South Korea, North Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, Turkey, and the US.

Countries on this list may actively produce or maintain the ability to produce cluster munitions.

How many people are killed or injured by mines or cluster munitions?

Data collection on mine or cluster munition incidents and survivors is largely inadequate so it is not possible to give a total number of people worldwide who have been killed or injured by landmines, cluster munitions or other explosive remnants of war. The 2012 casualty figure of 3,628 is a 19% decrease compared with the 4,474 casualties recorded in 2011 and 10% fewer than the second lowest casualty total recorded by the Monitor of 4,224, in 2009. In 2012, there was an average of 10 casualties per day, globally, as compared with approximately 11–12 casualties per day from 2009–2011. The annual incidence rate for 2012 is just 40% of what was reported in 1999, when there were approximately 25 casualties each day. Given improvements in data collection over this period, the decrease in casualties is likely even more significant with a higher percentage of casualties now being recorded.

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Mine Ban Treaty
How does a country join the Mine Ban Treaty, and what must it do to comply with it?

The Mine Ban Treaty opened for signature on 3 December 1997 and entered into force (ie. became law) on 1 March 1999, six months after the 40th country ratified it.

Before the treaty entered into force, states joined the Mine Ban Treaty by carrying out two steps: signing and ratifying the treaty. Since the treaty entered into force, states have been able to join the treaty by carrying out a one-step process called accession. A country that has ratified or acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty is called a State Party and is legally bound to comply with the treaty.

How many countries have signed and ratified or acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty?

There are 161 States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty and 36 states not party, including one country (the Marshall Islands) that has signed but not yet ratified the treaty.

What are the current challenges and successes of the Mine Ban Treaty?

Adopted on 18 September 1997, the Mine Ban Treaty was signed on 3 December 1997 by 122 countries and entered into force more than 13 years ago on 1 March 1999. As of March 2014, the Treaty had 161 States Parties, or more than 80% of the world’s nations. Most of those still outside the treaty nevertheless abide by its key provisions, indicating near-universal acceptance of the landmine ban.

Yet challenges remain. Several major states are not yet party to the Mine Ban Treaty, including the United States, where an ongoing landmine ban policy review was still not completed as of February 2014. Syria and Myanmar were both confirmed to be using antipersonnel mines in 2012 and 2013. And, in 2013, a State Party admitted for the first time that it had used antipersonnel landmines when Yemen provided some details on landmine use in 2011. Moreover, while overall implementation has been impressive, there are serious compliance concerns regarding a small number of States Parties related to destruction of stockpiles by the treaty-mandated deadlines and use of the weapon.

Full implementation and universalization of the treaty remain key objectives for the cooperative and enduring partnership of governments, international organizations, and the ICBL.

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Convention on Cluster Munitions
How does a country join the Convention on Cluster Munitions, and what must it do to comply with it?

The Convention on Cluster Munitions opened for signature in Oslo, Norway on 3 December 2008. Until its entry into force, it was open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. It entered into force on 1 August 2010, six months after the 30th country ratified it.

Before the convention entered into force, states could join by carrying out two steps: signing and then ratifying the treaty. Since the treaty has entered into force, the treaty is no longer open for new signatures. Those that had already signed can still ratify it. States that have not signed are able to join the treaty by carrying out a one-step process called accession.

How many countries have signed and/or ratified the Convention on Cluster Munitions?

A total of 113 countries have signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions and 84 states have ratified or acceded to the convention.

When did the Convention on Cluster Munitions enter into force?

The Convention entered into force (ie. become law) on 1 August 2010, six months after the 30th state submitted their Instrument of Ratification to the Secretary General of the United Nations.

How is the Convention on Cluster Munitions related the negotiations for a protocol on cluster munitions within the Convention of Conventional Weapons?

At a December 1999 Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) meeting, Human Rights Watch first called for a global moratorium on the use of all cluster munitions. From 2000–2003, CCW States Parties initially discussed and then negotiated on the issue of explosive remnants of war (ERW).

On 28 November 2003, States Parties to the CCW adopted Protocol V on Explosive Remnants of War. This protocol reinforced the principle that states bear a responsibility for the post-conflict harm caused by their weapons, but it was insufficient for tackling the specific challenges caused by cluster munitions both during and after attacks.

From 2004–2006, the Cluster Munition Coalition continued to press for meaningful work specifically on cluster munitions in the CCW, but with only minimal progress. Israel’s extensive use of cluster munitions in Lebanon July and August 2006 provided a catalyst for diplomatic action.

At the CCW’s Third Review Conference in November 2006, 26 nations supported a proposal for a mandate to negotiate a legally-binding instrument “that addresses the humanitarian concerns posed by cluster munitions.” After the proposal was rejected, 25 countries issued a joint declaration calling for an agreement that would prohibit the use of cluster munitions “within concentrations of civilians,” prohibit the use of cluster munitions that “pose serious humanitarian hazards because they are for example unreliable and/or inaccurate,” and require destruction of stockpiles of such cluster munitions.

On 17 November 2006, the final day of the Review Conference, Norway announced that it would start an independent process outside the CCW to negotiate a cluster munition treaty and invited other governments to join, thus initiating what became known as the Oslo Process.

The Oslo Process was concluded successfully with the opening for signature of the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008.

Concurrent with the Oslo Process, throughout 2007, the CCW Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) met to discuss explosive remnants of war, with particular focus on cluster munitions. At the November 2007 Meeting of States Parties to the CCW it was decided that the GGE would meet throughout 2008 to “negotiate a proposal to address urgently the humanitarian impact of cluster munitions, while striking a balance between military and humanitarian considerations.” The GGE met five times in 2008, however negotiations were unsuccessful.

After the establishment of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in December 2008, the tone of the debate on cluster munitions in the CCW shifted markedly, as two-thirds of CCW states were now bound by the higher standards contained in the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Led by the US, a small number of non-signatories to the Convention on Cluster Munitions, aided by a few ban convention signatories and States Parties, nonetheless continued to pursue a CCW protocol aimed at regulating some cluster munitions. That effort ultimately failed at the CCW’s Fourth Review Conference in November 2011.

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Clearance
How many mines, cluster munitions, and other explosives were cleared in 2012?

In 2012, mine action programs released at least 281km2 of mined areas through clearance and survey, in addition to 245km2 of battle areas, of which 78km2 were cluster munition-contaminated areas. In 2011, mine action programs cleared at least 190km2 of mined areas and some 285km2 of battle areas, including 55km2 of areas contaminated by cluster munitions.

Have Mine Ban Treaty States Parties finished clearing all the mines in their country?

States which join the Mine Ban Treaty have 10 years to clear known mined areas under their jurisdiction and control within their countries.

As of October 2013, 59 states and four other areas were confirmed to be mine-affected. In total, 24 States Parties have formally reported completion of their Article 5 obligations since the Mine Ban Treaty came into force, as set out in the table above: Albania, Bulgaria, Burundi, Congo, Costa Rica, Denmark, El Salvador, France, Gambia, Greece, Guatemala, Guinnea-Bissau, Honduras, Jordan, FYR Macedonia, Malawi, Nicaragua, Rwanda, Suriname, Swaziland, Tunisia, Uganda, and Zambia.

Africa

Americas

Asia-Pacific

Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia

Middle East and North Africa

Angola

Burundi

Chad

DRC

Eritrea

Ethiopia

Mali

Mauritania

Mozambique

Niger

Senegal

Somalia

South Sudan

Sudan

Zimbabwe

Somaliland

Argentina*

Chile

Colombia

Cuba

Ecuador

Peru

Venezuela**

Afghanistan


Bhutan**

Cambodia

China

India

Lao PDR

Myanmar

North Korea

Pakistan

South Korea

Sri Lanka

Thailand

Vietnam

Armenia

Azerbaijan

BiH

Croatia

Cyprus

Georgia

Kyrgyzstan

Russia

Serbia

Tajikistan

Turkey

United Kingdom*

Uzbekistan

Nagorno-Karabakh

Kosovo

Algeria

Egypt

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Lebanon

Libya

Morocco

Palestine

Syria

Yemen

Western Sahara

15 states and 1 area

7 states

13 states

13 states and 2 areas

11 states and 1 areas

Note: Other areas are indicated by italics; States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty are indicated in bold.

* Argentina and the UK both claim sovereignty over the Falkland Islands/Malvinas, which still contain mined areas.

** Bhutan and Venezuela have unofficially declared in 2013 that they have completed their Article 5 obligations. Their official Declaration of Completion is expected in December 2013 at the Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties.

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Stockpiling and Retention
How many stockpiled mines have been destroyed and how many remain?

States that have joined the treaty must destroy stockpiled mines within four years of entry into force of the treaty. Of the 161 States Parties, 87 have completed stockpile destruction, destroying over 47 million stockpiled mines altogether, and 64 States Parties declared that they have never possessed stockpiles. Two states have not made an official declaration but are not thought to possess stocks (Equatorial Guinea and Tuvalu) as of October 2013.

Finland and Poland are in the process of destroying their stockpiles.

Eight States Parties possess nearly 11 million antipersonnel mines awaiting destruction: Belarus (3,356,636), Côte d’Ivoire (1,526), Finland (809,308), Greece (953,285), Guinea-Bissau (at least seven), Poland (13,585), South Sudan (at least four), and Ukraine (5,767,600).

There are an estimated 160 million antipersonnel mines held in stockpiles in as many as 35 states not party to the Mine Ban Treaty. The majority belong to China (est. 110 million), Russia (est. 24.5 million) and the US (possibly as many as 10.4 million).

How many mines have been retained for training purposes?

Article 3 of the Mine Ban Treaty allows a State Party to retain or transfer “a number of anti-personnel mines for the development of and training in mine detection, mine clearance, or mine destruction techniques…. The amount of such mines shall not exceed the minimum number absolutely necessary for the above-mentioned purposes.”

A total of 75 States Parties have reported that they retain antipersonnel mines for training and research purposes, of which 44 have retained more than 1,000 mines and three (Finland, Bangladesh, and Turkey) have each retained more than 12,000 mines.

How many stockpiled cluster munitions have been destroyed and how many remain?

The Monitor estimates that prior to the start of the global effort to ban cluster munitions, 91 countries stockpiled millions of cluster munitions containing more than 1 billion submunitions. At least 19 of these states have destroyed their stockpiled cluster munitions, while 18 States Parties are in the process of destruction.

According to available information, 28 States Parties have stockpiled more than 1.4 million cluster munitions containing 177 million submunitions prior to the start of any destruction activities.

A total of 22 States Parties have declared the destruction of 1.03 million cluster munitions containing 122 million submunitions as of July 2013. This represents the destruction of 71% of the cluster munitions and 69% of submunitions declared stockpiled by States Parties.

The vast majority of states outside of the Convention on Cluster Munitions that stockpile the weapon have not disclosed detailed information on the quantities, types, or other information. Thus it is not possible, given what is known, to make a valid global estimate of quantities in stockpiles.

How many cluster munitions have been retained for training purposes?

Although the Convention on Cluster Munitions permits the retention of some cluster munitions and submunitions for training and development purposes, most stockpilers thus far have chosen not to retain any, including: Afghanistan, Angola, Austria, Colombia, Honduras, Moldova, Montenegro, Norway, Portugal, and Slovenia.

As of July 2013, 13 States Parties have declared they are retaining cluster munitions for training and research purposes. Germany, Spain, Belgium, and the Netherlands hold the highest number of retained cluster munitions.

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Casualties
How many people were injured or killed by mines, cluster munitions, and other explosive remnants of war in 2012 compared to previous years?

Data collection on mine incidents and survivors is largely inadequate so it is not possible to give a total number of people worldwide who have been killed or injured by landmines and explosive remnants of war.

In 2012, a total of 3,628 mine/ERW casualties were recorded by the Monitor. At least 1,066 people were killed and another 2,552 people were injured; for 10 casualties it was not known if the person survived the incident. In many states and areas, numerous casualties go unrecorded; therefore, the true casualty figure is likely significantly higher.

Number of mine/ERW casualties per year (1999–2012): Retrospectively adjusted totals

Number of mine/ERW casualties per year (1999–2012): Annual totals as originally reported in the Monitor, unadjusted

Who was injured or killed by mines, cluster munitions and other ERW in 2012?


Civilian casualties represented 78% of casualties where the civilian/military status was known (2,763 of 3,564), compared to 73% in 2011. In absolute terms, military casualties decreased by 33% between 2011 and 2012 while civilian casualties decreased by 10%. More than half the drop in military casualties from 2011 to 2012 can be accounted for by decreases in military casualties in just three states—Colombia, Myanmar, and Pakistan.

Mine/ERW casualties by age in 2012

Mine/ERW casualties by sex in 2012

Mine/ERW casualties by civilian/military status in 2012

Which type of explosive devices cause the most casualties?

In 2012, 45% of all casualties for which the specific type of victim-activated explosive item was known were caused by factory-made antipersonnel mines (29%) and victim-activated IEDs acting as antipersonnel mines (15%).

Casualties by type of explosive device in 2012

Which countries and regions had the most new casualties in 2012?

States with 100 or more mine/ERW recorded casualties in 2012

State

No. of

casualties

Afghanistan

766

Colombia

496

Yemen

263

Pakistan

247

Cambodia

186

Iran

127

Sudan

109

Myanmar

106

Note: States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty indicated in bold.

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Victim Assistance
Which States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty and/or the Convention on Cluster Munitions are responsible for providing victim assistance to the greatest number of survivors?

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Colombia, Croatia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Iraq, Jordan, Laos, Lebanon, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Peru, Senegal, Serbia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Yemen, and Zimbabwe.

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Mine Action Funding
How much international funding was provided for mine action in 2012 and which countries provided funding?

In 2012, 39 donors contributed $497 million in international support for mine action in 52 affected states and four other areas, representing an increase of $30 million (6.4%) from 2011. This is the largest annual total of donor contributions ever recorded by the Monitor, dating back to 1992.

The vast majority of funding came from just a few sources. Contributions from the top eight mine action donors—the United States (US), the EU, Japan, Norway, the Netherlands, Australia, Germany, and the United Kingdom (UK)—accounted for 80% of all donor funding. This is similar to 2011.

Contributions by donor: 2008–2012

  Donor

Contribution ($ million)

  Total

 

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

 

US

134.4

131.4

129.6

118.7

85.0

599.1

EU

60.7

19.3

49.8

48.1

22.8

200.7

Japan

57.6

43.0

46.8

48.0

51.4

246.8

Norway

48.4

53.4

50.3

35.7

36.7

224.5

Netherlands

24.1

21.3

22.8

18.4

28.3

114.9

Australia

24.0

45.7

24.4

19.4

18.2

131.7

Germany

23.8

23.6

23.4

23.7

26.7

121.2

UK

22.0

18.0

16.3

17.9

24.9

99.1

Switzerland

18.4

17.5

15.7

15.0

15.1

81.7

Sweden

14.1

12.2

13.0

14.9

18.9

73.1

UAE

13.4

2.0

0

0

0

15.4

Denmark

8.7

9.8

10.2

11.2

14.7

54.6

Belgium

7.2

8.1

11.9

10.4

10.5

48.1

Finland

7.2

7.4

6.7

6.9

7.4

36.6

Canada

6.8

17.0

30.1

18.8

43.2

115.9

Other donors*

5.3

11.5

5.8

4.8

2.8

30.2

New Zealand

5.4

4.3

3.3

2.2

2.7

17.9

Ireland

3.6

4.0

4.5

5.2

7.2

24.5

Italy

2.8

3.4

4.0

3.9

10.2

24.3

Iran

2.5

2.5

0

0

0

5.0

France

2.0

1.3

3.6

4.5

3.9

15.3

Spain

1.3

5.3

5.4

14.6

15.6

42.2

Saudi Arabia

1.1

0

0

1.0

1.5

3.6

Luxembourg

1.0

2.2

0.9

1.0

1.2

6.3

Austria

0.9

2.8

1.9

2.1

2.7

10.4

Total

496.7

467.0

480.4

446.4

451.6

2,342.1

* Other donors in 2012 included Andorra, Brazil, Estonia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Oman, Slovenia, South Korea, Taiwan, Common Humanitarian Fund (Sudan), Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF, Peru), NATO Partnership for Peace Fund (PfP), Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and UNDP. All of them contributed less than $1 million with the exception of the NATO PfP Fund, which contributed $1,161,917 to Azerbaijan for clearance operations on the border with Georgia, and UNDP which contributed $1,282,893 to Tajikistan and Azerbaijan.

How much national funding was provided for mine action in 2012 and which countries provided funding?

Twenty-eight affected states provided $184 million, 27% of global funding, in national support for their own mine action programs, a decrease of $11 million (6%) compared with 2011. Angola ($77 million) and Croatia ($40 million) accounted for 64% of the total. Chile, Denmark, and Venezuela, as well as Taiwan, receive all of their mine action funding from domestic sources. The mine action program in Angola, Azerbaijan, and Croatia receive more than 80% of their funding from national sources.

Which countries received funding for mine action in 2012?

Recipient

2012

Recipient

2012

Funding ($ million)

Afghanistan

90.6

Somaliland

4.4

Global

57.6

Yemen

3.7

Lao PDR

41.2

Chad

3.6

Iraq

34.0

Palau

2.7

Somalia

25.0

Serbia

2.6

Cambodia

21.5

Ethiopia

2.5

Libya

20.7

Palestine

2.4

South Sudan

19.0

Azerbaijan

2.1

Lebanon

17.3

Peru

2.0

Colombia

15.6

Croatia

1.9

Angola

13.7

Georgia

1.7

Mozambique

13.7

Zimbabwe

1.7

DRC

13.2

Mauritania

1.4

Sri Lanka

12.5

Congo

1.3

BiH

9.2

Kosovo

1.3

Vietnam

8.7

Egypt

1.2

Myanmar

8.5

Niger

1.1

Mali

7.7

Benin

1.0

Tajikistan

6.6

Nepal

1.0

Senegal

5.7

Syria

1.0

Sudan

4.8

Other

4.9

Jordan

4.4

Total

496.7

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