Guinea-Bissau

Cluster Munition Ban Policy

Last updated: 09 July 2018

Summary: State Party Guinea-Bissau ratified the convention on 29 November 2010 and regards existing legislation as sufficient to enforce its implementation of the convention’s provisions. Guinea-Bissau has participated in several meetings of the of the convention, but not since 2015. It voted in favor of a key United Nations (UN) resolution promoting the convention in December 2017.

Guinea-Bissau states that it has not used or produced cluster munitions, but it has requested technical and financial assistance to destroy its stockpiled cluster munitions. Guinea-Bissau has not provided an initial transparency report for the convention detailing the quantities and types of its cluster munition stocks or prepared a plan to destroy them by its 1 May 2019 deadline.

Policy

The Republic of Guinea-Bissau signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008, ratified on 29 November 2010, and the convention entered into force for the country on 1 May 2011.

Guinea-Bissau stated in 2013 that it considers existing legislation as sufficient to enforce its implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.[1]

As of 25 June 2018, Guinea-Bissau still had not submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report for the Convention on Cluster Munitions, originally due by 28 October 2011.[2]

Guinea-Bissau participated in some meetings of the Oslo Process that created the convention, including the formal negotiations in Dublin in May 2008, where it joined other African states in opposing efforts to weaken the convention text and participated in the consensus adoption of the text.[3]

Guinea-Bissau has participated in several meetings of the convention, but not since 2014.[4]

Guinea-Bissau voted in favor of a key UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution promoting implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in December 2017.[5]

Guinea-Bissau has not elaborated its views on certain important issues relating to the interpretation and implementation of the convention, such as the prohibition on transit, the prohibition on assistance during joint military operations with states not party that may use cluster munitions, the prohibition on foreign stockpiling of cluster munitions, and the prohibition on investment in production of cluster munitions.

Guinea-Bissau is a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. It is also party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, production, and transfer

Guinea-Bissau stated in 2008 that it does not use or produce cluster munitions.[6] It is not known to have exported cluster munitions, but it imported them.

Stockpile destruction

Guinea-Bissau possesses cluster munitions of Soviet origin, but it has not provided information on the quantities, types, or origin of the current stocks.[7] In 2011, Guinea-Bissau’s National Mine Action Coordination Center (Centro Nacional de Coordenação da Acção Anti-Minas, CAAMI) conducted an inventory of the stockpiled cluster munitions held at an air force base in Bissau City.[8] RBK-series air-dropped bombs and PTAB-2.5 submunitions were among munitions ejected by an explosion at anammunition storage facility on the outskirts of Bissau City in 2000.[9]

Under Article 3 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Guinea-Bissau is required to destroy all its stockpiled cluster munitions as soon as possible, but not later than 1 May 2019.

Guinea-Bissau has stated several times that it needs assistance to destroy its stockpiled cluster munitions.[10] Guinea-Bissau told States Parties it asked for help in 2013 to destroy its stockpile from the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS), which undertook technical assessment in 2011 that found the cluster munition stocks were held by armed forces “in very bad conditions.”[11]

Guinea-Bissau has not indicated if it will retain cluster munitions for research or training purposes.



[1] Guinea-Bissau said the country’s Penal Code provides for sanctions of any violations of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Lomé Regional Seminar on the Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, Lomé, Togo, 23 May 2013.

[2] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Lusaka, 11 September 2013. In 2011, Guinea-Bissau warned that its Article 7 report could be delayed due to the need to inventory stockpiled cluster munitions. Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Session on Clearance and Risk Reduction, Geneva, 29 June 2011.

[3] For details on Guinea-Bissau’s policy and practice regarding cluster munitions through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 86–87.

[4] Guinea-Bissau participated in the convention’s Meetings of States Parties of the convention in 2010–2014 and intersessional meetings in 2011–2015. It has participated in regional meetings on cluster munitions, most recently in Lomé, Togo in May 2013

[5] “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 72/54, 4 December 2017. It voted in favor of previous UNGA resolutions promoting the convention in 2015 and 2016.

[6] Statement by Amb. Augusto Artur António Silva, Secretary of State and International Cooperation, Convention on Cluster Munitions Signing Conference, Oslo, 4 December 2008.

[7] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Convention on Cluster Munitions Intersessional Meetings, Geneva, 29 June 2011.

[8] Interview with César Luis Gomes Lopes de Carvalho, General Director, CAAMI, in Geneva, 27 June 2011.

[9] Cleared Ground Demining, “Guinea Bissau Project Update,” undated but 2006.

[10] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fifth Meeting of States Parties, San Jose, 3 September 2014; and statement of Guinea-Bissau, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Lusaka, 11 September 2013.

[11] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Convention on Cluster Munitions Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Lusaka, 11 September 2013.


Mine Ban Policy

Last updated: 11 October 2012

Policy

Guinea-Bissau signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 22 May 2001, becoming a State Party on 1 November 2001. In December 2004, the Minister of Foreign Affairs said Guinea-Bissau was planning to enact domestic legislation to implement the treaty,[1] but in July 2007, the director of the National Mine Action Coordination Center (CAAMI) told the Monitor that the government would not adopt a new law as the treaty automatically became national law under the constitution, making mine-related crimes subject to existing penal sanctions.[2] Guinea-Bissau has reported that the Mine Ban Treaty was approved by parliament on 13 December 2000 and subsequently by the office of the president by a decree, thus entering the Convention’s obligations into law in Guinea-Bissau.[3]

Guinea-Bissau submitted its 10th Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report in 2011. As of 1 October 2012, it had yet to provide the annual updated report due April 2012.

Guinea-Bissau attended the Eleventh Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Phnom Penh in November–December 2011, as well as the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in May 2012.

Guinea-Bissau is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and its Amended Protocol II on landmines and Protocol V on explosive remnants of war, but it has not submitted an Article 13 report for Amended Protocol II.

Production, transfer, stockpiling, and retention

Guinea-Bissau has reported that it never produced or exported antipersonnel mines. On 17 October 2005, Guinea-Bissau destroyed the last of its 10,654 stockpiled antipersonnel mines, just ahead of its stockpile destruction deadline of 1 November 2005.[4]

In December 2011, Guinea-Bissau demonstrated transparency by reporting that an ammunition storage assessment conducted jointly with the UN Mine Action Service had identified a small number of additional stockpiled antipersonnel mines in the military bases of Quebo and Gabu.[5] Seven PMN mines were found, as well as two boxes containing an undetermined number of POMZ-2 mines. Guinea-Bissau stated its intention to destroy them no later than 31 March 2012, but as of September 2012 the Monitor had not received a confirmation that the mines had been destroyed. Under the Cartagena Action Plan, a State Party that discovers stockpiled mines after the expiration of its deadline must share such information with States Parties as soon as possible and destroy the mines as a matter of urgent priority.

In its 2008 Article 7 report, Guinea-Bissau reported having retained 109 mines for training purposes.[6] However, 100 of these—50 POMZ-2 and 50 PMD-6—were listed as “disarmed.”[7] In its 2009 report, Guinea-Bissau stated that the 50 POMZ-2 mines had been recycled for metal use, and the 50 PMD-6 mines had also been destroyed.[8] In its subsequent Article 7 reports, Guinea-Bissau listed only nine mines as retained for training: six PMN, one M409, and two M969 mines. Most recently, in 2011, Guinea-Bissau reported that there was no training underway.[9]

Use

There have been no reports of use of antipersonnel mines in Guinea-Bissau since March and April 2006, when a faction of the Senegal-based Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques de la Casamance, MFDC) fled from Senegal and laid both antipersonnel and antivehicle mines in northern Guinea-Bissau.[10]

 



[1] Statement by Soares Sambu, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mine Ban Treaty First Review Conference, Nairobi, 2 December 2004.

[2] Email from César de Carvalho, General Director, CAAMI, 19 July 2007. This point has been stated in Guinea-Bissau’s Article 7 reports; see, for example, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report 2006 (for the period 30 April 2005 to 30 April 2006), Form A. The report cites Articles 85.1, para. h), and 68, para. e), of the Constitution as making the treaty national law, and Article 206 of the Penal Code, which allows sentencing of crimes. Penal Code Article 206, Number 1 prohibits the use of explosives.

[3] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form A (for the period 30 April 2010 to 30 April 2011), www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/D75A9B0BF218349FC125789900302965/$file/Guinea-Bissau+2010.pdf.

[4] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Forms F and G (for the period 30 April 2005 to 30 April 2006); and Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 461–462. Guinea-Bissau destroyed 4,943 antipersonnel mines on 17 October 2005; 1,000 mines on 12 September 2002; and 4,711 mines in February 1998. There are differences between the numbers of stockpiled mines Guinea-Bissau declared in its previous Article 7 reports and the number destroyed in October 2005.

[5] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Mine Ban Treaty Eleventh Meeting of States Parties, Phnom Penh, 1 December 2011.

[6] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report. Form D (for the period April 2007 to April 2008). Guinea-Bissau had made inconsistent statements about its intent to retain mines for training purposes. See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 377.

[7] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D (for the period 30 April 2005 to 30 April 2006). At the time of the final destruction in October 2005, Guinea-Bissau said that it would retain 67 mines. This included 58 disarmed mines (50 POMZ-2 and eight PMD-6) and nine active. Letter to Kerry Brinkert, Director, Implementation Support Unit, Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, from César de Carvalho, CAAMI, 20 October 2005.

[8] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D (for 30 April 2008 to 30 April 2009).

[9] Under mines retained for training, Guinea-Bissau stated “No training for us is taking place.” Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, Form D (for the period 30 April 2010 to 30 April 2011), www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/D75A9B0BF218349FC125789900302965/$file/Guinea-Bissau+2010.pdf.

[10] For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 463–464. In April 2006, Guinea-Bissau declared that it had ousted rebel forces from its territory. The ICBL condemned the antipersonnel mine use in northern Guinea-Bissau and noted that the MFDC in 1999 signed the Banjul Declaration, which among other things, committed the group to cease using landmines.


Mine Action

Last updated: 23 September 2011

Contamination and Impact

As a result of armed conflicts dating back to 1963, Guinea-Bissau is contaminated by mines (both antipersonnel and antivehicle) and explosive remnants of war (ERW). Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) conducted a national mine and ERW survey in Guinea-Bissau from September 2010 to June 2011. At the end of the survey, 17 hazardous areas remained to be cleared: 11 contain mines and six contain ERW.[1]

Mines

As of June 2011, a total of 11 mined areas identified by NPA during survey in 2010–2011 remained to be released across six regions (Bafatá, Bolama, Cacheu, Oio, Quinara, and Tombali), covering an estimated 250,539m2.[2] In addition, parts of two mined areas identified during an earlier impact survey remained to be released across two regions (Cacheu and Tombali), covering an estimated area of 29,451m².[3] 

Cluster munition remnants

It is not known to what extent Guinea-Bissau is still contaminated with cluster munition remnants. The last known unexploded submunitions were said to have been destroyed by Cleared Ground Demining (CGD) in August 2008,[4] although Guinea-Bissau submitted a Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report in 2009 which referred to “some clusters” at the Paiol da Bra ammunition storage area (ASA).[5] Subsequently, CGD reported clearing 73 PTAB 2.5M submunitions at Paiol da Bra in 2009.[6]

In June 2010, the general director of the National Mine Action Coordination Center (Centro Nacional de Coordenção da Accão Anti-Minas, CAAMI) acknowledged the existence of a cluster munition problem, but stated that survey was needed to identify its extent.[7] During 2010, CGD found and destroyed six unexploded PTAB 2.5M submunitions during subsurface clearance at Paiol da Bra.[8] In March 2011, NPA stated that no unexploded submunitions had been found during their survey of explosive contamination in Guinea-Bissau, nor did they expect to find any, although it is believed that cluster munition stockpiles may still exist.[9]

Other explosive remnants of war

The 2007–2008 impact survey found five battle areas (not including the ASA at Paiol da Bra) covering an estimated 0.93km2.[10] The survey was not able to visit all suspected hazardous areas because of security or access problems.[11] According to CAAMI, other areas would be added to the list once additional survey had been conducted.[12] The NPA survey found six areas containing ERW across three regions (Bafatá, Oio, and Quinara), covering an estimated 107,254m2. There are also 42 areas containing scattered ERW.[13]

The capital, Bissau, was contaminated by large quantities of ERW around the Paiol de Bra ASA, although clearance by CGD was reportedly completed on 25 May 2010.[14]

Mine Action Program

Key institutions and operators

Body

Situation on 1 January 2011

National Mine Action Authority

National Commission for Humanitarian Demining (Comissão Nacional para Desminagem Humanitária, CNDH)

Mine action center

CAAMI

International demining operators

Two NGOs: CGD and NPA

National demining operators

Two NGOs: HUMAID and Lutamos Todos Contra As Minas (LUTCAM)

CAAMI, which was established in 2001, coordinates mine action operations. It was brought under the responsibility of the Ministry of Defense at the end of 2009.[15] A new UNDP chief technical advisor started work in May 2009 after a gap of more than one year. Since his arrival,program management is said to have significantly improved.[16]

NPA was requested by CAAMI to assist with capacity-building and demining as well as to conduct a survey of mine/ERW contamination. It began operations in the summer of 2010.

Land Release

As noted above, land release in 2010 included cancelation of two suspected mined areas and release through technical survey of two further mined areas.

Five-year summary of land release[17]

Year

Mined area cleared (m2)

Battle area cleared (m2)

2010

762,901 (including BAC)

Not reported separately

2009

488,029

 354,888

2008

492,563

 437,237

2007

102,474

 685,879

2006

 79,185

 208,734

2005

124,389

 0

Totals

1,286,640 (not including  2010)

 1,686,738 (not including 2010)

Survey in 2010

NPA conducted both non-technical and technical survey in 2010.[18]

Mine clearance in 2010

The total of mined area cleared in 2010 has not been reported separately from battle area clearance (BAC), but included the destruction of 390 antipersonnel mines and five antivehicle mines.[19] Demining is still primarily manual in Guinea-Bissau, which makes clearance slow and difficult.[20] As of the end of 2010, mine clearance capacity consisted of HUMAID’s 55 deminers and LUTCAM’s 44 deminers, the same as in 2009.[21] NPA destroyed two antipersonnel mines during technical survey operations in 2010.[22] It was planning to conduct mine clearance from July 2011.[23]

Compliance with Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty (and in accordance with the two-month extension request granted in 2010), Guinea-Bissau is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 January 2012.

In June 2010, CAAMI’s director informed the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies that Guinea-Bissau would need to request an extension to its Article 5 deadline “due to national capacity reduction and reporting of new affected areas in a considerable number.”[24] The Article 7 report had indicated that the request would be presented to the June 2010 intersessional Standing Committee meetings but this did not occur.[25]

On 8 September 2010, Guinea-Bissau submitted a request for a two-month extension to its Article 5 deadline. In granting the request, the Tenth Meeting of States Parties stated that, given that a financial shortfall could affect the realization of Guinea-Bissau’s plan, resource mobilization could be greatly aided if Guinea-Bissau demonstrated greater national ownership by making a national financial investment into Article 5 implementation. The Meeting further noted that while Guinea-Bissau has been slow to adopt efficient land release practices and that while its progress to date has been modest, Guinea-Bissau was making a commitment through its extension request to more efficiently and expediently proceed with Article 5 implementation.[26]

Indeed, clearance of mined areas has been extremely slow in Guinea-Bissau, with only about 1.3km2 of mined areas cleared in the last five years, and data, especially for 2009, does not appear to be reliable. Under Action Point 17 of the Cartagena Action Plan, adopted by the Second Review Conference, States Parties undertake to: “Provide annually, in accordance with Article 7, precise information on the number, location and size of mined areas, anticipated particular technical or operational challenges, plans to clear or otherwise release these areas and information on the areas already released, disaggregated by release through clearance, technical survey and non-technical survey.” 

NPA reported in March 2011 that it expected clearance of mined areas to be completed before the end of the year.[27]

Clearance of cluster munition contaminated areas in 2010

In 2010, CGD cleared six unexploded PTAB 2.5M submunitions during subsurface clearance at the Paiol da Bra ASA.[28] CGD reported clearing 73 unexploded PTAB 2.5M submunitions at the Paiol da Bra ASA in 2009.[29]

Battle area clearance and explosive ordnance disposal in 2010[30]

The total of battle area cleared in 2010 has not been reported separately from mined area clearance, but included the destruction of 12,455 items of unexploded ordnance and 381 fuzes.[31] As of 1 August 2011, Guinea-Bissau had not submitted its initial Article 10 transparency report under Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) Protocol V on explosive remnants of war, due on 5 August 2009.

It is not clear to what extent Guinea-Bissau’s reported figures include CGD’s BAC and explosive ordnance disposal, since CGD alone reported to the Monitor the destruction of a total of 13,543 ERW[32] (although the total includes an unspecified number of weapons). To conduct demolitions, the Guinea-Bissau military allows CGD to have antivehicle mines as donor charges. For 2010, it was provided with 96 C3A and two TM48 antivehicle mines.[33]

Community liaison

Community liaison capacity has so far been weak in Guinea-Bissau. CAAMI’s risk education (RE) department has liaison personnel in the regions that update CAAMI from time to time with information on suspected areas, the need for RE interventions, and new incidents.[34]

Community liaison was, though, said to be an important aspect of CGD’s roving teams’ activities, with one liaison officer in each team. Community meetings are often held to explain the team’s activities.[35]

Quality management

In early 2007, it was reported that new national mine action standards (NMAS) were being drafted. In 2010, a Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining mission was conducted in order to assist Guinea-Bissau with the creation of NMAS.[36]

CAAMI quality assurance/quality control capacity is located inside its operations department. Visits are said to be conducted regularly to all clearance sites, with priority given to the beginning and end of each task.[37]

Safety of demining personnel

No injuries to demining personnel were recorded in 2009 or 2010.[38]

 



[1] Mário Penedo Tomé Nunes, “Landmine and ERW Survey in Guinea-Bissau, Final Report,” Draft, July 2011, p. 5; and email from Mário Penedo Tomé Nunes, Program Manager, NPA, 12 August 2011.

[2] Mário Penedo Tomé Nunes, “Landmine and ERW Survey in Guinea-Bissau, Final Report,” Draft, July 2011, pp. 5, 25, and 26.

[3] Email from Mário Penedo Tomé Nunes, NPA, 12 August 2011.

[4] Email from Cassandra McKeown, Finance Director, CGD, 22 April 2009.

[5] See Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for the period 30 April 2008 to 30 April 2009), Form C.

[6] Email from Cassandra McKeown, CGD, 21 June 2010.

[7] Interview with César de Carvalho, General Director, CAAMI, in Geneva, 23 June 2010.

[8] Email from Cassandra McKeown, CGD, 28 April 2011.

[9] Email from Mário Penedo Tomé Nunes, NPA, 11 March 2011.

[10] See Article 7 Report (for the period 30 April 2008 to 30 April 2009), Form C.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Email from Tomas Lourenço, Mine Action Chief Technical Advisor, UNDP/CAAMI, 6 April 2010.

[13] Mário Nunes, “Landmine and ERW Survey in Guinea-Bissau, Final Report,” Draft, July 2011, p. 5; and emails from Mário Penedo Tomé Nunes, NPA, 11 March and 12 August 2011.

[14] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 22 June 2010.

[15] Interview with César de Carvalho, CAAMI, in Geneva, 23 June 2010

[16] NPA, “Assessment Mission Report Guinea Bissau,” Oslo, November 2009.

[17] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 21 June 2011; email from Tomas Lourenço, UNDP/CAAMI, 6 April 2010; and Article 7 Report (for the period 30 April 2009 to 30 April 2010), Form G. Data from the latter two sources as well as others provided to the Monitor differ with respect to clearance in 2009. In addition, reports of the extent of clearance in 2008 differ to the data provided earlier to the Monitor.

[18] Email from Mário Penedo Tomé Nunes, NPA, 11 March 2011.

[19] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 21 June 2011.

[20] Article 7 Report (for the period 30 April 2009 to 30 April 2010), Form J.

[21] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 21 June 2011.

[22] Email from Mário Penedo Tomé Nunes, NPA, 11 March 2011.

[23] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 21 June 2011

[24] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 22 June 2010.

[25] Article 7 Report (for the period 30 April 2009 to 30 April 2010), Form J.

[26] Decisions on the Request Submitted by Guinea-Bissau for an Extension of the Deadline for Completing the Destruction of Anti-Personnel Mines in Accordance with Article 5 of the Convention.

[27] Email from Mário Penedo Tomé Nunes, NPA, 11 March 2011.

[28] Email from Cassandra McKeown, CGD, 28 April 2011.

[29] Email from Cassandra McKeown, CGD, 21 June 2010.

[30] This does not include clearance of cluster munition contaminated areas.

[31] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 21 June 2011.

[32] Email from Cassandra McKeown, CGD, 28 April 2011.

[33] Ibid.

[34] Email from Tomas Lourenço, UNDP/CAAMI, 6 August 2009.

[35] Email from Cassandra McKeown, CGD, 10 June 2010.

[36] Ibid.; and interview with César de Carvalho, CAAMI, in Geneva, 23 June 2010.

[37] Email from Tomas Lourenço, UNDP/CAAMI, 6 August 2009.

[38] Email from Tomas Lourenço, UNDP/CAAMI, 6 April 2010; and email from Cassandra McKeown, CGD, 28 April 2011.


Support for Mine Action

Last updated: 22 November 2013

In 2012, the Republic of Guinea-Bissau declared it had completed its Article 5 Mine Ban Treaty mine clearance obligations.[1] Norway contributed NOK1,000,000 (US$171,877) to Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) for final survey and clearance.[2]

Summary of contributions: 2008–2012[3]

Year

International contributions ($)

2012

171,877

2011

2,431,891

2010

1,661,693

2009

2,068,000

2008

1,694,882

Total

8,028,343

 



[2] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Ingunn Vatne, Senior Advisor, Department for Human Rights, Democracy and Humanitarian Assistance, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 11 April 2013. Average exchange rate for 2012: NOK5.8181=US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2013.

[3] See Landmine Monitor reports 2008–2011; and ICBL-CMC, “Country Profile: Guinea Bissau: Support for Mine Action,” 10 September 2012.


Last updated: 04 December 2017

Casualties Overview

All known casualties by end 2016

1,575 mine/explosive remnants of war (ERW) casualties from 1963 to December 2016

Casualties in 2016

1 (2015: 0)

2016 casualties by outcome

1 killed (2015: 0)

2016 casualties by device type

1 ERW

 

One casualty was reported in 2016 when a boy was killed by ERW in Bissora, Oio region.[1]

No casualties were reported in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau in 2015. In 2014, 41 casualties were recorded including at least 24 people killed, and another 16 injured; for one casualty it was not reported if the person survived.[2] Of the total recorded casualties in 2014, 22 people were killed and seven injured in a single incident when a minibus drove over a landmine near the town of Mansoa in the north of the country on 26 September 2015.[3] In October, two people were killed and six injured in an incident involving an unknown explosive device in Gabu province.[4]

The number of casualties in 2014 was more than four times the number of mine/ERW casualties that occurred in 2013, when 10 mine/ERW casualties were recorded—all within the region of Oio.[5]

There were a total of 1,574 casualties from mines/ERW reported from 1963 to December 2016.[6] However, this was not believed to be a comprehensive figure.[7] An estimated 80% of all casualties were male, the majority of whom were farmers.[8] No information was available on whether the figure included both military and civilian casualties.

Cluster munition casualties

While the total number of casualties from cluster munitions is not known in Guinea-Bissau, there were 11 casualties in 1998 during an attack on a weapons depot; the explosion that caused the casualties involved cluster munitions.[9]



[1] Email from Joao Kennedy de Pina Araujo, Director, Center for Physical Rehabilitation (Centro de Reabilitação Motora, CRM), 17 June 2016.

[2] This casualty figure is a revised total that includes new information on 12 additional casualties in four mine/ERW incidents in 2014. Casualty data provided in email from Joao Kennedy de Pina Araujo, CRM, 17 June 2016. Previously the Monitor had recorded 29 casualties in Guinea-Bissau in 2014 in a single incident.

[3]22 Killed in Guinea-Bissau Landmine Blast,” Telesur English, 27 September 2014; and “Guinea-Bissau landmine ‘kills 22,’” BBC, 27 September 2014.

[4] Casualty data provided in email from Joao Kennedy de Pina Araujo, CRM, 17 June 2016.

[5] The casualties were recorded by HUMAID, a demining organization, and provided to the Monitor via an email from Kennedy de Pina Araujo, CRM, 14 March 2014.

[6] Monitor analysis of statement of Guinea-Bissau, Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 4 December 2013; and emails from Joao Kennedy de Pina Araujo, CRM, 17 June 2016; and from César de Carvalho, General Director, National Mine Action Coordination Center (Centro Nacional de Coordenação da Accão Anti-Minas, CAAMI), 12 March 2014.

[7] Statement of Guinea-Bissau, Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 4 December 2013.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Handicap International (HI), Circle of Impact:The Fatal Footprint of Cluster Munitions on People and Communities (Brussels: HI, May 2007), Annex 2, p. 145.


Victim Assistance

Last updated: 18 July 2018

Victim assistance action points

  • Dedicate increased national and international funding to address the needs and promote the rights of mine/explosive remnants of war (ERW) survivors and other persons with disabilities.
  • Ensure that broader programs, such as international cooperation for post-conflict reconstruction and poverty reduction, reach the most vulnerable members of society, including survivors and other persons with disabilities.
  • Train mine/ERW survivors and other persons with disabilities to advocate for equal opportunities and increased access to assistance.

Victim assistance planning and coordination

Government focal point

Ministry of Freedom Fighters of the Fatherland (Ministério dos Combatentes da Liberdade da Pátria)[1]

Coordination regularity/frequency and outcomes/effectiveness

Political instability since 2012 prevented victim assistance coordination and planning[2]

Plans/strategies

National Victim Assistance Strategy

Disability sector integration

Not reported

Survivor inclusion and participation

Not reported

Reporting (Article 7 and statements)

As of May 2018, Guinea-Bissau had not reported on progress made towards the implementation of its National Victim Assistance Strategy

 

International commitments and obligations

Guinea-Bissau is responsible for significant numbers of mine/ERW survivors. As of December 2016, there were more than 1,426 mine/ERW survivors recorded

Mine Ban Treaty

Yes

Convention on Cluster Munitions

Yes

Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) Protocol V

Yes

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

Yes

 

Laws and policies

There is no law specifically prohibiting discrimination against persons with disabilities.[3] No efforts were made to counter discrimination against persons with disabilities and ensure access to buildings.[4] No improvement was reported in the accessibility of the survivors’ physical environment in 2017.[5]

Former military personnel with disabilities received pensions from the Ministry of Defense and Ex-Combatants, but these programs did not adequately address health, housing, or food needs.[6]

Major Developments in 2017–2018

No major changes were reported.[7]

Medical care and rehabilitation

Large parts of the population do not have access to health services.[8]

Through 2017, the Center for Physical Rehabilitation (Centro de Reabilitação Motora, CRM) remained the only physical rehabilitation center for the country, providing free rehabilitation services for survivors in economic need.[9] In 2017, people continued to be referred to the CRM through field visits jointly coordinated by the CRM, the ICRC, and the Federation for the Promotion of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.[10] In 2017, the CRM treated more than 2,350 patients, a 30% increase compared to 2016, and produced 125 prosthetic devices for mine/ERW survivors and other persons with disabilities. The center also provided 73 wheelchairs and 72 pairs of crutches in 2017.[11] Some limited rehabilitation services were also provided in healthcare centers, although staff were not qualified.[12]

Since 2015, mine/ERW survivors from Senegal have been receiving prosthetic devices at the CRM through an agreement between the ICRC and Solidarity Initiative for Development Actions (Initiative Solidaire des Actions de Développement, ISAD).[13] In 2017 and through May 2018, 30 mine survivors were fitted with new prosthetic devices at the CRM.[14]

The ICRC reimbursed the costs for patients, including mine/ERW survivors who accessed services, provided equipment and materials, and supported technical and management training programs to improve the quality of the service.[15]

Socio-economic and psychosocial inclusion

In 2017, Humanity & Inclusion (formerly Handicap International, HI) promoted the socio-economic inclusion of persons with disabilities through training courses.[16] HI also provided financial support to the National Union for People with Motor Disabilities and War Victims (União Nacional dos Deficientes Motores e Vítimas de Guerra, UNDEMOV).[17] Guinea-Bissau has a federation for inclusive sports supported by the ICRC.[18] In 2017, the ICRC donated six sports wheelchairs to the federation.[19]

Plan International and HI operated inclusive schools in addition to the two national schools for visually and hearing-impaired students.[20]

In 2016, the Federation for the Promotion of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in partnership with HI started a three-year project supported by the European Union to strengthen the rights of persons with disabilities.[21] In 2017, HI was working with 20 disabled peoples’ organizations to build their capacities for assistance and advocacy.[22]

Victim assistance providers and activities

Name of organization

Type of activity

Government

Center for Physical Rehabilitation (Centro de Reabilitação Motora, CRM)

Physical rehabilitation,[23] prosthetics, mobility devices[24]

International

Humanity & Inclusion (formerly Handicap International, HI)

Inclusive education,[25] socio-economic inclusion,[26] advocacy for the rights of persons with disabilities[27]

ICRC

Rehabilitation, inclusive sports, technical and management training[28]

 



[1] Email from Joao Kennedy de Pina Araujo, Director, Center for Physical Rehabilitation (Centro de Reabilitação Motora, CRM), 15 May 2018.

[2] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Carlos A. Delgado, Physical Rehabilitation Project Manager, ICRC, 17 May 2018.

[3] United States (US) Department of State, “Guinea-Bissau 2017 Human Rights Report,” Washington, DC, 20 April 2018, p. 10.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Carlos A. Delgado, ICRC, 17 May 2018.

[6] US Department of State, “Guinea-Bissau 2017 Human Rights Report,” Washington, DC, 20 April 2018, p. 10.

[7] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Carlos A. Delgado, ICRC, 17 May 2018.

[8] Email from Joao Kennedy de Pina Araujo, CRM, 15 May 2018.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Carlos A. Delgado, ICRC, 17 May 2018.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Ibid.; ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, May 2017, p. 224; and ICRC, “Faits & Chiffres 2016: CICR Bissau” (“Facts & Figures 2016: ICRC Bissau”), February 2017.

[14] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Carlos A. Delgado, ICRC, 17 May 2018.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Email from Candida Salgado Silva, HI, 17 May 2018; and “ONG Handicap Internacional forma mais de 500 professores nos primeiros seis meses do ano em curso” (“The NGO Handicap International forms more than 500 teachers in the first six months of the current year”), Agência de Notícias da Guiné, 5 October 2017.

[17] Email from Candida Salgado Silva, HI, 17 May 2018.

[18] Email from Joao Kennedy de Pina Araujo, CRM, 15 May 2018.

[19] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Carlos A. Delgado, ICRC, 17 May 2018.

[20] Email from Joao Kennedy de Pina Araujo, CRM, 15 May 2018.

[21] European External Action Service, “A União Europeia anuncia o lançamento do projecto de fortalecimento dos direitos das pessoas com deficiencia na Guiné-Bissau” (“The European Union announces the launch of the project to strengthen the rights of persons with disabilities in Guinea-Bissau”), 5 May 2016.

[22] HI, “Country Card Guinea-Bissau 2017,” October 2017, p. 3; and “ONG Handicap Internacional forma mais de 500 professores nos primeiros seis meses do ano em curso” (“The NGO Handicap International forms more than 500 teachers in the first six months of the current year”), Agência de Notícias da Guiné, 5 October 2017.

[23] Email from Joao Kennedy de Pina Araujo, CRM, 15 May 2018.

[24] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Carlos A. Delgado, ICRC, 17 May 2018.

[25] Email from Joao Kennedy de Pina Araujo, CRM, 15 May 2018.

[26] Email from Candida Salgado Silva, HI, 17 May 2018.

[27] European External Action Service, “A União Europeia anuncia o lançamento do projecto de fortalecimento dos direitos das pessoas com deficiencia na Guiné-Bissau” (“The European Union announces the launch of the project to strengthen the rights of persons with disabilities in Guinea-Bissau”), 5 May 2016.

[28] Response to Monitor questionnaire by Carlos A. Delgado, ICRC, 17 May 2018.