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Sub-Sections:
Mozambique

Mozambique

2008 Key Data

State Party since

1 March 1999

Contamination

Antipersonnel and antivehicle mines, UXO, AXO

Estimated area of contamination

10.49km2 of mined areas (end 2008) and additional SHAs

Casualties in 2008

Nine (2007: 47)

Estimated mine/ERW survivors

Unknown but at least 185

Article 5 (clearance of mined areas)

Deadline: 1 March 2014

Original deadline: 1 March 2009

Demining in 2008

1.75km2 of mined areas

0.5km2 of land surveyed for development projects

Risk education recipients in 2008

At least 52,911

Progress towards victim assistance aims

Slow

Support for mine action in 2008

Ten-Year Summary

The Republic of Mozambique became a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty on 1 March 1999. It hosted the First Meeting of States Parties in May 1999, and served as co-chair of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance in 1999 and 2000. It has not enacted national legal measures to implement the treaty. Mozambique completed its stockpile destruction in February 2003. It reported retaining 2,088 mines for training purposes at the end of 2008.

Landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) in Mozambique are a legacy of nearly 30 years of conflict that ended in 1992. Inaccurate surveys and poor data led to poor targeting of clearance and unnecessarily large expenditure for many years of the mine action program. In 2007 and 2008, a Baseline Assessment and the completion of clearance in the four northern provinces reduced the remaining problem to an estimated 12km2. In November 2008, Mozambique received a five-year extension to its Article 5 deadline for clearance to 1 March 2014. Since 1993, national, nongovernmental, and commercial entities have carried out demining in Mozambique. By 2008, three NGOs remained and commercial demining companies were contracted to verify the safety of land related to construction and development projects.

Casualties identified by Landmine Monitor from 1999–2008

Year

Killed

Injured

Unknown

Total

2008

3

6

0

9

2007

22

25

0

47

2006

14

16

0

30

2005

23

34

0

57

2004

3

27

0

30

2003

6

8

0

14

2002

0

9

38

47

2001

1

7

80

88

2000

8

21

0

29

1999

6

30

60

96

 

Casualties identified by IND from
1999–2008

Year

Killed

Injured

Unknown

Total

2008

3

6

0

9

2007

14

10

0

24

2006

14

16

0

30

2005

23

34

0

57

2004

3

27

0

30

2003

6

8

0

14

2002

16

16

0

32

2001

0

0

25

25

2000

9

20

0

29

1999

12

48

0

60

Between 1999 and 2008, Landmine Monitor identified 447 casualties (86 killed, 183 injured, and 178 unknown). During the same period, the National Demining Institute (Instituto Nacional de Desminagem, IND) identified 285 casualties (100 killed and 185 injured). While there is probably significant overlap between Landmine Monitor and IND data, inadequate details on casualties from IND and from media reports make comparisons unreliable.

Mozambique credits its risk education (RE) program for helping to reduce the number of mine/ERW casualties. In 2005, UNICEF determined that there was no longer a need for RE in the country, although an assessment by the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining suggested there was still a need for RE to be integrated with mine clearance activities.

Overall, victim assistance improved little, although some investments were made to infrastructure and staff training for physical rehabilitation services. Progress made towards the achievement of VA26 objectives was limited, especially in psychological support and social and economic reintegration. Mozambique has legislation to protect the rights of persons with disabilities, but few resources were available to enforce existing laws and discrimination was prevalent.

Mine Ban Policy

Mozambique signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 25 August 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 March 1999. No implementing legislation is in place. Mozambique has reported that a draft law was submitted to Parliament for analysis, that it is on the government’s agenda, and “it’s likely to be approved in July [2009] by the Council of Ministers.”[1]

Mozambique submitted its ninth Article 7 transparency report in 2009, undated, covering calendar year 2008.[2] It did not submit a report in 2008 for calendar year 2007.[3]

Mozambique participated in the Ninth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in November 2008, where it made a statement on its Article 5 clearance deadline extension request, and commented on Zimbabwe’s extension request. It attended the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in May 2009, where it made statements on mine clearance and victim assistance.

Mozambique has not engaged in the discussions that States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2, and 3 (joint military operations with states not party, foreign stockpiling and transit, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and mines retained for training). In June 2004, however, a government legal advisor told Landmine Monitor that Mozambique believes any mine that is capable of exploding from the contact of a person is prohibited by the treaty.[4]

Mozambique is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons. It signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 3 December 2008, but had not yet ratified it as of 1 July 2009.[5]

Production, transfer, use, stockpile destruction, and retention

Mozambique has never produced or exported antipersonnel mines.[6] Throughout the civil war, antipersonnel mines were imported from many countries and used by different parties to the conflict. Mozambique completed destruction of its stockpile of 37,318 antipersonnel mines on 28 February 2003, a few days before its treaty-mandated deadline.[7]

In its Article 7 report submitted in 2009, Mozambique reported that it retains a total of 2,088 mines for training purposes, including mines retained by NGOs operating in the country.[8] This surpasses the 1,265 antipersonnel mines last reported at the end of 2006, and the numbers cited in prior reports.[9] Mines retained at the end of 2008 included: 900 mines of various types (PMD, MN, PMN-2, POMZ-2M, POMZ-2, OZM-72, MON-50, and OZM) held by the Mozambique Armed Forces; 520 mines of unspecified types held by IND; 343 mines held by APOPO, a Belgian research organization that uses rats to detect mines; 42 mines held by Handicap International (HI);[10] 138 by HALO Trust; and six by Integra.[11] Mozambique’s reporting of 1,265 mines retained in 2006 did not include the 520 mines in the possession of IND, which accounts for much of the overall discrepancy in numbers reported at the end of 2006 and the end of 2008.

Mozambique did not report on mines actually consumed during 2008 for training purposes. It reported that the 520 mines retained by IND, after being turned over by Norwegian People’s Aid in 2005, would be destroyed by June 2009 as IND has no mandate to carry out training operations.[12]

Mozambique did not explain why the number of retained mines increased from 2006, and it has yet to provide details on the intended purposes and actual uses of its retained mines, as agreed by States Parties at the First Review Conference in December 2004.

Scope of the Problem

Contamination

Mozambique is affected by landmines and ERW, a legacy of nearly 30 years of conflict that ended in 1992.[13] The results from the Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) from 2001 have been updated by three major surveys of the problem—two by HALO and one by HI—that reduced the total estimated mined area in Mozambique to approximately 12km2.[14]

Between March 2005 and 8 December 2006, HALO conducted a Mine Impact Free District survey in the four northern provinces of Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Niassa, and Zambézia, where it had been operating since 1994. On completion of the survey, HALO stated it had identified and cleared every known mined area in the four provinces.[15] In April 2009, HALO’s Executive Director Guy Willoughby said every village in the four provinces in northern Mozambique was free of landmines.[16] In its Article 5 deadline extension request revision, Mozambique stated that it had met its treaty obligations in the northern provinces and accepted the findings of the survey,[17] despite the fact that after the survey local authorities had received police reports from the provincial authorities of 146 sites containing a residual threat from UXO or mines. IND planned to send quality assurance (QA) teams to the four provinces in 2009 to make a technical assessment of the reported problem.[18]

In the 2007 Baseline Assessment, HALO surveyed Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Sofala, and Tete provinces for contamination. Further surveys by HALO and HI in 2008 added 57 contaminated areas for a new total of 541 mined areas amounting to 12.16km2 across six provinces.[19] At the end of 2008, Mozambique had 386 confirmed mined areas in 59 districts in six provinces covering an estimated 10.28km2.[20] IND planned to release up to 3.5km2 of suspected hazardous areas (SHAs) in 2009.[21]

The Baseline Assessment also identified contaminated areas that include the following:

  • six battle areas comprising 81,000m2 in Manica, Sofala, and Tete provinces;
  • roads on the border with Zimbabwe;
  • infrastructure, such as dams at Cahora Bassa and Chicamba in Tete province;
  • the Beira-Machipanda railway in Manica province and the Limpopo railway in Gaza province;
  • 170 electricity pylons between Maputo city and the border with South Africa; and
  • 75 UXO spot clearance tasks.[22]

Mozambique has yet to provide official clearance estimates for minefields along its border with Zimbabwe and IND has categorized one SHA in Cheringoma district in Sofala province and one SHA in Mabalane district in Gaza province for further survey.[23] IND did not expect the areas to be resurveyed in 2009.[24] Between May and September 2009, HALO surveyed the border areas with Zimbabwe, estimated to be 7km long with an estimated contaminated area of 210,000m2.[25] Initial funding came from the United States Department of State.[26]

Mined areas and UXO sites in Mozambique, December 2008[27]

Province

No. of mined areas in Baseline Assessment

No. of SHAs remaining

Estimated area (m2)

Area
cleared
(m2)

Area

remaining

(m2)

Mined roads

UXO sites remaining

Gaza

20

13

1,931,793

73,066

1,858,727

6

23

Inhambane

251

182

3,720,474

246,501

3,473,973

7

0

Manica

88

64

2,438,511

20,141

2,418,370

2

0

Maputo

59

28

622,188

592,899

29,289

3

0

Sofala

104

80

2,532,486

350,066

2,182,420

4

0

Tete

19

19

918,589

598,016

320,573

11

18

Casualties

IND recorded nine mine/ERW casualties (three killed and six injured) in four incidents in 2008. Four casualties were caused by mines, and five by ERW. The majority of casualties were girls (four), followed by men (two, including a deminer), boys (two), and women (one deminer).[28]

This represents a significant decrease from the 24 mine/ERW casualties (14 killed and 10 injured) recorded by IND or the 47 mine/ERW casualties (22 killed and 25 injured) identified by Landmine Monitor in 2007.[29] IND believed that the reduced number of casualties was the result of reduced mine contamination and successful RE, including RE activities particularly targeting scrap metal collection, which has reduced risk-taking behavior.[30] Mine clearance operators agreed that there was a general perception that the number of casualties had reduced and that SHAs were well known by the population.[31] However, it is also suspected that some casualties go unreported.

In April 2008, two girls were injured by ERW while playing near a former military training site in Chicualacuala, Gaza. In a separate incident, on 18 April 2008, an adult male and a four-year-old girl were killed, and a girl injured in Mutarara, Tete, when the adult attempted to take apart an ERW that he had found near his home. RE was provided in that district in 2007, but it was unknown if the casualties themselves had received RE.[32] In September 2008, two boys were injured when one stepped on a landmine in Tete province. The boys live near a known minefield but given their young age, it was unlikely either had received RE, since it was last provided in that area in 2004.[33]

On 7 July 2008, a male deminer was killed and a female deminer was injured when the male deminer (the team supervisor) set off a landmine in the Mafuiane minefield in Namaacha district, Maputo province. An investigation into the accident determined that the supervisor had violated standing operating procedures but that all others involved, including the injured deminer and medical staff, followed instructions and responded adequately. [34]

In 2009, one mine casualty (killed) was identified up to 31 May. On 1 March, in Mabalane, Gaza, a woman was killed when she set off a landmine while preparing an oven to make charcoal on the outskirts of her village.[35]

Between 1999 and 2008, Landmine Monitor identified 447 casualties (86 killed, 183 injured, and 178 unknown).[36] Landmine Monitor data was gathered from IND, Mozambique’s Article 7 reports, the Article 5 deadline extension request, and from media reports. During the same period, IND identified 310 casualties (100 killed, 185 injured, and 25 unknown).[37] While there is probably significant overlap between Landmine Monitor and IND data, inadequate details on casualties from IND and from media reports make comparisons unreliable. The most comprehensive collection of casualty data remains the nationwide LIS, completed in August 2001, which recorded 2,145 mine/ERW casualties (but did not provide a breakdown of those killed and injured).[38]

In August 2008, Mozambique reported that annual casualty rates had decreased since 2001.[39] In both IND and Landmine Monitor data, however, the number of casualties has not consistently decreased each year. That, and the general unreliability of data, makes it difficult to determine trends with any certainty.

Risk profile

IND believed that people were now aware of the dangers of mines and ERW and that scrap metal collection was no longer a cause of mine/ERW incidents in 2008.[40] Representatives of mine-affected communities believed that children were at greater risk because, while adults were familiar with and avoided mined areas, children were more likely to enter restricted areas.[41] In 2008, six of the nine casualties were children who were playing in known mine/ERW contaminated areas.[42] The second highest risk group were people cutting wood (minefields tend to be densely vegetated as people have not been using the land) or expanding their fields into the margins of suspected areas due to land pressure.[43]

Socio-economic impact

With the problem largely confined to 386 small mined areas in six provinces at the beginning of 2009, the socio-economic impact and level of risk has been greatly reduced over the past decade.[44] The remaining mined areas impact farming and access to water, and present a risk to certain hospitals and schools.[45]

Program Management and Coordination

Mine action

IND serves as the mine action center in Mozambique under the supervision of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It coordinates demining, including QA and data management, at both the national and provincial levels.[46]

Risk education

IND is also responsible for coordinating RE. In 2008, there were no coordinating meetings specific to RE, but RE was included in all mine clearance coordination meetings.[47] IND monitored the work of demining operators to ensure that they included community liaison activities, as needed.[48]

Victim assistance

While the National Mine Action Plan 2008–2012 (Plano Nacional de Acção contra Minas 2008–2012, NMAP) (see Strategic mine action plans section below) reaffirms the role of IND in coordinating victim assistance (VA),[49] IND itself says it does not coordinate VA. Its role is limited to mobilizing resources, encouraging other government agencies to act, ensuring that the national disability plan includes mine/ERW survivors, and preventing further casualties through clearance and RE activities.[50] In its Article 7 report for 2008, as in previous years, Mozambique reported that responsibility for VA was shared by the Ministry of Health (Ministério de Saúde, MISAU) and Ministry of Women and Social Action (Ministério da Mulher e da Acção Social, MMAS) in coordination with IND.[51]

MISAU coordinates all healthcare and physical rehabilitation activities and directly manages the country’s 10 orthopedic centers.[52] MMAS coordinates social and economic reintegration services for persons with disabilities, such as pensions, income-generating projects, transportation to help access physical rehabilitation services, inclusive education, and disability rights and awareness activities.[53]

Data collection and management

The national mine action database, which uses the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) software, is located at IND.[54] It is updated, but numbers provided to Landmine Monitor on contaminated areas did not add up correctly.

IND also collects RE and casualty data. In theory, RE activity reports are received from the mine clearance operators—IND QA staff who also serve as RE promoters and volunteers or “agents.” In practice, IND only received RE data from one mine clearance operator in 2008 and from IND QA staff.[55] IND RE agents are expected to give their activity reports to the local government to pass them to IND, but no reports were received in 2008.[56] In 2008, RE information was not entered into IMSMA. While it was expected that this would happen by the end of 2009, it was thought unlikely that data would be entered retroactively.[57] RE data is believed to be incomplete since some mine clearance operators who carry out community liaison activities do not provide IND with information about these activities.[58]

There is no comprehensive database of mine/ERW casualties in Mozambique.[59] In August 2008, Mozambique stated that some of its casualty data was “subject to confirmation” and that the data did not represent “the real situation of surviving people of accidents with mines/ERW in Mozambique.”[60]

IND receives casualty data from local authorities, hospitals, the media, mine clearance operators, QA staff, and RE agents. IND provides local authorities and mine clearance operators with casualty data collection forms. In 2008, however, only one incident was reported using the designated form.[61] The PNAM and IND annual plan for 2009 include an objective to update and complete the database on mine survivors by 2010.[62] Little progress was observed and, as of March 2009, casualty data had not yet been included in IMSMA,[63] although it was expected that it would start being included by end-2009. As in the case of RE data, there were no plans to input data retroactively.[64]

Casualties are believed to be under-reported for a variety of reasons. First, in cases where the casualty dies, the family has no expectation of receiving any benefit or service. Second, people are afraid to report incidents for fear they may be punished for doing something wrong. Third, incidents occur in remote locations where there is little contact with any government officials. Fourth, government staff turnover at the district or provincial level, and/or unclear reporting instructions, prevent local authorities from reporting casualties to IND. Finally, mine clearance operators (who are often the first to learn of incidents) do not systematically report incidents to IND.[65] In 2007, Landmine Monitor identified 32 casualties through media monitoring, of which 23 were not included in IND records.[66] In most cases, when casualties are reported, only partial data is received and more complete information is difficult to collect because of a lack of roads and telephones in some remote locations where incidents occur.[67]

Efforts by MISAU and MMAS to develop a casualty database, first reported in the IND 2006 Annual Report,[68] had not been completed as of March 2009 and data collected up to that point had not yet been shared with IND.[69] The 2007 national census included four questions on disability, but as of April 2009, disability data had not been made available to IND or MMAS.[70]

Plans

Strategic mine action plans

The Council of Ministers approved the NMAP in April 2008.[71] The NMAP aims to establish sustainable mine action planning, coordination, and operational capacities and to fulfill international obligations, including clearing all known minefields.[72] It is based on the results of the Baseline Assessment, lessons learned from the implementation of the 2002–2006 strategic plan, and results of other surveys conducted by HALO and HI.[73]

IND also developed detailed annual plans and targets based on a district-by-district approach to clearance as part of its Article 5 deadline extension request.[74] For 2009, with APOPO, HALO, and HI, and a number of commercial companies as operational partners, IND planned to:

  • clear 82 areas and 1.997km2 of area in Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Sofala, and Tete provinces;
  • conduct a three-month survey of the Mozambique-Zimbabwe border;
  • clear 170 electrical pylons; and
  • begin clearance around the Cahora Bassa dam.[75]

In May 2009, IND announced the clearance of the 170 electrical pylons would begin as soon as funding was available. António Belchior, the head of operations at IND, said, “After 17 years of peace … we have to remove them [the mines] as we have also received appeals from communities who want to open up fields along the power lines.”[76]

Mozambique does not have separate RE or VA national plans. The NMAP includes the following RE objectives: targeting RE at affected communities as identified by surveys; analyzing incident data to determine the most at-risk groups; and establishing community-based RE by 2010.[77] The plan’s VA objectives included supporting mine survivors’ socio-economic reintegration by providing information and directing them to appropriate service providers and continued advocacy to ensure that the needs of survivors are addressed by relevant government ministries.[78] Annual plans with more specific objectives are developed for RE and VA based on the NMAP four-year cycle.[79]

The National Disability Plan 2006–2010 (Plano Nacional de Acção da Arena da Deficiência, PNAD) includes all persons with disabilities. In 2009, IND requested that VA objectives be included in the PNAD and that IND be included in the committee monitoring the implementation of the plan.[80] MMAS said that this request will be considered when they review the plan in 2010. MMAS had no objection to IND being on the committee.[81] The African Union Plan for the Decade of Persons with Disabilities 1999–2009 includes a component that will touch on plans for improving disability rights in Mozambique. As of April 2009, Mozambique was revising its objectives for an updated version of the African Union Plan, which would begin in 2010.[82] It is not known how this plan relates to the PNAD.

The National Health Plan 2009–2016 includes plans for improving physical rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities.[83]

Integration of mine action with reconstruction and development

The 2008–2012 NMAP seeks to contribute to Mozambique’s poverty reduction strategy for 2006–2009 in areas where demining is considered “a strategically crucial activity… [and by] making sure that mines are cleared in the affected regions in order to (i) prevent and reduce the loss of human life and (ii) allow the implementation of economic projects, resettlement, and greater mobility of population groups.”[84] The remaining SHAs are in agricultural areas and in areas where economic development is planned. IND believes the demining of these areas would contribute to achieving the objectives of the government’s poverty reduction strategy.[85]

Mozambican law requires that all land designated for infrastructure and construction of new buildings be verified free of landmines. The appropriate government ministry contracts an international or national demining company to carry out this verification.[86]

National ownership

Commitment to mine action and victim assistance

For many years the Mozambique mine action program was plagued with management problems and a general indifference to mine action, despite significant support with international funds, the UN, international NGOs, and technical advisors. Mozambique’s drafting of the 2008–2012 NMAP and its Strategic Plan for Resource Mobilization (see Support for mine action section below), as well as larger financial contributions to the program from the national budget, has demonstrated a greater commitment to meeting its Mine Ban Treaty obligations.

While IND officially coordinates VA, IND staff asserted that the government committed to assisting mine/ERW survivors without assigning this responsibility to any particular agency or ministry.[87] While Mozambique has reported that responsibility for VA is shared by MISAU and MMAS, representatives of IND said that, aside from MMAS, other government agencies feel “no responsibility for the Mine Ban Treaty and have no special concern for mine victims.”[88] In IND’s projected budget for 2009–2013, no funds were included for VA coordination or activities.[89] Mozambique lacked funding for implementing PNAD and few resources were dedicated to enforce anti-discrimination laws.[90]

National management

Mine action is managed nationally and at the provincial level by IND. As of December 2008, IND had 45 staff members: 35 based in Maputo and 10 in the regional office in Beira. This represents a decrease of 12 staff from 2007. IND planned to maintain the same staffing levels in 2009.[91] Since 1993 when the Mozambique mine action program began, UNDP has supported IND and its predecessors through a chief technical advisor (CTA), an operations manager, and an IMSMA officer. In January 2008, UNDP reduced its technical support to a CTA. When the need arises, short-term consultants will be hired.[92]

National budget

Over the 2009–2014 Article 5 extension period, Mozambique has committed to contributing US$10.5 million, or about 38% of the total demining funding requirements, including $1.8 million in 2009.[93]

National mine action legislation and standards/Standing operating procedures

IND was established by decree in 1999 under the supervision of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[94] The National Demining Commission, the predecessor to IND, issued national standards in 1998. They were revised in 2001 with technical assistance from the international NGOs operating at the time in Mozambique, to reflect procedures and principles found in the International Mine Action Standards.[95] Mozambique does not have separate RE national standards, but mine clearance standards include a requirement that all mine clearance operators include RE alongside clearance.[96]

Program evaluations

The Canadian Landmine Fund, as part of a global evaluation of the mine action programs it has funded, conducted field work for the evaluation in Mozambique in March 2008.[97] The findings of the evaluation were not available as of July 2009.

Demining and Battle Area Clearance

Demining operations are conducted in all the remaining six mine-affected provinces by APOPO, HALO, and HI. IND tasks them with annual targets according to the operational plan in the Article 5 deadline extension request. Private international and national demining companies are contracted by various ministries involved in investment and development projects to verify that the land for each project is free from mines. In 2009, IND planned to contract local commercial companies to clear some suspected mined areas in Tete province contained in the national database.[98]

Mine clearance in 2008

IND reports that the NGOs cleared almost 1.75km2 of land in 2008.[99] The results of clearance in 2008 by NGOs are summarized in the table below.

Demining in 2008[100]

NGO Operator

No. of SHAs cleared

SHA cleared (m2)

UXO sites cleared

Mines destroyed

UXO destroyed

APOPO

7

130,272

0

43

2

HALO

42

540,178

36

841

677

HI

179

1,076,696

27

238

164

Commercial companies

Commercial companies in 2008 were tasked, according to the law, with verifying that land for new buildings or infrastructure was free from mines and that construction could commence. In 2008 they cleared 495,000m2 and found 22 mines and five items of UXO.[101] They conducted mine clearance to assist in investment and development projects such as building schools, hospitals, and other infrastructure. The companies, which are accredited by IND, were contracted by the Ministry of Housing and Public Works, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry of Mineral Resources, the Ministry of Energy, and the Ministry of Tourism. In early 2009, IND issued tenders for commercial companies to clear some of the remaining 386 SHAs in the baseline data.[102] The extent of the commercial companies’ participation is dependent on the availability of funds.[103]

Demining for Development Projects in 2008[104]

Operators

Land released (m2)

Antipersonnel mines destroyed

UXO destroyed during mine clearance

ADDC

161,353

0

2

BACTEC

0

5

2

JVD

110,730

0

2

MMA

223,500

17

1

Land release

Mozambique considers the adoption of land release principles and policies to be integral to meeting its Article 5 obligations.[105] IND invited the Survey Action Center to Maputo in March 2009 to facilitate a workshop on land release for IND operations staff and QA teams. The aim was to develop operational procedures for land release (particularly through non-technical means and technical surveys), for QA of the process, and for documentation of the results. IND had not adopted a land release policy as of April 2009.[106] According to Aderito Ismael, HI’s Mine Action Programme Manager in Mozambique, neither land release concepts in general nor the specific methodologies to release land by means other than clearance were well understood at the village level.[107]

Battle area clearance in 2008

The Baseline Assessment identified six battle area clearance (BAC) tasks: three in Manica, two in Tete, and one in Sofala.[108] No BAC took place in 2008. There is no special priority to clear these areas. Instead, they will be included in the district-by-district planning and will be cleared when each district is cleared.[109]

Progress since becoming a State Party

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Mozambique was required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 March 2009. On 6 May 2008, Mozambique submitted a request to extend its deadline to 1 March 2014 (although the operational plan to clear the remaining mined areas was due to be completed by 31 December 2013).[110]

Controversial large estimates of the number and size of SHAs have plagued the mine action program since 2001 when the LIS estimated there were 561km2 of contaminated area in the country. In 2005–2007, the estimated contaminated area had decreased to some 12km2 as well as several road and infrastructure clearance projects as presented in its Article 5 deadline extension request in May 2008.[111] By the end of 2008, the total SHA had been reduced to 10.28km2.[112]

The ICBL stated in June 2008 at the Standing Committee meetings that Mozambique’s extension request was well conceived and realistic. Clearance of the remaining mined areas may even require less than six years, given sufficient resources.[113]

Risk Education

In 2008, RE was increasingly integrated alongside mine clearance activities and QA, and included within the Ministry of Education’s curriculum: it was rarely a stand-alone activity. This was in accordance with a recommendation made by the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) in 2005.[114] Mozambique stated that “mine risk education continued to be a priority for the government in 2008.”[115]

RE was provided by IND, the Ministry of Education, and NGOs to at least 52,911 beneficiaries. This represents a sharp decrease compared to the 503,100 beneficiaries identified by Landmine Monitor in 2007. However, 349,100 of the 2007 beneficiaries had received emergency RE following the ammunition storage area (ASA) explosion in Maputo and flooding in mine-affected provinces.[116] In addition, RE beneficiary figures are not collected systematically by IND and it is possible that, in both years, some beneficiaries were counted twice or not at all.[117] Government representatives and mine clearance operators felt that 2008 activities were sufficient to address potential risks, given the reduced levels of mine/ERW contamination in the country and the decrease in the number of new incidents in recent years.[118]

In 2008, there was an increased focus on reducing risks associated with scrap metal collection through a radio and television campaign and messages provided by IND QA teams.[119] While there was one incident in 2008 (the 18 April incident, see Casualties section above) that was believed to have been related to scrap metal collection, government representatives and practitioners in Mozambique felt that risks had been successfully reduced.[120] In 2007, there were at least two incidents related to scrap metal collection.[121]

Mine clearance operators (APOPO, HALO, and HI) were required by the national standards to carry out RE activities alongside clearance activities. IND QA teams also spread RE messages when conducting surveys or QA for sites during and post clearance.[122] RE activities carried out by mine clearance operators are funded by international donors. [123] HALO reported that community reports collected during community liaison resulted in the identification and destruction of 20 mines and 651 ERW.[124]

Risk Education Activities in 2008[125]

Organization

Type of activity

Geographic location

No. of beneficiaries

APOPO

RE through community meetings

Gaza province

No figures available

CinemArena

Community presentations through theater, production of film based on theater performances

Inhambane province

Film to 30,000 people, additional beneficiaries but no figures available

HALO

RE through community meetings

Maputo province

16,000

HI

RE through community meetings, training of RE agents, facilitation of CinemArena RE

Inhambane province

140 RE agents trained, but no figures available for community liaison beneficiaries

IND

RE through QA teams survey and community liaison, and through IND volunteers

All six mine affected provinces; follow-up on 2007 ASA weapons depot explosion in Maputo

109 RE sessions by QA teams; 24 RE agents trained; 6,911 beneficiaries; no figures available for volunteer activities

Ministry of Education

RE messages in the school curriculum

Unknown

No figures available

Mozambique Christian Council (MCC)

Emergency RE following 2007 ASA explosion

Maputo city

5 MCC staff trained as RE agents, but no figures available on RE beneficiaries

In 1999, RE in Mozambique was implemented jointly by HI, the Ministry of Education, and the Mozambique Red Cross (MRC). In 2000, this program was handed over to IND to coordinate and manage. Mozambique’s 2002–2006 NMAP called for “aggressive and sustained” RE, but by 2004, because of a lack of funding, few activities were implemented. In 2005, UNICEF determined that there was no longer a need for RE in the country, although an assessment by the GICHD felt that there was still a need for RE integrated with mine clearance activities.[126] Emergency RE was provided in 2000 and 2007 in response to flooding in mine-affected areas and, in 2007, in response to the ASA explosion in Maputo.[127] In its Article 7 report for 2008, Mozambique stated that “Due to effectiveness of MRE activities, we have registered a reduction of number of accidents and casualties among civil population compared to previous years.”[128]

Victim Assistance

The total number of survivors is unknown, but is at least 185. Since 2005, Mozambique has repeatedly recognized that VA is the “weakest component” of its program and, in 2008, there were few programs specifically dedicated to mine/ERW survivors.[129] Some progress was noted in the provision of services to all persons with disabilities, however, which could benefit mine/ERW survivors.

Mozambique’s healthcare structure is weak and heavily dependent on international assistance (representing 73% of the national health budget in 2008), a result of long years of armed conflict and repeated natural disasters. About one-third of the population cannot access health services and only half have access to an acceptable level of healthcare. There are not enough trained healthcare professionals and insufficient funds dedicated to basic healthcare delivery.[130] District level hospitals have poor capacities to provide emergency and continuing care to mine/ERW survivors and there is no referral service to help people access this care elsewhere.[131]

Rehabilitation services are provided in 10 centers in provincial capitals, all operated by the government. In 2008, the last remaining privately operated center, the MRC Society’s Jaipur Orthopedic Center in Gaza province, began a transition to government operation, which was completed in January 2009.[132] But services were out of reach for those survivors based in rural areas because of a lack of assistance for transportation and accommodation costs. While services are supposed to be free for war-disabled people, survivors were often unaware of this or did not know how to process the paperwork necessary to access them.[133] Four centers were renovated in 2008, bringing the number of renovated centers to six; four remaining centers still required renovation to have “appropriate conditions” to provide services.[134]

The most highly equipped orthopedic center, based in Maputo, had “long waiting lists that keep getting longer” because of a lack of trained staff.[135] A national prosthetics and orthotics course, which began in 2008 and was the first of its kind since 1990, expected to increase the number of staff by 2010.[136] Practitioners and survivors complained about a lack of adequate equipment and the poor quality of prosthetics because of inferior materials and the repeated recycling of materials.[137]

Psychosocial support and economic integration activities remained limited. Many persons with disabilities were isolated in their homes, education remained physically inaccessible and there were insufficient employment opportunities, especially in the formal sector.[138] Existing programs were mainly run by NGOs with limited resources. Government officials expressed interest in implementing inclusive education, but called on NGOs for support because of a lack of resources.[139] From 2006–2007, the Network for Mine Victims (Rede para Assistência às Vítimas de Minas, RAVIM) carried out a needs assessment of mine/ERW survivors in one district in Maputo province. Of the 98 survivors they identified, none had received vocational training and the vast majority were unemployed since they were unable to farm, the main occupation in the area.[140]

Although Mozambique has legislation to protect the rights of persons with disabilities, few resources were available to enforce existing laws and discrimination was prevalent.[141] As of 1 July 2009, Mozambique had signed but not ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, although the government was doing preparatory work for ratification.[142]

In 1999, the Ministry of Health received technical assistance in physical rehabilitation from HI and POWER, a disability organization focused on advocacy and social reintegration, and was dependent on international assistance to provide basic healthcare services. Few to no services were available for psychological support or socio-economic reintegration. In 2004, Mozambique acknowledged that few mine survivors had benefited from assistance programs and that there was a need for a stronger government commitment in this area. Since 2004, Mozambique has repeatedly identified VA as the weakest component in its mine action program. By 2009, mine/ERW survivors still had extremely limited access to all VA services, especially survivors living outside provincial capitals. The Ministry of Health still depended on significant external support for healthcare, but had assumed responsibility for the management of all orthopedic centers and was investing in staff training and the renovation of buildings housing orthopedic centers.[143]

Progress in meeting VA26 victim assistance objectives

As one of the 26 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors, and “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing adequate attention to survivors,[144] Mozambique presented its 2005–2009 objectives at the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in 2005.[145] Revisions to these objectives had not been presented by May 2009 and thus they remained largely non-SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound). In 2009, IND reported that the PNAD had taken the place of Mozambique’s Nairobi VA objectives and that IND was working with MMAS to ensure that all VA objectives were integrated within the PNAD.[146]

Progress made from 2008–2009 towards the achievement of VA objectives was limited, especially in psychological support and socio-economic reintegration. More progress was observed in physical rehabilitation. Achievements included: the renovation of four orthopedic centers; increased equipment for physical rehabilitation services; the launching of a two-and-a-half year national course in prosthetics and orthotics with 21 students, operated by MISAU; advances in promoting inclusive education; and the creation of a department within MMAS to address the needs of former combatants, including those with a disability, such as pensions, healthcare and increased awareness of the rights of persons with disabilities.[147]

The creation of a National Disability Council, originally expected by the end of 2008, thus fulfilling Mozambique’s objective within the area of “laws and public policy,”[148] had not been formed as of April 2009, but MMAS was developing a proposal for its formation.[149] Mozambique has no VA objectives related to data collection, although this is included as an objective in their 2008–2012 NMAP; no progress was noted in this area in 2008, but RAVIM began a needs assessment of mine/ERW survivors in two districts in Maputo province.[150] No progress could be observed in developing a national VA action plan (an objective included in IND’s 2007 Annual Report).

Mozambique included a VA/disability expert on its delegation to the meetings of States Parties from 2005–2008, and to the Standing Committee meetings in 2005 and 2009.[151] The person acting as Mozambique’s VA expert has changed at nearly every meeting, preventing continuity from one meeting to the next. Mozambique has reported on progress and challenges in VA at the Standing Committee meetings in 2005 and 2009 and at all meetings of States Parties since 2006. Mozambique used voluntary Form J in its annual Article 7 reports to provide details on VA activities in 2005, 2006, and 2008.[152]

Victim assistance activities

In 2008, 1,150 people, including 57 mine/ERW survivors, received physical rehabilitation services for the first time from MISAU.[153] MMAS provided vocational training in areas such as tailoring, metalworking, electrical work, bicycle repair, refrigeration, small business management, craftsmanship, mechanics, shoemaking, carpentry, and brick making, for 441 youths with disabilities. Another 86 persons with disabilities (38 men and 48 women) received vocational training or support in securing employment.[154] It was not known if this included mine/ERW survivors. IND assisted 84 mine survivors from Inhambane province with vocational training, scholarships and/or mobility devices, with funds from Italy.[155] RAVIM also facilitated access to physical rehabilitation services for an unspecified number of mine/ERW survivors.[156]

In 2007 and 2008, HI and RAVIM identified 50 persons with disabilities that were direct (those injured in the explosion) or indirect (those already disabled but unable to access services because of the explosion) survivors of the ASA explosion in Maputo in 2007.[157] Based on the needs of the beneficiary, HI and RAVIM facilitated access to physical education, provided support to start a new business, or provided school scholarships for survivors or their family members.[158]

Support for Mine Action

Mozambique has reported a cost estimate of $28 million (approximately €19 million) for completion of its Article 5 obligations—including the costs of survey, mine clearance, land release, coordination, and maintenance of IND—during the period from March 2009 to March 2013.[159] Costs under the plan are roughly $5.4 million in 2009, $6 million in 2010, $6.9 million in 2011, $6.7 million in 2012, and $3.4 million in 2013.[160] Mozambique has committed to cover “more than a third” of costs with international donors contributing an estimated $3.6 million per year.[161] Landmine Monitor is not aware of any comprehensive long-term cost estimates for fulfilling VA obligations in Mozambique.

National support for mine action

In 2008, Mozambique contributed $1,563,270 to mine action.[162] It reported contributing $1.3 million from national funds to mine action in 2007. In its revised Article 5 deadline extension request, Mozambique committed to providing $1.8 million in national funds in 2009, $2 million in 2010, $2.5 million in 2011 and 2012, and $1.7 million in 2013.[163]

International cooperation and assistance

In 2008, eight countries reported providing a total of $3,184,248 (€2,162,331) to mine action in Mozambique. Reported international mine action funding in 2008 was 9% less than reported in 2007, and falls short of the international funds required during the first four years of Mozambique’s Article 5 extension period (ranging from approximately $3.6 million to $4.4 million). This does not take into account the fact that some international funding in 2008 was directed to VA programs, without which the total international funding would be less than $3.2 million. Mozambique reported $2.7 million in international contributions in 2007, down from $6.2 million in 2006 and $15 million in 2005. This decline coincided with the departure of Norwegian People’s Aid and the focus on surveying rather than clearance in 2007.[164]

2008 International Mine Action Funding to Mozambique: Monetary[165]

Donor

Implementing Agencies/Organizations

Project Details

Amount

Austria

HI, Swiss Foundation for Mine Action

VA, capacity-building

$349,006 (€237,000)

Belgium

APOPO

Mine clearance

$736,300 (€500,000)

Ireland

HALO

Mine clearance

$699,485 (€475,000)

Italy

Bilateral

Mine clearance, VA

$261,387(€177,500)

Norway

UNDP

Mainstreaming mine action

$709,600 (NOK4,000,000)

Switzerland

HI

RE

$36,984 (CHF40,000)

United Kingdom

HALO

Mine clearance

$366,486 (£197,620)

US

Via the Centers for Disease Control

Unspecified

$25,000


[1] Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2008), Form A. Mozambique stated in 2005, 2006, and 2007 that a proposed law to fulfill Article 9 of the Mine Ban Treaty had been submitted to Parliament. Article 7 Reports, Form A, (for calendar year 2006), 27 April 2006, and 25 April 2005.

[2] Previous reports were submitted in 2007 (for calendar year 2006), on 27 April 2006, 25 April 2005, 23 April 2004, in 2003 (for the period 1 January 2002–1 March 2003), 2 July 2002, 30 October 2001, and 30 March 2000.

[3] According to IND’s records, this Article 7 report was submitted “through the normal channels”—the Mozambican Embassy. Email from Hanoch Barlevi, CTA, UNDP/IND, 5 September 2008.

[4] Interview with Numibio Mambique, Legal Advisor, IND, in Geneva, 29 June 2004.

[5] For details on cluster munition policy and practice see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice, Mines Action Canada, May 2009, pp. 122–123.

[6] Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2006), Form E, and earlier Article 7 reports.

[7] For more details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 580; and Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2008), Form B. Mozambique initially reported that it destroyed 37,818 mines, but later changed the figure to 37,318.

[8] Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2008), Form D. Mozambique cites a total figure of 1,963 mines in the Form D table, but the actual total of the mines listed within the table adds up to 2,088.

[9] Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2006), Form D. For details see Landmine Monitor Report 2007, p. 530. Mozambique’s first three Article 7 reports stated that no antipersonnel mines would be retained for training or development purposes. The 2003 report indicates 1,427 mines would be kept; the 2004 and 2005 reports both cite a figure of 1,470 antipersonnel mines; the report for 2006 cites 1,319. The reduction of 151 mines from 2005 to 2006 was the result of the Accelerated Demining Program destroying its mines when the program ended in June 2005.

[10] Email from Camille Gosselin, Advocacy Project Officer on Landmines and Cluster Munitions, HI, 21 August 2009.

[11] Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2008), Form D. The report contains a detailed breakdown of mines retained by NGOs.

[12] Ibid. As of July 2009, Mozambique had not reported completing or beginning destruction of the mines possessed by the IND.

[13] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 538–539; and UN, “2007 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, November 2006, p. 242.

[14] Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 26 August 2008, p. 4.

[15] Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 6 May 2008, p. 2.

[16] Jane Smith, “Princess Diana’s lifesaving legacy revealed as charity rids world of 1 million landmines,” Daily Record, 25 April 2009, www.dailyrecord.co.uk.

[17] Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 25 August 2008, pp. 2–3.

[18] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Head of Operations and Mila Massango, Head of International Affairs, IND, in Geneva, 2 June 2008; and response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, Head of Planning and Information Department, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009.

[19] Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 6 May 2008, p. 3; HALO, “Baseline Assessment of Minefields in South and Central Mozambique, Final Report,” October 2007, p. 15; and Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 25 August 2008, p. 21.

[20] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009; and IND, “2008 data,” June 2009.

[21] Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2008), Form C.

[22] HALO, “Baseline Assessment of Minefields in South and Central Mozambique, Final Report,” October 2007, p. 24; and Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 6 May 2008, p. 4.

[23] Analysis of Mozambique’s Article 5 deadline Extension Request, submitted by the President of the Eighth Meeting of States Parties on behalf of the States Parties mandated to analyze requests for extensions, 17 October 2008, p. 2; and Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 6 May 2008, p. 24.

[24] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009.

[25] HALO, “Baseline Assessment of Minefields in South and Central Mozambique, Final Report,” October 2007, p. 3; and interview with Christian Richmond, Desk Officer for Mozambique, HALO, in Geneva, 27 May 2009.

[26] Interview with Helen Gray, Representative for Mozambique and Christian Richmond, HALO, Maputo, 19 April 2009.

[27] IND, “Relatório do Programa de Acção contra Minas 2008” (“Action against Mines Program Report 2008”), Maputo, January 2009.

[28] Interviews with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009; and with Helen Gray and Christian Richmond, HALO, Maputo, 19 April 2009.

[29] See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 530.

[30] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[31] Interviews with Helen Gray and Christian Richmond, HALO, Maputo, 19 April 2009; and with Aderito Ismael, Mine Action Manager, HI, Maputo, 24 April 2009.

[32] Casualty incident reports provided by Fernando Mulima, IND, 21 April 2009.

[33] Interview with Helen Gray and Christian Richmond, HALO, Maputo, 19 April 2009.

[34] HALO, “Fatal Accident Report: Supervisor Mario António Lourenco Buana Ali, 7 July 2008,” Maputo, undated, provided by email from Helen Gray, HALO, 5 May 2009.

[35] Casualty incident reports provided by Fernando Mulima, IND, 21 April 2009.

[36] See previous editions of Landmine Monitor.

[37] Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 25 August 2008, p. 14; and casualty incident reports provided by Fernando Mulima, IND, 21 April 2009.

[38] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 593.

[39] Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 25 August 2008, p. 14.

[40] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[41] Interview with Helen Gray and Christian Richmond, HALO, Maputo, 19 April 2009.

[42] Casualty incident reports provided by Fernando Mulima, IND, 21 April 2009.

[43] Email from Helen Gray, HALO, 26 March 2009.

[44] Article 5 Extension Request (Revision), 25 August 2008, p. 3.

[45] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009.

[46] UN, “2009 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, November 2008, p. 263.

[47] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, 20 April 2009.

[48] Ibid; interviews with Helen Gray and Christian Richmond, HALO, Maputo, 19 April 2009; and with Aderito Ismael, HI, Maputo, 24 April 2009.

[49] IND, “Plano Nacional de Acção contra Minas 2008–2012” (“National Plan of Action against Mines 2008–2012”), Draft, Maputo, 12 February 2008, p. 10, www.ind.gov.mz.

[50] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[51] Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2008), Form J.

[52] Interview with Edma Sulemane, Coordinator for Physical Rehabilitation, MISAU, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[53] Interview with Macario Dubalelane, Coordinator for Disability, MMAS, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[54] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin and Mila Massango, IND, Maputo, 4–5 March 2008.

[55] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009. See also IND, “Relatório do Programa de Acção contra Minas 2008” (“Action against Mines Program Report 2008”), Maputo, January 2009, pp. 12–13.

[56] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[57] Interview with Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[58] Interview with Helen Gray and Christian Richmond, HALO, Maputo, 19 April 2009; and with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[59] See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 532.

[60] Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 25 August 2008, p. 14.

[61] Interview with and casualty incident reports provided by Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 21 April 2009.

[62] IND, “Plano Nacional de Acção contra Minas 2008–2012” (“National Plan of Action against Mines 2008–2012”), Draft, Maputo, 12 February 2008, p. 10, www.ind.gov.mz; and IND, “Plan Anual de Prioridades de Desminagem 2009” (“Annual Plan of Demining Priorities 2009”), Maputo, December 2008, pp. 3–5.

[63] While Mozambique’s Article 5 deadline extension request of 6 May 2008 stated that casualty data and assistance to registered survivors was recorded in IMSMA, on 20 April 2009, IND staff informed Landmine Monitor that this was not the case. See Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 6 May 2008, p. 25.

[64] Interview with Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[65] Interviews with Aderito Ismael, HI, Maputo, 24 April 2009; and with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[66] See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 530.

[67] Interview with Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 21 April 2009.

[68] IND, “Annual Report 2006,” Maputo, May 2007, pp. 12–13.

[69] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[70] Ibid; Interview with Macario Dubalelane, MMAS, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[71] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009.

[72] IND, “Plano Nacional de Acção contra Minas 2008–2012” (“National Plan of Action against Mines 2008–2012”), Draft, Maputo, 12 February 2008, www.ind.gov.mz.

[73] Ibid.

[74] Article 5 Extension Request (Revision), 25 August 2008, Table 8, p. 28.

[75] Responses to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by APOPO, HALO, and HI, March 2009; and IND, “Relatório do Programa de Acção Contra Minas 2008” (“Action against Mines Program Report 2008”), Maputo, January 2009, p. 1.

[76] South African Press Association, “Demining to begin in Maputo,” 14 May 2009, News24 (Maputo), www.news24.com.

[77] IND, “Plano Nacional De Acção contra Minas 2008–2012” (“National Plan of Action against Mines 2008–2012”), Draft, Maputo, 12 February 2008, p. 16, www.ind.gov.mz.

[78] Ibid.

[79] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[80] Ibid.

[81] Interview with Macario Dubalelane, MMAS, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[82] Ibid.

[83] Interview with Edma Sulemane, MISAU, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[84] Republic of Mozambique, “Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty, 2006–2009 (PARPA II),” Maputo, 2 May 2006, p. 68–69, siteresources.worldbank.org.

[85] Statement of Mozambique, Standing Committee Meeting on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 4 June 2008.

[86] Interview with Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, Maputo, 21 April 2009; and response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009.

[87] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[88] Ibid.

[89] Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 25 August 2008, p. 27.

[90] US Department of State, “2008 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique,” Washington, DC, 25 February 2009.

[91] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009.

[92] Email from Katrine Kristensen, Programme Analyst, Conflict Prevention and Recovery Team, Bureau of Crisis Prevention and Recovery, UNDP, 15 July 2008.

[93] Analysis of Mozambique’s Article 5 deadline Extension Request, submitted by the President of the Eighth Meeting of States Parties on behalf of the States Parties mandated to analyze requests for extensions, 17 October 2008, p. 3.

[94] UN, “2009 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, November 2008, p. 263.

[95] IND, “Demining National Standards,” Second Edition, September 2002, www.ind.gov.mz.

[96] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[97] Interview with Bob Eaton, Consultant, Canadian Landmine Fund, in Geneva, 4 June 2008.

[98] Interview with Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, Maputo, 21 April 2009.

[99] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009.

[100] Ibid.

[101] Ibid.

[102] UN, “2009 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, November 2008, p. 263; response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009; and interview with Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 21 April 2009.

[103] Interview with Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, Maputo, 21 April 2009.

[104] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009.

[105] Interview with Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, Maputo, 21 April 2009.

[106] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009.

[107] Interview with Aderito Ismael, HI, Maputo, 24 April 2009.

[108] HALO, “Baseline Assessment of Minefields in South and Central Mozambique, Final Report,” October 2007, p. 25.

[109] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Fernando Mulima, IND and Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 24 April 2009.

[110] Article 5 deadline Extension Request, 6 May 2008.

[111] Ibid, p. 4.

[112] IND, “2008 data,” provided to Landmine Monitor, 1 July 2009.

[113] HALO, “Baseline Assessment of Minefields in South and Central Mozambique, Final Report,” October 2007, p. 20; and email from Hanoch Barlevi, UNDP/IND, 5 September 2008.

[114] Interviews with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009; Helen Gray and Christian Richmond, HALO, Maputo, 19 April 2009; and Aderito Ismael, HI, Maputo,
24 April 2009; and see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 444.

[115] IND, “Relatório do Programa de Acção contra Minas 2008” (“Action against Mines Program Report 2008”), Maputo, January 2009, p. 12.

[116] See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 533.

[117] IND, “Relatório do Programa de Acção contra Minas 2008” (“Action against Mines Program Report 2008”), Maputo, January 2009, p. 12.

[118] Interviews with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009; Helen Gray and Christian Richmond, HALO, Maputo, 19 April 2009; and Aderito Ismael, HI, 24 April 2009.

[119] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[120] Ibid; interview with Helen Gray and Christian Richmond, HALO, Maputo, 19 April 2009; and Aderito Ismael, HI, Maputo, 24 April 2009.

[121] See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 533.

[122] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[123] Ibid.

[124] Email from Helen Gray, HALO, 9 May 2009.

[125] IND, “Relatório do Programa de Acção contra Minas 2008” (“Action against Mines Program Report 2008”), Maputo, January 2009, p. 12; and email from Helen Gray, HALO, 9 May 2009. See also Italian Cooperation, “Programa de Apoio à Educação sobre o Risco Mina e as Vítimas das Minas na Província de Sofala, Inhambane e Manica” (“Support Program for Mine Risk Education and Mine Victims in the Provinces of Sofala, Inhambane and Manica”), Maputo, undated, provided by email from Mila Massango, IND, 20 April 2009; interview with Aderito Ismael, HI, Maputo, 24 April 2009; and email from Aderito Ismael, HI, 24 March 2009.

[126] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 444.

[127] See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 533; and Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 77.

[128] Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2008), Form I.

[129] See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 534; and Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 434.

[130] World Health Organization, “Mozambique’s Health System: Country Profile,” undated, www.who.int.

[131] Interview with Manuel Amise, Program Director and Luis Wamusse, President, RAVIM, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[132] Interview with Ivete Dengo, Head, Social Department, MRC, Maputo, 20 April 2009; and interview with Sérgio Nhantumbo, Director, Orthopedic Center, MISAU, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[133] Interview with Manuel Amise and Luis Wamusse, RAVIM, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[134] Statement by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 26 May 2009.

[135] Interview with Sérgio Nhantumbo, MISAU, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[136] Interview with Carlos Passe, Director of Prosthetics and Orthotics, MISAU, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[137] Interviews with Sérgio Nhantumbo, MISAU, Maputo, 22 April 2009; Adelia Macie, Orthopedic Technologist, Orthopedic Center, MISAU, Maputo, 23 April 2009; Mario Maute, Technician and Landmine Survivor, Orthopedic Center, MISAU, Maputo, 23 April 2009; and Eufémia Amela, President, Mozambican Association of Disabled Women, 21 April 2009.

[138] Interviews with Ivete Dengo, MRC, Maputo, 20 April 2009; Cidia Monteiro, Director, POWER, Maputo, 21 April 2009; and with Eufémia Amela, Mozambican Association of Disabled Women, Maputo, 21 April 2009.

[139] Interview with Cidia Monteiro, POWER, Maputo, 21 April 2009.

[140] Interview with Manuel Amise and Luis Wamusse, RAVIM, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[141] Interview with Cidia Monteiro, POWER, Maputo, 21 April 2009; and US Department of State, “2008 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique,” Washington, DC, 25 February 2009.

[142] Interview with Audrey Relandeau, Disability Coordinator, HI, Maputo, 23 April 2009; and Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 535.

[143] See previous editions of Landmine Monitor.

[144] UN, “Final Report, First Review Conference,” Nairobi, 29 November–3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 99.

[145] UN, “Final Report of the Meeting of States Parties/Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November–2 December 2005, APLC/MSP.6/2005/5, pp. 167–171.

[146] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[147] Statement by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 26 May 2009; interview with Manuel Amise and Luis Wamusse, RAVIM, Maputo, 22 April 2009; and interview with Carlos Passe, MISAU, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[148] See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 536.

[149] Interview with Macario Dubalelane, MMAS, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[150] Interview with Manuel Amise and Luis Wamusse, RAVIM, Maputo, 22 April 2009.

[151] Statement by the Co-Chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration,“Status of Victim Assistance in the Context of the AP Mine Ban Convention in the 26 Relevant States Parties 2005–2008,” Ninth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 28 November 2008, p. 14.

[152] Ibid.

[153] Statement of Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 26 May 2009.

[154] Statement of Mozambique, Ninth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 28 November 2008.

[155] Interview with António Belchior Vaz Martin, Mila Massango, and Fernando Mulima, IND, Maputo, 20 April 2009.

[156] Interview with Manuel Amise and Luis Wamusse, RAVIM, Maputo 22 April 2009.

[157] For more information on the 2007 ASA explosion, see Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 526.

[158] Email from Audrey Relandeau, HI, 19 May 2009.

[159] Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 25 August 2008, p. 5.

[160] Ibid, p. 27.

[161] Ibid, p. 5.

[162] Statement of Mozambique, Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 25 May 2009.

[163] Article 5 deadline Extension Request (Revision), 25 August 2008, p. 27.

[164] Ibid, p. 5.

[165] Belgium Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2009; emails from Ingunn Vatne, Senior Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4 June 2009; David Keating, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, Department of Foreign Affairs, 12 March 2009; Amy White, Deputy Program Manager, DfID, 17 March 2009; Manfredo Capozza, Humanitarian Demining Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2 March 2009; Daniela Krejdl, Humanitarian Aid, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 3 March 2009; and Rémy Friedmann, Political Division IV, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
11 March 2009; and US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety 2009,” Washington, DC, July 2009.