Accelerated Demining Program (Programa Acelerado de Desminagem): ADP reports cleared 2,358,982 square meters, destroying 300 mines and 427 UXO in 2004. ADP employed 357 staff, including 172 manual deminers, with mechanical and mine dog detection teams. Its 2004 budget of $2.61 million was provided by Denmark, France, Ireland, Sweden and New Zealand. ADP operated in the southern provinces of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane; it started operations in Mozambique in 1995.
ADP ceased field operations in the third week of June 2005, due to cessation of donor funding. It laid off all staff except those needed to complete administrative tasks and hand over equipment to UNDP. The Irish government and UNDP put forward $700,000 for deminers' compensation payments, partially covering the $1.8 million needed for redundancy payments to all ADP staff; it was anticipated that the remaining $1.1 million will be disbursed by the Mozambican government.
In August 2005, former ADP staff members registered a new organization, Associated Demining Project, and applied for IND accreditation. This new ADP proposed to engage in mine clearance and marking in the southern provinces in support of the government’s poverty reduction program. The new NGO was expected to employ a much smaller staff of about 72 people.
HALO Trust: HALO reported clearing 1,915,837 square meters of suspect land, surveyed 4,192,736 square meters and area-reduced 211,899 square meters, destroying 17,604 antipersonnel mines, six antivehicle mines and 1,338 items of UXO in 2004. In the first six months of 2005, HALO cleared 859,945 square meters, destroying 14,944 mines and 109 UXO. HALO’s budget was approximately $3 million in 2004, and the same amount in 2005. It was funded in 2004 by: Japan and the United States for operations in Zambézia province; the Netherlands for Nampula; Ireland for Niassa; Switzerland and US for operations in Cabo Delgado. The Tokyo Broadcasting System, in association with the Association for Aid and Relief, Japan, provided funds for manual demining in all four provinces.
HALO has conducted mine action in the northern provinces since 1994 using manual, mechanical and, until January 2005, mine dog detection (MDD) teams. HALO planned to start a program by mid-2005 of identifying villages that are mine impact free, as the basis for withdrawing from Mozambique over the next two years. In villages where a threat is identified, HALO proposed to investigate and take necessary action; where no threat exists, village representatives will sign a statement confirming it as impact free.
Handicap International: HI reports that it cleared 203,610 square meters of land, destroying 20 antipersonnel mines, four antivehicle mines, 619 UXO and 4,049 rounds of ammunition in 2004, in contrast to data reported by IND. In the first six months of 2005, HI cleared 114,679 square meters and destroyed 11 antipersonnel mines, 93 UXO and 1,001 rounds of ammunition. Since September 2004, HI employed 63 staff, all nationals, including 48 deminers deployed in three integrated explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) teams, one manual demining team and one team using mechanical means and MDD. HI also maintains small mobile teams, which work clearing such areas as medical posts, bridges and schools.
In January 2005, HI adopted an “achievement strategy” in the provinces of Inhambane, Sofala and Manica, which aims to clear or cancel all 250 suspect areas of under 15,000 square meters in size that were identified in the LIS, to record those not visited, and to prepare an updated report on the mine situation in every district of the three provinces.
In 2004, HI expended $1,299,300 in financial support received from Austria, Canada, US-UNA, Japan, Norway and Switzerland.
Norwegian People's Aid: NPA reported that it worked on 16 tasks during which it cleared 185,497 square meters of land and area-reduced another 327,916 square meters through technical survey in 2004. It canceled and handed back an additional 426,001 square meters of suspect area after conducting general survey. In the first six months of 2005, NPA achieved higher productivity, clearing 276,221 square meters and area-reducing 255,887 square meters by technical survey. NPA handed back 471,921 square meters for productive use, more than 90 percent of the amount cleared and technically surveyed in the whole of 2004. In this period, it found 71 antipersonnel mines, 20 UXO and 1,257 small arms ammunition. NPA operates in the central provinces of Tete, Manica and Sofala, and maintains a permanent headquarters in Maputo and operational headquarters in Chimoio in Manica province.
NPA also carried out demolition of items cleared in 2004, and of mines and munitions previously found by NPA and reported to IND in standard monthly progress reports. The provincial IND office in Beira requested that additional munitions, from its own findings, be destroyed by NPA. Demolitions took place in July 2005, destroying 1,471 antipersonnel mines, 10 antivehicle mines, and 38 other munitions and small arms.
Financial support received by NPA in 2004 amounted to $3,545,200, provided by Denmark, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. This includes donor contributions to compensation packages for released staff, as required by Mozambican labor law, and therefore does not correspond to operational expenses. In total, NPA paid out some $1,440,702 to laid-off staff in 2004, many of whom had been working with NPA since 1993. After reorganization and retraining, NPA reduced its staff (since September 2004) to 126 personnel in manual, mechanical and dog detection teams, with two mine resistant vehicles for mechanically assisted mine clearance and 12 mine detection dogs.
NPA's operational capacity will be progressively reduced, culminating in final withdrawal by 2006. The strategy aims to produce a technical report of work completed by NPA between 1993 and 2005, a report on the impact of this work, and a status report on work remaining in NPA’s area of operations after confirming the suspect areas identified in the LIS. As part of the phase-out, NPA planned to temporarily expand its survey capacity from three six-man teams, to 10 two-man teams. NPA expected to complete the field survey by the end of April 2006, releasing all staff except those needed to enter results in the database, synchronize data with the IMSMA database, and produce maps, analysis and final reports. NPA expects to close its operation in Mozambique by the end of September 2006.
RONCO: RONCO cleared 259,863 square meters in 2004, according to IND. However, the US State Department reported that RONO cleared 299,406 square meters, destroying 16 antipersonnel mines and 701 UXO in 2004. RONCO has carried out several mine action contracts in Mozambique since 1993, including extensive work clearing the Sena railway line using mine detection dogs. RONCO also supervises the US State Department's quick reaction rapid demining force (QRDF), based in Mozambique.
In July 2005, the Ministry of Labor rejected an appeal by RONCO against a fine imposed for violating Mozambique’s ban on compulsory HIV tests. The ministry claimed that RONCO, when selecting Mozambican mine clearance staff for a mission to Afghanistan, required HIV tests in breach of the Article 7º 5/2002 law protecting the rights of employees and candidates for employment. RONCO was fined 134.4 million Meticais (approx. $5,400), and told to comply with Article 9º 5/2002 and to re-admit 13 HIV-positive staff who were dismissed, or to compensate them. RONCO's appeal to the Ministry of Labor was pending in September 2005.
Three accidents, involving four deminers, occurred in 2004. One deminer worked for the commercial company J V Desminagem in Inhambane, and three deminers worked for HALO. IND gave no details of the injuries sustained by JVD’s deminer. HALO reported that of the three deminers involved, one had no injuries, one had light injuries, and one had to have two fingers amputated.
On 7 May 2005, one NPA deminer was injured during manual clearance at Nhaapua, Chibabava district in Sofala province. The deminer detonated a Gyata antipersonnel mine; the injury required lower amputation of one leg. NPA accident investigation and IND-led investigation revealed that the deminer was in breach of NPA’s standard operating procedures. Accident refresher training of deminers, team leaders and supervisors was held after the accident.
Coordination of mine risk education (MRE) is the responsibility of IND, which states that it seeks to target children and those in positions of influence who can pass on MRE messages. The National Mine Action Plan for 2002-2006 recognized a need “for an aggressive and sustained Mine Risk Education and Marking campaigns to be re-launched” based on PEPAM (Program of Education Activities to Prevent Mines and UXO Accidents).
The GICHD evaluation of mine action in Mozambique summarized MRE activities in Mozambique, “Until 2003, there were some agencies including UNICEF and the CVM still active in MRE in some form or another. Since early 2004, however, it appears that no MRE activities have taken place in the country (other than information sessions for local residents when mine clearance teams start working on a new site). UNICEF has recently undertaken a review of their activities in Mozambique and believes that there is no further serious requirement for MRE activities in the country.”
GICHD concluded that, “The current IND strategic plan states that ‘There is an urgent need for an aggressive and sustained Mine Risk Education and Marking campaigns to be re-launched.’ Given the current levels of accidents and victims however, the Review Team does not agree. While operators should continue to provide MRE sessions to local residents when they move to a new vicinity, and IND should continue to monitor the numbers of accidents and victims, resources that might be allocated to MRE would probably be better utilised in other Mine Action activities.”
IND reported that in 2004 little MRE was conducted, due to limited resources. In Gaza province, 45 school teachers were trained in MRE, from which IND claimed that awareness raising had covered 182,340 people, including 25,565 school-age children. IND noted in its report for 2004 that an alternative approach was needed for some certain strategic issues, including civic education on the danger of mines, and assistance to mine victims and survivors. These areas need to receive greater attention by all stakeholders.
HI continues to implement MRE on a small scale, via its demining teams, which have been trained how to conduct basic MRE sessions.
Funding information provided to Landmine Monitor directly by donors indicates that, in 2004, 14 countries and the European Commission (EC) contributed $11,950,730 for mine action in Mozambique. This represents a 22 percent decrease from the $15.25 million reported by donors in 2003. IND reported a sharp rise in 2004 in funds for demining provided by the Mozambique government, from 18 billion Meticais (approximately $818,181) in 2003 to 178 billion Meticais ($7.9 million).
In 2004, international donors were:
Mozambican government funding of 178 billion Meticais (US$7.9 million) in 2004 was allocated to IND operating costs, purchase of equipment and other goods, and exemption of tax for the import of demining equipment for mine clearance operators.
IND reported disbursements in 2004 amounting to some $14.3 million, provided by 18 countries, EC, UNDP, Association for Aid and Relief, Japan and Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS). This is a significant decrease from the $18.15 million that IND reported for 2003. Previously IND has cautioned that in its reporting the “amounts disbursed cannot be accurately confirmed.”
In 2004, IND reported 30 new mine/UXO casualties in 13 incidents: three people killed and 27 injured, including one women and one child. Three were deminers and 27 were civilians. This represents an increase from the 14 new mine/UXO casualties (six killed and eight injured) in 2003; however the number of reported incidents remained constant at 13. Most casualties were recorded in Sofala (10), Maputo (seven) and Tete (five). The provinces of Cabo Delgado, Manica, Niassa and Zambézia recorded two casualties each. The incidents involving civilians were mainly associated with farming, hunting and collecting firewood.
The number of reported casualties likely does not represent the total number of persons killed or injured in mine incidents, as the ability to collect and record data is limited. Data is collected by the police, Mozambique Red Cross, hospitals, IND and others; however, the data is reportedly not entered into IMSMA, but is kept at IND for reference.
Casualties continued to be reported in 2005. To the end of August, IND recorded 20 mine/UXO incidents/accidents in which nine people were killed and 11 others injured; at least four were women and six were children. On 7 May 2005, a deminer working with NPA was injured by an antipersonnel mine.
The total number of mine casualties in Mozambique is not known; however, estimates are as high as 30,000. Between 1996 and 2004, 646 mine casualties were recorded. It is acknowledged that this figure does not represent the true situation in the country. The most comprehensive collection of casualty data remains the nationwide Landmine Impact Survey, concluded in August 2001. In total, 2,145 casualties were recorded.
At the First Review Conference, Mozambique was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors, and with “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of survivors. Mozambique participated in the workshop on advancing landmine victim assistance in Africa, which was hosted by the co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, to assist States Parties in developing a plan of action to meet the aims of the Nairobi Action Plan in relation to mine victim assistance.
Two mine survivors from Mozambique participated in the First Review Conference in Nairobi in November-December 2004.
Mozambique submitted the voluntary Form J with its annual Article 7 report, providing information on victim assistance activities, and acknowledges that victim assistance is the “weakest component” of its mine action program.
In June 2005, as part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action Plan, Mozambique presented some of its objectives for the period 2005-2009 to address the needs of mine survivors, which include: improving access to emergency and ongoing medical care through upgrading and equipping healthcare facilities and training more trauma specialists; upgrading prosthetic and orthotic facilities and training more technicians; establishing coordination between relevant actors in the rehabilitation sector; training practitioners in hospitals and clinics to provide psychosocial support to survivors; providing vocational training for persons with disabilities and assisting them to find employment; establishing countrywide coordination in the disability sector; enacting new legislation to protect the rights of persons with disabilities.
The IND Five Year National Mine Action Plan (2002-2006) affirmed its coordinating role in mine victim assistance. Nevertheless, assistance programs for mine survivors reportedly face major difficulties due to lack of financial resources and the needs of survivors greatly exceeding the available assistance.
Responsibility for mine survivor assistance is shared by the Ministry of Health (MISAU) and the Ministry for Women and Social Action (MMAS). MISAU assisted 10 mine survivors in the provinces of Nampula, Tete and Zambézia in 2004. MMAS supports community-based rehabilitation activities.
Mozambique’s healthcare infrastructure was severely damaged during almost 30 years of armed conflict, and the floods of 2000. There is reportedly a lack of immediate first aid treatment and no mechanism to arrange treatment or transport to the nearest health facility. Mine casualties are usually assisted by relatives or other members of the community, and transported by bicycles, donkeys or other means to the nearest hospital; the average trip takes about eight hours. There are 10 hospitals capable of providing assistance to mine casualties, one in each province; however, trained surgeons and medical equipment are in short supply.
Since 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) provided technical support to MISAU and MMAS to strengthen capacities to respond to victims of violence and traumatic injuries, including landmine casualties. In 2004, WHO provided technical assistance to MISAU on strategic planning for pre-hospital and emergency care to better respond to traumatic injuries, and on expanding its injury surveillance system in all provincial and central hospitals in Maputo and Gaza.
Mozambique has 10 orthopedic centers, including one run by the Mozambique Red Cross Society, 60 physiotherapy centers and 10 transit centers specifically designated to host persons with disabilities undergoing treatment. The government, through the Ministry of Health, operates nine orthopedic centers. The centers provide services free of charge for war-wounded, including mine survivors. There are three Category I trained orthopedic technicians, 15 prosthetic technicians and around 32 assistant technicians; training has been supported by the International Committee of the Red Cross, Handicap International and POWER UK. All the government-run orthopedic centers are located in the provincial capitals, far from the mine-affected areas, making access difficult for people from rural areas. There is no orthopedic center in the province of Manica. Most of the equipment is reportedly obsolete and not functioning. There are regular shortages of raw materials, and due to a lack of trained staff there are long waiting lists for services.
Mozambique Red Cross Society operates the Jaipur Orthopedic Center (COJ) in Gaza province. The center has the capacity to assist about 240 people a year, and produces and repairs prostheses and other mobility devices. A Jaipur Mobile Orthopedic Unit also operates free of charge throughout Gaza province. Referrals are made through the network of Red Cross volunteers, and by provincial and district departments of health and of coordination of social action. In 2004, a new pilot program was introduced to provide vocational training, disability awareness and social support. The social and economic support program is implemented in collaboration with the Organization of Disabled People to promote poverty alleviation and economic empowerment. The Red Cross also implements survivor assistance programs in the provinces of Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Zambézia and Tete to facilitate transport to the orthopedic centers and to support socio-economic reintegration activities. There is a waiting list for services at the COJ; activities are limited by a lack of funding. Disability and Development Partners, previously know as Jaipur Limb Campaign UK, provided $5,000 to fund the pilot economic and social support program. In 2004, financial support was also provided by the German Red Cross, which continues to provide technical training programs and assistance with buying raw materials for the production of prostheses, although the formal partnership has ended.
In August 2005, the Vilankulo Orthopedic Center, in Inhambane province, was officially re-opened with support from the Rotary Club of Pretoria East, South Africa, in partnership with Mozambican and other South African organizations. The center was built after the end of the conflict to assist disabled ex-combatants and civilian mine survivors. The Rotary Club presented a donation of 30 prostheses, 400 crutches, wheelchairs and clothes as part of its Landmine Victim Assistance Program in Mozambique.
Handicap International’s activities in physical rehabilitation focus on supporting the quality of national services, and improving the skills of staff in the rehabilitation sector. HI also works with MMAS and the Forum of Mozambican Associations of Disabled Persons (FAMOD) to improve access to physical rehabilitation services, and to promote the rights of all persons with disabilities. In 2005, a new project was launched to support and coordinate sports activities for persons with disabilities in Beira and Sofala province. The project is supported by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The Ministry for Women and Social Action coordinates psychosocial and socioeconomic reintegration activities. One approach is the ABC program; a community-based approach created to fully reintegrate people with a disability in society. The program has made people more aware of the issue of disability, and enabled people with disability to access specialized services and employment opportunities. Peer-to-peer counseling groups are also available. In Maputo Central Hospital and Beira Central Hospital, one staff member is trained in psychosocial support.
The government acknowledges that financial constraints are limiting the availability of programs to assist mine survivors and that more facilities are needed to promote their socioeconomic reintegration, particularly in rural areas. Limited activities are being undertaken, such as integrating children with a disability into schools, encouraging disabled people to participate in sports activities and improving accessibility to buildings. There are plans to provide food for work, to encourage the public and private sector to employ people with a disability, and to provide those who are unable to generate an income with a monthly allowance. The government reports that 1,106 people with disabilities have received vocational training and 75 have received small grants for activities, such as fisheries and chicken farming. In addition, 5,076 people with disabilities, who are unable to work, receive an allowance to provide for their basic needs.
Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) is active in Zambézia province working in Quelimane, Ile, Maganja da Costa and Nicoadala districts. LSN’s community-based outreach workers, who are amputees, work with individual survivors to assess their needs, offer psychological and social support, and educate their families about the effects of limb loss. LSN assists survivors in accessing services that provide mobility devices, health services or vocational training, and offers material support if necessary. LSN works with local associations, including the Association of Disabled Mozambicans (ADEMO) and Association of Military Disabled (ADEMIMO), to increase awareness about disability rights. LSN supported the psychosocial and economic reintegration of 238 mine survivors and their families in 2004. LSN provides grants to help mine survivors and other persons with disabilties undertake small-scale commercial activities, including carpentry, sewing, bakery, small stores and fishing. It links with programs of other NGOs to raise animals and establish self-help groups.
LSN Mozambique is active in the negotiations for the Comprehensive and Integral Convention on Protection and Promotion of Human Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities.
The UK-based NGO POWER works closely with FAMOD, the umbrella organization of disability associations and 13 other organizations for people with disabilities with the aim of empowering disabled persons to take a fuller part in the life of the community, and enjoy the same rights as others. In May 2004, POWER and its national partners designed and implemented a new program to raise awareness of disability issues through the creation of a network of radio clubs, especially in rural villages. The four-year program is funded by the European Commission. Other donors include USAID, the Community Fund and Foundation Pro Victimis. POWER is also involved in a number of vocational training initiatives to provide specialized skills for persons with disabilities. About 80 people benefited from training in woodwork, leatherwork or metalwork and another 140 received training in computer skills; however, with high unemployment in the country it was difficult for those trained to put their skills into practice. In addition, 45 people with a disability received training in proposal writing for small business activities.
Of several Mozambican disability organizations working on advocacy, two in particular, ADEMO and ADEMIMO, work to support the rights of landmine survivors. ADEMO has also developed and supports a vocational training program in information technology and computer literacy for people with disabilities. Each beneficiary receives 80 hours of training, and is then assisted in searching for work. Potential employers are made aware that trained computer operators are available through the program. However, activities are limited by a lack of funding. There are about 100 people on the waiting list for training.
In June 1999, parliament enacted a national disability law, and the cabinet approved the first national policy on persons with disabilities (Resolution no. 20/99); however, the policy has not been fully implemented due to lack of resources.
Through the efforts of FAMOD and other associations of persons with disabilities, a new draft law on the rights of the disabled has been drafted and submitted to parliament; however, the law has not yet been adopted. The draft law proposes a coordinating body for disability issues, composed of representatives from disability associations, MISAU, MMAS, IND, and national and international organizations.
The Ministry for Women and Social Action is currently the national coordinating agency on disability issues. POWER is working with MMAS to develop a national plan of action for disability. The draft plan was discussed by all stakeholders at a conference in July 2004, and is currently under review prior to endorsement and implementation.
 Article 7 Report, Form A, 25 April 2005. The director of the National Demining Institute (IND) told Landmine Monitor in June 2004 that the parliamentary Commission for Defense and Security had prepared implementation legislation which was awaiting approval. Interview with Gamiliel Munguambe, Director, IND, at intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Geneva, 29 June 2004.  Previous reports were submitted on: 30 March 2000; 30 October 2001 (covering 1 September 1999-31 December 2000); 2 July 2002 (for calendar year 2001); one with no submission date (covering 1 January 2002-1 March 2003); 23 April 2004 (covering April 2003 to December 2003).  Statement by Leonardo Santos Simão, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Co-operation, Nairobi Summit on a Mine-Free World (First Review Conference), Nairobi, 3 December 2004.  Interview with Numibio Mambique, Legal Advisor, IND, Geneva, 29 June 2004.  United Nations, “Countries stand united in the battle against landmines,” 4 November 2004, www.un.int/Angola/press_release_landmines.  Article 7 Report, Form E, 23 April 2004 (for April 2003 to December 2003).  Landmines produced in the following countries have been found in Mozambique: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, East Germany, China, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Portugal, Rhodesia, South Africa, UK, USSR and Yugoslavia. See Human Rights Watch, Still Killing: Landmine in Southern Africa (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1997), pp. 74-75. The following country names in this list have not been updated: Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Rhodesia, USSR and Yugoslavia.  Information provided by Frank Weetjens, Program Manager, APOPO, Mozambique, 18 August 2005. Weetjens received this information from the IND director, Gamiliel Munguambe, in May 2005.  Information provided by Frank Weetjens, Program Manager, APOPO, Mozambique, 18 August 2005. Weetjens indicated the Tanzanian Ministry of Defense had drafted such a request and that he anticipates the request will be granted by Mozambique.  Details on the types and countries of origin of the mine stockpile were provided in Mozambique’s initial Article 7 Report, submitted in March 2000.  For more details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 580.  Article 7 Reports, Form D, 23 April 2004 and 25 April 2005.  Article 7 Report, Form D, 25 April 2005. The mines held by HALO are inert and free from explosives, detonators and boosters. Email from Tim Turner, Programme Manager, HALO Mozambique, 3 October 2005.  Landmine Monitor (Zambia) interview with Gamiliel Munguambe, IND, Geneva, 13 June 2005.  Human Rights Watch, Still Killing: Landmine in Southern Africa (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1997).  Canadian International Demining Corps and Paul F. Wilkinson & Associates Inc., “Landmine Impact Survey,” August 2001.  Danish International Development Agency, “Support to Humanitarian Mine Action in Mozambique,” April 2004, pp. 2-3; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 582-583.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 2.  Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. iv.  UN OCHA, “The Development of Indigenous Mine Action Capacities - Mozambique,” 1997, p. 32.  IND, “Five Year National Mine Action Plan 2002-2006,” 19 November 2001; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 344. The NMAP called for: mine/UXO clearance of all areas identified by the LIS as high or medium impact by the end of 2006; all low impact areas to be surveyed and marked; fully operational national mine risk education and long-term victim assistance programs.  Email from Sara Sekkenes, Program Manager, NPA Mozambique, 25 April 2005. The announcement was made during a week of events held in November 2004 to launch the Landmine Monitor Report 2004.  IND, “Annual Plan of Demining Priorities 2005,” March 2005, p. 4, which states: “para a elaboração do plano quinqenal da acção sobre minas 2002 - 2006 e da definição da meta de 2009 para Moçambique livre de minas” (for the elaboration of the five year plan for mine action 2002-2006 and the goal definition of a Mozambique free of mines in 2009). www.ind.gov.mz.  GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. ii.  GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. 35.  IND, “Annual Plan of Demining Priorities,” March 2005.  UN Development Programme (UNDP), Terms of Reference for “A review of 10 years of assistance to the Mine Action Program in Mozambique,” in GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. 139.  GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. 111.  Danida, “Support to Humanitarian Mine Action Mozambique,” April 2004, p. 9.  Briefing by Gamiliel Munguambe, Director, IND, and Marylene Spezzati, UN Resident Representative, at meeting of government, partners and operators on demining, Maputo, 16 August 2005.  GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, pp. 118-120.  IND, “Annual Plan of Demining Priorities,” March 2005, p. 8.  Email from H. Murphey McCloy, Senior Demining Advisor, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, US Department of State, 16 September 2005.  “Current Accredited Licensed Demining Agencies,” IND website, www.ind.gov.mz/partners.htm; email from H. Murphey McCloy, US Department of State, 16 September 2005.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 2; Article 7 Report, Form C, 25 April 2005.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 2. IND reporting of mine contamination in 2001 varies from the 2001 LIS results (562 square meters affected and 1,448,998 people affected in 791 villages). CIDC and Paul F. Wilkinson & Associates Inc., “Landmine Impact Survey,” August 2001.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” Executive Summary, March 2005.  IND states that as a result of its technical surveys, HALO area-reduced 211,899 square meters of suspected areas and canceled 3,372,097 square meters. IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 5. HALO informed Landmine Monitor that it surveyed 4,192,736 square meters and conducted area reduction of 211,899 square meters. Email from Tim Turner, HALO, 19 May 2005. IND also appears to understate results provided by NPA, which recorded technical survey of 324,272 square meters in 2004. NPA, “Mozambique Mine Action Program Annual Report 2004,” 25 January 2005, p. 10.  GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, pp. 38-39.  Presentation to the IND IMSMA information meeting by Lt. Col. Jean-Paul Rychener, IMSMA/Stockpile Destruction Specialist, GICHD, Maputo, 4 August 2005; information provided by Sara Sekkenes, Program Manager, NPA Mozambique, 13 August 2005.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, Executive Summary and p. 7. The Article 7 report for 2004 also reports 18,600 antipersonnel mines destroyed in 2004 and lists the types of mine; however, it also notes in the same column 24,684 and a grand total of 43,284 without giving other details. Article 7 Report, Form G, 25 April 2005.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, pp. 6 and 8. The commercial company RONCO is designated by the US Department of State as a humanitarian demining organization.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 6. Some operators reported different data. See paragraphs on respective organizations below.  Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire, Accelerated Demining Program (ADP), 7 June 2005.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 6.  Emails from Florencio Chongo, ADP, 8 and 9 August 2005.  Presentation by Gamiliel Munguambe, IND, at meeting of government, partners and operators on demining, Maputo, 16 August 2005.  Email from Florencio Chongo, ADP, 16 August 2005. The development of a new business plan was subcontracted to PriceWaterhouseCoopers and funded by UNDP; briefing by Marylene Spezzati, UN Resident Representative, at Partners/Government/Operators meeting on demining, Maputo, 16 August 2005.  Emails from Florencio Chongo, ADP, 8 and 9 August 2005.  Email from Tim Turner, HALO, 3 October 2005.  Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Adérito Ismael, HI, 29 June 2005.  Email from Gilles Delecourt, Country Director, HI Mozambique, 18 August 2005.  Email from Gilles Delecourt, HI Mozambique, 18 August 2005.  Email from Sara Sekkenes, Program Manager, NPA Mozambique, 13 August 2005.  Email from Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 18 August 2005. The mines were stored in accordance with national mine action standards and NPA standard operating practices, awaiting demolition under supervision of police authorities in Tete province and NPA guards. Included were 1,000 mines stored at the request of APOPO and IND (see earlier section on Use). The demolition report was submitted to IND to avoid duplication, since the mines had already been reported as cleared and now were reported destroyed.  IND Beira, Letter of request for demolition to NPA, Nº97/2005, N/Ref/SDRC/2005, 13 July 2005; email from Sara Sekkenes, Program Manager, NPA Mozambique, 18 August 2005.  NPA, “Demolition report” by Felix André, Operations Manager and Maxwel Gopani, Deputy Program Manager, dated 19, 22, 23 and 24 July 2005, submitted by NPA to IND.  Email from Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 25 April 2005.  NPA presentation at meeting of government, partners and operators on demining, Maputo, 16 August 2005.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 6.  Email from H. Murphey McCloy, US Department of State, 16 September 2005.  Ministry of Labor, Press release Ref. Nº 048/GI/GMT/2005, Maputo, 18 July 2005.  Ministry of Labor, Press release Ref. Nº 031/GI/GMT/2005, Maputo, 11 June 2005, and Ref. Nº 048/GI/GMT/2005, Maputo, 18 July 2005; “Demining Company Loses Appeal” Agência de Informação de Moçambique, 18 July 2005, www.allafrica.com/stories/printable/200507180719.html.  Email from H. Murphey McCloy, US Department of State, 16 September 2005.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, pp. 13-14. The report indicates three casualties in a table, since one of the deminers suffered no injuries.  Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by HALO, 18 May 2005.  “Mine accident information to the wider mine action community,” Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 10 May 2005.  Email from IND to Landmine Monitor, 12 July 2005; UNIDIR, “Participatory Monitoring of Humanitarian Mine Action: Giving Voice to Citizens of Nicaragua, Mozambique and Cambodia,” 2003, p. 46.  UNIDIR, “Participatory Monitoring of Humanitarian Mine Action: Giving Voice to Citizens of Nicaragua, Mozambique and Cambodia,” 2003, p. 46; Hildegard Scheu, “Pilot Study on Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Humanitarian Mine Action in Mozambique,” UNIDIR, 2002.  GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. 37.  GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. 37.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 15.  Reported in Desminado (IND magazine), January 2005, p. 9; Article 7 Report, Form I, 25 April 2005.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, pp. 1, 17-18.  Email from Gilles Delecourt, HI Mozambique, 30 June 2005.  Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 591.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 16; additional information provided by Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 13 August 2005.  Article 7 Report, Form J, 27 April 2005; email from Norbert Hack, Minister, Department of Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1 August 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: €1 = $1.2438, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.  Mine Action Investments database; emails from Elvan Isikozlu, Mine Action Team, Foreign Affairs, Canada, June-August 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: US$1 = C$1.3017. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.  Mine Action Investments database; email from Hanne Elmelund Gam, Department of Humanitarian & NGO Cooperation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 18 July 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: US$1 = DKK5.989. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.  EC, “Contribution to the Landmine Monitor 2005,” by email from Nicola Marcel, RELEX Unit 3a Security Policy, EC, 19 July 2005.  Emails from Amb. Gerard Chesnel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 30 June 2005, and from Anne Villeneuve, HI, July-August 2005.  Article 7 Report, Form J, 15 April 2005; email from Dirk Roland Haupt, Federal Foreign Office, Division 241, 25 July 2005.  Email from Department of Foreign Affairs, 4 August 2005 via Tony D’Costa, Pax Christi Ireland.  Email from Kitagawa Yasu, Japanese International Campaign to Ban Landmines (JCBL), 10 August 2005, with translation of Ministry of Foreign Affairs information sent to JCBL on 11 May 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: ¥108.15 = US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.  Email from Freek Keppels, Arms Control and Arms Export Policy Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4 August 2005.  Letter from Charlotte Darlow, Disarmament Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 20 April 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = NZ$0.6643. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.  Norway Article 7 Report, From J, 28 April 2005; emails from May-Elin Stener, Department for Global Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, April-May 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = NOK6.7399. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.  Response to Landmine Monitor from ROK Mission to UN, New York, 25 May 2005. No part of this figure has been included in Landmine Monitor’s calculation of the donor total amount; IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 17.  Letter Alf Eliasson, SIDA, 23 March 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: US$1 = SEK7.4380. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.  Mine Action Investments database; email from Janine Voigt, Diplomatic Collaborator, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1 July 2005. Rate of exchange for 2004 according to fixed rate specified by donor: US$1 = CHF1.35, used throughout this report.  Email from H. Murphey McCloy, US Department of State, 16 September 2004.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 16; email from Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 13 August 2005.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 17.  Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 591.  Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 591; IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 10.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” Maputo, March 2005, p. 1, Annex 3, 4, Executive Summary; see also Landmine Monitor 2004, p. 592.  Email from Surengue Assane, Technical Advisor for Mine Awareness and Victim Assistance, IND, and Sérgio Nhantumbo, Prosthetist/Orthotist, Ministry of Health, 11 July 2005.  Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Susan B. Walker, Consultant to co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, 24 September 2005, citing details of information obtained in meeting with IND, Maputo, 19 September 2005.  Email from Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 11 May 2005.  Presentation by Mozambique, Workshop on Advancing Landmine Victim Assistance in Africa, Nairobi, 31 May-2 June 2005. According to a media report, 615 mine casualties were reported between 1996 and 2003, with at least 232 killed and 322 injured; at least 165 were children. See Jaime Cuambe, “Acidentes com minas fazem 615 victimas no país”, Notícias, 2 May 2004.  For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 593.  United Nations, Final Report, First Review Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, Nairobi, 29 November-3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 33.  Article 7 Report, Form J, 25 April 2005.  Presentation by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005.  For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 596; see also Article 7 Report, Form J, 25 April 2005.  IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” Maputo, March 2005, p. 13.  Presentation by Mozambique, Workshop on Advancing Landmine Victim Assistance in Africa, Nairobi, 31 May-2 June 2005.  Email from Surengue Assane, Technical Advisor for Mine Awareness and Victim Assistance, IND, and Sérgio Nhantumbo, Prosthetist/Orthotist, Ministry of Health, 11 July 2005; presentation by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 593.  WHO Mozambique, “Interventions in the area of Injury and Violence Prevention: 2004 Annual Progress Report Summary,” March 2005; WHO, “Guidelines for essential trauma care,” Geneva, 2004, p. 62; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 593.  Presentation by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005; presentation by Mozambique, Workshop on Advancing Landmine Victim Assistance in Africa, Nairobi, 31 May-2 June 2005.  Interview with Helena Timbana, CVM, 31 May 2004; Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, p. 60; “Rehabilitation programme for amputees and other disabled people in Gaza Province,” www.jaipurlimb.org/mozambique.htm, accessed 19 July 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 594.  “Rotary Club pretende reabrir Centro Ortopédico de Vilankulo,” Notícias, 13 August 2005.  Email from Gilles Delecourt, HI Mozambique, 19 July 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 594.  Presentation by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005.  Presentation by Mozambique, Workshop on Advancing Landmine Victim Assistance in Africa, Nairobi, 31 May-2 June 2005.  Email from Becky Jordan, LSN, 6 July 2005; Article 7 Report, Form J, 25 April 2005; Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, p. 59; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 595.  Email from Marci Van Dyke, Country Program Officer, LSN, 19 September 2005.  Email from Sarah Hodge, Chief Executive, POWER, 8 July 2005.  Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, p. 58.  Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 596; see also US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Mozambique 2004,” Washington DC, 28 February 2005.  Email from Surengue Assane, Technical Advisor for Mine Awareness and Victim Assistance, IND, and Sérgio Nhantumbo, Prosthetist/Orthotist, Ministry of Health, 11 July 2005.  Email from Sarah Hodge, POWER, 8 July 2005.