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Table of Contents
Country Reports
MOZAMBIQUE, Landmine Monitor Report 2005

Mozambique

Key developments since May 2004: Mozambique reported in April 2005 that national implementation legislation was awaiting approval by the Assembly. Mozambique served as a Friend of the President for the First Review Conference. Mozambique hosted a major launch of the Landmine Monitor Report 2004. Major changes were made in this reporting period, replacing the previous target date of 2012 to become impact-free with the treaty-compliant target of 2009 to become mine-free, integrating mine action in national development plans, and changing the basis of mine action planning and prioritization. A 10-year review of mine action in Mozambique identified serious deficiencies in the action plan, limited ability to plan and prioritize mine action effectively, and a need to integrate mine action with national development. Clearance results and ongoing revision of the 2001 Landmine Impact Survey led the National Demining Institute to sharply reduce its estimate of suspected mine-contaminated land to 171.6 square kilometers. Substantially more land was cleared of mines and unexploded ordnance in 2004 (nearly 12 square kilometers) than in 2003, removing the threat to 379 villages and 217,000 people. A further 4.6 square kilometers was surveyed, canceling 84 suspected hazardous areas in five provinces. One mine clearance operator ceased work in 2005, due to lack of funds. Two others announced plans to withdraw in 2006-2007. Little mine risk education took place in 2004, due to lack of funding.

International donors provided an estimated $11.95 million for mine action in Mozambique in 2004 (in contrast to over $15 million in 2003), and the Mozambican government provided increased funding of $7.9 million (partly in-kind, including tax exemptions). Mine/UXO casualties increased in 2004. Mozambique acknowledges that victim assistance is the “weakest component” of its mine action program. At the First Review Conference, Mozambique was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors, and with the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and responsibility to provide adequate assistance. In June 2005, as part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action Plan, Mozambique presented some of its objectives for the period 2005-2009 to address the needs of mine survivors.

Mine Ban Policy

The Republic of Mozambique signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified it on 25 August 1998, and became a State Party on 1 March 1999. No implementing legislation is in place, but in April 2005 Mozambique stated that it is “preparing national legislation that will oblige institutions and citizens to comply with the Convention. The bill is awaiting approval by the Assembly of the Republic.”[1]

Mozambique submitted its sixth annual Article 7 report on 25 April 2005, covering calendar year 2004.[2] The report includes Form J, in which victim assistance is described as “the mine action program’s weakest component.”

The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Dr. Leonardo Santos Simão, led the country’s delegation to the First Review Conference held in Nairobi in November-December 2004. Mozambique served as one of six Friends of the President, assisting with preparations and drafting of key documents. The director of the National Demining Institute (IND), Gamiliel Munguambe, took primary responsibility for this role, in particular by encouraging mine-affected States Parties to identify and present their problems, plans, progress and priorities for mine action.

In his speech to the First Review Conference, Minister Simão said, “Meeting the goal of freeing the world of antipersonnel mines requires more than just adopting a political declaration at the end of this Summit. It requires continued and sustained commitment, both political and financial, so as to ensure that mine affected states meet their ten years clearance deadline, as well as to ensure the much-needed assistance to victims of landmines.”[3]

The Foreign Minister also mentioned the “honor and pleasure” Mozambique had in hosting one of the three major launches of Landmine Monitor Report 2004. The minister had participated in the launch, which was part of a broader Demining Week, held from 15-20 November 2004. The week included exhibitions, videos and presentations by mine action operators, and a public forum on mine action and human development chaired by Graça Machel, the former First Lady of Mozambique. These events received international and domestic media coverage and helped draw the world’s attention to the First Review Conference.

In June 2005, Mozambique attended the meetings of the intersessional Standing Committees in Geneva.

Mozambique has not engaged in the extensive discussions that States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2 and 3, regarding joint military operations with non-States Parties, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and the permissible number of mines retained for training. However, during the June 2004 intersessional meetings, a Mozambique legal advisor told Landmine Monitor that Mozambique was generally supportive of the effort to reach common understanding on these issues. With regard to Article 2, he said Mozambique believes that the effect of mines should be taken into account, and that any mine that is capable of exploding from the contact of a person is prohibited by the treaty.[4]

On 3 November 2004, Mozambique attended the inaugural meeting in New York of the Forum of Mine-Affected Countries (FOMAC), a group of high level representatives from mine-affected countries.  FOMAC was formed to encourage cooperation between mine-affected countries.[5]

Production, Transfer and Use

Mozambique has never produced antipersonnel mines.[6] Throughout the civil war, antipersonnel mines were imported from several countries and used by different parties to the conflict.[7] There have been only a small number of isolated instances of use of antipersonnel mines since the conflict ended in 1992 (such as by poachers or bandits), and no incidents were reported in 2004 or the first half of 2005.

In early 2005, the Tanzanian government submitted a written request to Mozambique asking for a transfer of 1,000 deactivated antipersonnel mines to be used for training by the internationally-funded Belgian APOPO research project on mine detecting rats. The request was turned down by the Mozambican Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the explanation that Mozambique had no mines in its possession.[8] There have been discussions about the possibility of acquiring the mines from demining organizations in Mozambique, which would store cleared mines for eventual transfer to APOPO in Tanzania with prior authorization from both Mozambican and Tanzanian authorities, in accordance with their Mine Ban Treaty obligations.[9]

Stockpile Destruction and Retained Mines

Mozambique completed destruction of its stockpile of 37,818 antipersonnel mines on 28 February 2003, one month ahead of its treaty-mandated deadline.[10] The Army destroyed the mines by open detonation in six separate events throughout 2001 and 2003.[11]

Mozambique’s first three Article 7 reports, submitted in 2000, 2001 and 2002, stated that no antipersonnel mines would be retained for training or development purposes. The 2003 report indicated 1,427 mines would be kept, while the 2004 and 2005 reports both cite a figure of 1,470 antipersonnel mines retained for demining training.[12] The mines are held by five demining entities: Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (900), HALO Trust (216), Handicap International (185), Accelerated Demining Program (151) and RONCO (18).[13]

In 2004, Mozambique did not consume (explode) any of its retained mines. The IND director told Landmine Monitor in June 2005 that the training program had been suspended in 2004 due to logistical difficulties, but that he expected it to start later in 2005.[14] Mozambique has not yet reported in any detail on the intended purposes and actual uses of its retained mines―a step agreed to by States Parties in the Nairobi Action Plan that emerged from the First Review Conference.

Landmine and UXO Problem

The contamination of large areas of Mozambique by mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) resulted from nearly 30 years of war, starting from 1964 with the struggle for independence from Portugal’s colonial rule by Frelimo (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique). Portuguese troops laid barrier minefields to try to impede infiltration from bases in Tanzania, and Frelimo mined roads and paths to inhibit troop movements. After Mozambique achieved independence in 1975, conflict continued between the Frelimo government and Renamo (Resistência Nacional de Moçambique), which was supported by neighboring Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Frelimo used mines extensively to protect economic infrastructure and Renamo used them to interdict roads and supply routes. From 1979, South Africa supported Renamo, and the conflict escalated until the start of peace negotiations that led to the Rome peace agreements signed in 1992.[15]

A Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) completed in August 2001 found landmines located in all 10 provinces of Mozambique and 123 of its 128 districts. It identified 1,374 suspected mined areas, affecting 1,488,998 people in 791 communities. The survey scored only 20 communities with a combined population of 36,254 as high impact, with 164 communities with a population of 393,406 scored as medium impact, and the remaining 607 communities with a population of over 1,058,930 as low impact.[16]

The LIS caused controversy in the mine action community, both for producing an estimate of the area affected (562 square kilometers) that operators considered exaggerated, but also for missing many mined areas.[17] More recent estimates produced by IND, taking into account the LIS and subsequent technical survey and mine clearance, reduced the number of suspected areas to 451, affecting 204 communities with a total population of 806,000 and covering 171.6 square kilometers.[18]

Landmines continue to cause casualties. A review of mine action in Mozambique concluded, however, that “landmine contamination is far less a humanitarian emergency than a very real constraint on development.”[19]

Mine Action Program

Mine action is under the overall supervision of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which set up the National Demining Institute in 1999, replacing the National Mine Clearance Commission that had lost the confidence of operators and donors.[20] IND coordinates all mine action in Mozambique. Mine action is carried out primarily by international NGOs and commercial companies, with substantial international funding.

The National Mine Action Plan (NMAP) for 2002-2006 had set the target of making the country mine impact-free in 10 years (by 2012).[21] However in November 2004, Foreign Minister Leonardo Simão announced that Mozambique's new aim is to be mine-free by 1 March 2009.[22] The new mine-free goal and new target date have been incorporated into the IND 2005 Annual Plan of Demining Priorities.[23]

Although IND prepares annual plans to ensure the activities of operators conform to the strategic objectives of NMAP, mine action operators and provincial authorities have had little confidence in the LIS and, therefore, the NMAP, as a basis for planning and prioritization of mine action. A review carried out in 2004 by the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) found that IND exerted little influence over the activities of the humanitarian operators.[24] The report states that, “For the most part, demining operators in Mozambique have been dismissive of the LIS and the database created by the survey. The main humanitarian operators have also been established in their regions of the country for many years. They know and consult the provincial governors and district administrators concerning priorities.”[25]

In its 2005 annual plan, IND acknowledged this problem, noting that while the LIS remains the main basis for demining priorities, information provided by provincial authorities was changing “to an alarming degree” its five-year plan. For 2005, IND changed the way in which mine action is planned; district governments submit information on clearance priorities to provincial authorities, who prepare annual priorities in consultation with operators before submitting them to IND, which then draws up the final plan.[26]

The GICHD review was commissioned by the government and UNDP as a 10-year review of mine action in Mozambique “to assess the relevance, efficacy, effectiveness and impact of the mine action program.”[27] The evaluation concluded that the 2002-2006 plan was “inadequate in light of the country’s current needs let alone those of the future,” and urged that mine action become recognized as a crosscutting issue in Mozambique’s poverty reduction plans.[28]

Similarly, another 2004 evaluation, by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida), criticized the government for failing to include demining in Mozambique's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (Plano de Acção de Redução da Pobreza Absoluta, PARPA).[29] Mine action was not mentioned in the preliminary revised PARPA presented in early August 2005. However, after concerted lobbying by IND and the UN Development Programme (UNDP), Mozambican President Armando Guebuza specifically mentioned mine action as a crosscutting issue in his opening remarks at the Poverty Observatory presenting the revised PARPA to stakeholders.[30]

The GICHD report proposed that the government create a new institutional framework making stronger links between mine action and national development plans. This would include an interministerial Mozambican Mine Action Authority to provide the policy for and regulate mine action, and manage linkages within the government, mine action community and donors. It would be chaired by a minister whose responsibilities focus on the country’s socioeconomic development, with the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation serving as Deputy Chair, responsible for Mozambique’s continued participation in the Ottawa Process (ban treaty process). The proposed authority would report to the Council of Ministers, which would have final authority on policy measures intended to have government-wide effect and for final review of draft legislation for mine action before it was submitted to parliament.[31]

In 2005, IND identified its priorities as technical survey, clearance of high and medium impact areas, and civic education and support for victim assistance programs. Operators were set 128 tasks determined by the need to clear land for resettlement or for social infrastructure, including schools, health centers, water sources and commercial facilities. The plan also called for capacity-building within IND to strengthen the planning process by better coordination with local authorities and operators, creating a technical survey team, and further efforts to create a national demining capacity.[32] The US Department of State informed Landmine Monitor that it will provide IND with training in financial, logistics and operations management, and mine action reporting.[33]

Mine action is regulated by Mozambique’s national standards for demining, revised in 2002 to conform to International Mine Action Standards (IMAS). Operators are required to draw up standard operating procedures in line with the national standards.

In addition to its Maputo headquarters, IND has regional offices in Beira (for the central region) and Nampula (for the north), tasked with collecting mine action data and coordinating with local authorities and operators in identifying operational priorities.

The largely uncoordinated evolution of mine action in Mozambique after the civil war resulted in the division of the country into three main zones of mine action, with HALO operating in the north, NPA in the center, and the UN-supported Accelerated Demining Program (ADP) and Handicap International (HI) in the south. Additional mine clearance capacity is provided by the army (FADM) and by a US State Department-funded quick reaction demining force established and supervised by RONCO to tackle emergency clearance crises worldwide; when not employed abroad, the quick reaction force is available to work on demining projects as requested by IND. IND has also accredited nine commercial companies for work in Mozambique, but the number actively engaged in operations depends on the availability of funds.[34]

Survey and Assessment

The process of revising previous survey data continued in this reporting period. IND's 2004 and 2005 annual plans intensified survey activity, particularly technical survey, due to the need for more precise locational data and lack of confidence in the LIS findings.

The IND annual report for 2004 estimated that there were 451 suspected areas totaling 171.6 square kilometers, and affecting over 800,000 people in 204 villages. The reduced estimate was achieved largely by technical survey and cancellation of previously suspected areas by general survey.[35] This represents a very substantial reduction from the results of the LIS carried out in 2001, as shown in the table.

Estimates of the Impact of Mines 2001-2004[36]


2001
2002
2003
2004
Affected villages
791
719
583
204
Affected people
1.7 million
1,348,407
Over 1,000,000
Over 800,000
Suspected areas
1,374
1,249
1,054
451
Suspected area (square meters)
558,000,000
534,752,740
526,846,784
171,571,071

The process of re-surveying and re-assessment has been continuous since 2001. Reductions achieved by survey activities, cross-referencing and reconciling all the suspected areas identified in the 2001 LIS with reports submitted since 1993 has had the effect of significantly reducing the total suspected mined area.

In 2004, IND reported that 4,610,274 square meters of land was surveyed, resulting in the cancellation of 84 suspected hazardous areas covering almost 3.4 square kilometers in five provinces, and the demarcation of 14 affected areas.[37] IND also reported that 2,083,103 square meters of land were technically surveyed by HALO, NPA, ADP and commercial operator Mozambique Mine Action (MMA). The data reported by IND is not consistent with data reported by some operators.[38]

Information Management

The LIS conducted in 1999-2001 was Mozambique’s first comprehensive survey of mine contamination. As part of the LIS, in May 2001 IND acquired an Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database in English and Portuguese linked with a Geographic Information System, representing a major advance on its previous resources and an effective tool for planning mine action. The database is updated with activity reports of operators filed through IND’s regional offices in Beira and Nampula.

IND is responsible for issuing maps and data on contamination and clearance. However, the GICHD review found the level of service provided by IND has been inadequate because it has not maintained the IMSMA database properly. As a result, assigning operators to sites that have already been cleared has been a recurrent problem, and in addition “commercial organizations―and the government agencies which contract them―appear not to trust the clearance data available from IND. As a result, demining firms typically are instructed to re-survey and clear entire stretches of roads, power lines, etc. slated for rehabilitation.”[39] Plans to upgrade IMSM are dependent on a cleanup of the current database and training of IND staff. GICHD indicated the introduction of the upgraded version as probable by late 2006.[40]

Mine and UXO Clearance

Mozambique’s treaty obligation in accordance with Article 5 is to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible and no later than 1 March 2009.

In 2004, IND reported clearance of 11,826,476 square meters, 68 percent more than in 2003, and destruction of 18,600 mines and 80,628 UXO. The area cleared by NGOs and RONCO in 2004 was nearly eight percent more than in 2003; IND attributed the overall increase to intense commercial demining along the EN1 highway between Maputo and Inhambane. According to IND, demining in 2004 removed the threat to 379 villages and 217,000 people.[41] Some of the clearance data provided by IND is inconsistent with data provided to Landmine Monitor by operators.

Clearance operations were conducted in 2004 by five humanitarian agencies: Accelerated Demining Program, HALO, Norwegian People's Aid, Handicap International and RONCO. These organizations cleared a total of 4,990,485 square meters. Commercial demining companies active in 2004 were AFROVITA, ASM, Bactec/JVD/SDS consortium, EMD and MMA, which cleared a total of 6,835,745 square meters during the year.[42]


Mine Clearance in 2004 by Operator, as reported by IND[43]

Operator
Area cleared (square meters)
Mines destroyed
UXO destroyed
Humanitarian



ADP
2,354,019
300
427
HALO
1,907,837
17,610
73,940
HI
164,035
82
841
NPA
305,091
120
4,557
RONCO
259,863
17
37
Subtotal
4,990,845
18,129
79,802
Commercial



EMD
4,528,918
1
21
MMA
332,941
65
52
CODEG
0
4
0
Bactec/JVD/SDS
1,951,728
381
752
AFROVITA
10,000
10
1
ASM
12,158
0
0
Subtotal
6,835,745
461
826
FADM (army)
15,886
10
0
Total
11,842,476
18,600
80,628

Accelerated Demining Program (Programa Acelerado de Desminagem): ADP reports cleared 2,358,982 square meters, destroying 300 mines and 427 UXO in 2004. ADP employed 357 staff, including 172 manual deminers, with mechanical and mine dog detection teams.[44] Its 2004 budget of $2.61 million was provided by Denmark, France, Ireland, Sweden and New Zealand.[45] ADP operated in the southern provinces of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane; it started operations in Mozambique in 1995.

ADP ceased field operations in the third week of June 2005, due to cessation of donor funding. It laid off all staff except those needed to complete administrative tasks and hand over equipment to UNDP.[46] The Irish government and UNDP put forward $700,000 for deminers' compensation payments, partially covering the $1.8 million needed for redundancy payments to all ADP staff; it was anticipated that the remaining $1.1 million will be disbursed by the Mozambican government.[47]

In August 2005, former ADP staff members registered a new organization, Associated Demining Project, and applied for IND accreditation.[48] This new ADP proposed to engage in mine clearance and marking in the southern provinces in support of the government’s poverty reduction program. The new NGO was expected to employ a much smaller staff of about 72 people.[49]

HALO Trust: HALO reported clearing 1,915,837 square meters of suspect land, surveyed 4,192,736 square meters and area-reduced 211,899 square meters, destroying 17,604 antipersonnel mines, six antivehicle mines and 1,338 items of UXO in 2004. In the first six months of 2005, HALO cleared 859,945 square meters, destroying 14,944 mines and 109 UXO. HALO’s budget was approximately $3 million in 2004, and the same amount in 2005. It was funded in 2004 by: Japan and the United States for operations in Zambézia province; the Netherlands for Nampula; Ireland for Niassa; Switzerland and US for operations in Cabo Delgado. The Tokyo Broadcasting System, in association with the Association for Aid and Relief, Japan, provided funds for manual demining in all four provinces.[50]

HALO has conducted mine action in the northern provinces since 1994 using manual, mechanical and, until January 2005, mine dog detection (MDD) teams. HALO planned to start a program by mid-2005 of identifying villages that are mine impact free, as the basis for withdrawing from Mozambique over the next two years. In villages where a threat is identified, HALO proposed to investigate and take necessary action; where no threat exists, village representatives will sign a statement confirming it as impact free.

Handicap International: HI reports that it cleared 203,610 square meters of land, destroying 20 antipersonnel mines, four antivehicle mines, 619 UXO and 4,049 rounds of ammunition in 2004, in contrast to data reported by IND.[51] In the first six months of 2005, HI cleared 114,679 square meters and destroyed 11 antipersonnel mines, 93 UXO and 1,001 rounds of ammunition. Since September 2004, HI employed 63 staff, all nationals, including 48 deminers deployed in three integrated explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) teams, one manual demining team and one team using mechanical means and MDD. HI also maintains small mobile teams, which work clearing such areas as medical posts, bridges and schools.

In January 2005, HI adopted an “achievement strategy” in the provinces of Inhambane, Sofala and Manica, which aims to clear or cancel all 250 suspect areas of under 15,000 square meters in size that were identified in the LIS, to record those not visited, and to prepare an updated report on the mine situation in every district of the three provinces.[52]

In 2004, HI expended $1,299,300 in financial support received from Austria, Canada, US-UNA, Japan, Norway and Switzerland.[53]

Norwegian People's Aid: NPA reported that it worked on 16 tasks during which it cleared 185,497 square meters of land and area-reduced another 327,916 square meters through technical survey in 2004. It canceled and handed back an additional 426,001 square meters of suspect area after conducting general survey. In the first six months of 2005, NPA achieved higher productivity, clearing 276,221 square meters and area-reducing 255,887 square meters by technical survey. NPA handed back 471,921 square meters for productive use, more than 90 percent of the amount cleared and technically surveyed in the whole of 2004. In this period, it found 71 antipersonnel mines, 20 UXO and 1,257 small arms ammunition.[54] NPA operates in the central provinces of Tete, Manica and Sofala, and maintains a permanent headquarters in Maputo and operational headquarters in Chimoio in Manica province.

NPA also carried out demolition of items cleared in 2004, and of mines and munitions previously found by NPA and reported to IND in standard monthly progress reports.[55] The provincial IND office in Beira requested that additional munitions, from its own findings, be destroyed by NPA.[56] Demolitions took place in July 2005, destroying 1,471 antipersonnel mines, 10 antivehicle mines, and 38 other munitions and small arms.[57]

Financial support received by NPA in 2004 amounted to $3,545,200, provided by Denmark, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. This includes donor contributions to compensation packages for released staff, as required by Mozambican labor law, and therefore does not correspond to operational expenses. In total, NPA paid out some $1,440,702 to laid-off staff in 2004, many of whom had been working with NPA since 1993. After reorganization and retraining, NPA reduced its staff (since September 2004) to 126 personnel in manual, mechanical and dog detection teams, with two mine resistant vehicles for mechanically assisted mine clearance and 12 mine detection dogs.[58]

NPA's operational capacity will be progressively reduced, culminating in final withdrawal by 2006. The strategy aims to produce a technical report of work completed by NPA between 1993 and 2005, a report on the impact of this work, and a status report on work remaining in NPA’s area of operations after confirming the suspect areas identified in the LIS. As part of the phase-out, NPA planned to temporarily expand its survey capacity from three six-man teams, to 10 two-man teams. NPA expected to complete the field survey by the end of April 2006, releasing all staff except those needed to enter results in the database, synchronize data with the IMSMA database, and produce maps, analysis and final reports. NPA expects to close its operation in Mozambique by the end of September 2006.[59]

RONCO: RONCO cleared 259,863 square meters in 2004, according to IND.[60] However, the US State Department reported that RONO cleared 299,406 square meters, destroying 16 antipersonnel mines and 701 UXO in 2004.[61] RONCO has carried out several mine action contracts in Mozambique since 1993, including extensive work clearing the Sena railway line using mine detection dogs. RONCO also supervises the US State Department's quick reaction rapid demining force (QRDF), based in Mozambique.

In July 2005, the Ministry of Labor rejected an appeal by RONCO against a fine imposed for violating Mozambique’s ban on compulsory HIV tests.[62] The ministry claimed that RONCO, when selecting Mozambican mine clearance staff for a mission to Afghanistan, required HIV tests in breach of the Article 7º 5/2002 law protecting the rights of employees and candidates for employment. RONCO was fined 134.4 million Meticais (approx. $5,400), and told to comply with Article 9º 5/2002 and to re-admit 13 HIV-positive staff who were dismissed, or to compensate them.[63] RONCO's appeal to the Ministry of Labor was pending in September 2005.[64]

Three accidents, involving four deminers, occurred in 2004.[65] One deminer worked for the commercial company J V Desminagem in Inhambane, and three deminers worked for HALO. IND gave no details of the injuries sustained by JVD’s deminer. HALO reported that of the three deminers involved, one had no injuries, one had light injuries, and one had to have two fingers amputated.[66]

On 7 May 2005, one NPA deminer was injured during manual clearance at Nhaapua, Chibabava district in Sofala province. The deminer detonated a Gyata antipersonnel mine; the injury required lower amputation of one leg. NPA accident investigation and IND-led investigation revealed that the deminer was in breach of NPA’s standard operating procedures. Accident refresher training of deminers, team leaders and supervisors was held after the accident.[67]

Mine Risk Education

Coordination of mine risk education (MRE) is the responsibility of IND, which states that it seeks to target children and those in positions of influence who can pass on MRE messages.[68] The National Mine Action Plan for 2002-2006 recognized a need “for an aggressive and sustained Mine Risk Education and Marking campaigns to be re-launched” based on PEPAM (Program of Education Activities to Prevent Mines and UXO Accidents).[69]

The GICHD evaluation of mine action in Mozambique summarized MRE activities in Mozambique, “Until 2003, there were some agencies including UNICEF and the CVM still active in MRE in some form or another. Since early 2004, however, it appears that no MRE activities have taken place in the country (other than information sessions for local residents when mine clearance teams start working on a new site). UNICEF has recently undertaken a review of their activities in Mozambique and believes that there is no further serious requirement for MRE activities in the country.”[70]

GICHD concluded that, “The current IND strategic plan states that ‘There is an urgent need for an aggressive and sustained Mine Risk Education and Marking campaigns to be re-launched.’ Given the current levels of accidents and victims however, the Review Team does not agree. While operators should continue to provide MRE sessions to local residents when they move to a new vicinity, and IND should continue to monitor the numbers of accidents and victims, resources that might be allocated to MRE would probably be better utilised in other Mine Action activities.”[71]

IND reported that in 2004 little MRE was conducted, due to limited resources.[72] In Gaza province, 45 school teachers were trained in MRE, from which IND claimed that awareness raising had covered 182,340 people, including 25,565 school-age children.[73] IND noted in its report for 2004 that an alternative approach was needed for some certain strategic issues, including civic education on the danger of mines, and assistance to mine victims and survivors. These areas need to receive greater attention by all stakeholders.[74]

HI continues to implement MRE on a small scale, via its demining teams, which have been trained how to conduct basic MRE sessions.[75]

Funding and Assistance

Funding information provided to Landmine Monitor directly by donors indicates that, in 2004, 14 countries and the European Commission (EC) contributed $11,950,730 for mine action in Mozambique. This represents a 22 percent decrease from the $15.25 million reported by donors in 2003.[76] IND reported a sharp rise in 2004 in funds for demining provided by the Mozambique government, from 18 billion Meticais (approximately $818,181) in 2003 to 178 billion Meticais ($7.9 million).[77]

In 2004, international donors were:

  • Austria: €200,000 ($248,760) to HI for demining;[78]
  • Canada: C$750,000 ($576,170) for integrated mine action including victim assistance;[79]
  • Denmark: DKK323,027 ($53,936) for mine clearance, capacity-building and MRE;[80]
  • EC: €900,000 ($1,119,420) for mine clearance;[81]
  • France: €578,348 ($425,953) to UNDP;[82]
  • Germany: €150,000 ($186,570) for mine clearance in Limpopo;[83]
  • Ireland: €547,000 ($680,359), comprising €297,000 ($369,409) for mine action in Niassa and €250,000 ($310,950) for mine action in Inhambane;[84]
  • Japan: ¥73,900,000 ($683,310), consisting of ¥56,200,000 ($519,648.64) to HALO and ¥17,700,000($163,662) to HI for mine clearance;[85]
  • Netherlands: €831,403 ($1,034,099), consisting of €504,874 ($627,962) to HALO and €326,529 ($406,137) to NPA for mine clearance;[86]
  • New Zealand: NZ$417,000 ($277,013), consisting of NZ$217,000 ($144,153) to ADP and NZ$200,000 ($132,860) for mine clearance;[87]
  • Norway: NOK10,021,328 ($1,486,866), consisting of NOK10 million ($1,483,702) to NPA for mine action and NOK21,328 ($3,164) to NPA for Mine Action Week 2004;[88]
  • Republic of Korea: $50,000 through the UN Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Clearance;[89]
  • Sweden: SKK3 milion ($408,274) to NPA for mine clearance;[90]
  • Switzerland: CHF982,800 ($728,000) for mine action in Cabo Delgado;[91]
  • USA: $3,992,000, consisting of $1,372,000 to HALO, $120,000 to FADM through RONCO, and $2,500,000 for QRDF operations.[92]

Mozambican government funding of 178 billion Meticais (US$7.9 million) in 2004 was allocated to IND operating costs, purchase of equipment and other goods, and exemption of tax for the import of demining equipment for mine clearance operators.[93]

IND reported disbursements in 2004 amounting to some $14.3 million, provided by 18 countries, EC, UNDP, Association for Aid and Relief, Japan and Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS).[94] This is a significant decrease from the $18.15 million that IND reported for 2003.[95] Previously IND has cautioned that in its reporting the “amounts disbursed cannot be accurately confirmed.”[96]

Landmine and UXO Casualties

In 2004, IND reported 30 new mine/UXO casualties in 13 incidents: three people killed and 27 injured, including one women and one child. Three were deminers and 27 were civilians. This represents an increase from the 14 new mine/UXO casualties (six killed and eight injured) in 2003; however the number of reported incidents remained constant at 13. Most casualties were recorded in Sofala (10), Maputo (seven) and Tete (five). The provinces of Cabo Delgado, Manica, Niassa and Zambézia recorded two casualties each. The incidents involving civilians were mainly associated with farming, hunting and collecting firewood.[97]

The number of reported casualties likely does not represent the total number of persons killed or injured in mine incidents, as the ability to collect and record data is limited. Data is collected by the police, Mozambique Red Cross, hospitals, IND and others; however, the data is reportedly not entered into IMSMA, but is kept at IND for reference.[98]

Casualties continued to be reported in 2005. To the end of August, IND recorded 20 mine/UXO incidents/accidents in which nine people were killed and 11 others injured; at least four were women and six were children.[99] On 7 May 2005, a deminer working with NPA was injured by an antipersonnel mine.[100]

The total number of mine casualties in Mozambique is not known; however, estimates are as high as 30,000. Between 1996 and 2004, 646 mine casualties were recorded. It is acknowledged that this figure does not represent the true situation in the country.[101] The most comprehensive collection of casualty data remains the nationwide Landmine Impact Survey, concluded in August 2001. In total, 2,145 casualties were recorded.[102]

Survivor Assistance

 At the First Review Conference, Mozambique was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors, and with “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of survivors.[103] Mozambique participated in the workshop on advancing landmine victim assistance in Africa, which was hosted by the co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, to assist States Parties in developing a plan of action to meet the aims of the Nairobi Action Plan in relation to mine victim assistance.

Two mine survivors from Mozambique participated in the First Review Conference in Nairobi in November-December 2004.

Mozambique submitted the voluntary Form J with its annual Article 7 report, providing information on victim assistance activities, and acknowledges that victim assistance is the “weakest component” of its mine action program.[104]

In June 2005, as part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action Plan, Mozambique presented some of its objectives for the period 2005-2009 to address the needs of mine survivors, which include: improving access to emergency and ongoing medical care through upgrading and equipping healthcare facilities and training more trauma specialists; upgrading prosthetic and orthotic facilities and training more technicians; establishing coordination between relevant actors in the rehabilitation sector; training practitioners in hospitals and clinics to provide psychosocial support to survivors; providing vocational training for persons with disabilities and assisting them to find employment; establishing countrywide coordination in the disability sector; enacting new legislation to protect the rights of persons with disabilities.[105]

The IND Five Year National Mine Action Plan (2002-2006) affirmed its coordinating role in mine victim assistance. Nevertheless, assistance programs for mine survivors reportedly face major difficulties due to lack of financial resources and the needs of survivors greatly exceeding the available assistance.[106]

Responsibility for mine survivor assistance is shared by the Ministry of Health (MISAU) and the Ministry for Women and Social Action (MMAS). MISAU assisted 10 mine survivors in the provinces of Nampula, Tete and Zambézia in 2004.[107] MMAS supports community-based rehabilitation activities.[108]

Mozambique’s healthcare infrastructure was severely damaged during almost 30 years of armed conflict, and the floods of 2000. There is reportedly a lack of immediate first aid treatment and no mechanism to arrange treatment or transport to the nearest health facility. Mine casualties are usually assisted by relatives or other members of the community, and transported by bicycles, donkeys or other means to the nearest hospital; the average trip takes about eight hours. There are 10 hospitals capable of providing assistance to mine casualties, one in each province; however, trained surgeons and medical equipment are in short supply.[109]

Since 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) provided technical support to MISAU and MMAS to strengthen capacities to respond to victims of violence and traumatic injuries, including landmine casualties. In 2004, WHO provided technical assistance to MISAU on strategic planning for pre-hospital and emergency care to better respond to traumatic injuries, and on expanding its injury surveillance system in all provincial and central hospitals in Maputo and Gaza.[110]

Mozambique has 10 orthopedic centers, including one run by the Mozambique Red Cross Society, 60 physiotherapy centers and 10 transit centers specifically designated to host persons with disabilities undergoing treatment. The government, through the Ministry of Health, operates nine orthopedic centers. The centers provide services free of charge for war-wounded, including mine survivors. There are three Category I trained orthopedic technicians, 15 prosthetic technicians and around 32 assistant technicians; training has been supported by the International Committee of the Red Cross, Handicap International and POWER UK. All the government-run orthopedic centers are located in the provincial capitals, far from the mine-affected areas, making access difficult for people from rural areas. There is no orthopedic center in the province of Manica. Most of the equipment is reportedly obsolete and not functioning. There are regular shortages of raw materials, and due to a lack of trained staff there are long waiting lists for services.[111]

Mozambique Red Cross Society operates the Jaipur Orthopedic Center (COJ) in Gaza province. The center has the capacity to assist about 240 people a year, and produces and repairs prostheses and other mobility devices. A Jaipur Mobile Orthopedic Unit also operates free of charge throughout Gaza province. Referrals are made through the network of Red Cross volunteers, and by provincial and district departments of health and of coordination of social action. In 2004, a new pilot program was introduced to provide vocational training, disability awareness and social support. The social and economic support program is implemented in collaboration with the Organization of Disabled People to promote poverty alleviation and economic empowerment. The Red Cross also implements survivor assistance programs in the provinces of Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Zambézia and Tete to facilitate transport to the orthopedic centers and to support socio-economic reintegration activities. There is a waiting list for services at the COJ; activities are limited by a lack of funding. Disability and Development Partners, previously know as Jaipur Limb Campaign UK, provided $5,000 to fund the pilot economic and social support program. In 2004, financial support was also provided by the German Red Cross, which continues to provide technical training programs and assistance with buying raw materials for the production of prostheses, although the formal partnership has ended.[112]

In August 2005, the Vilankulo Orthopedic Center, in Inhambane province, was officially re-opened with support from the Rotary Club of Pretoria East, South Africa, in partnership with Mozambican and other South African organizations. The center was built after the end of the conflict to assist disabled ex-combatants and civilian mine survivors. The Rotary Club presented a donation of 30 prostheses, 400 crutches, wheelchairs and clothes as part of its Landmine Victim Assistance Program in Mozambique.[113]

Handicap International’s activities in physical rehabilitation focus on supporting the quality of national services, and improving the skills of staff in the rehabilitation sector. HI also works with MMAS and the Forum of Mozambican Associations of Disabled Persons (FAMOD) to improve access to physical rehabilitation services, and to promote the rights of all persons with disabilities. In 2005, a new project was launched to support and coordinate sports activities for persons with disabilities in Beira and Sofala province. The project is supported by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[114]

The Ministry for Women and Social Action coordinates psychosocial and socioeconomic reintegration activities. One approach is the ABC program; a community-based approach created to fully reintegrate people with a disability in society. The program has made people more aware of the issue of disability, and enabled people with disability to access specialized services and employment opportunities. Peer-to-peer counseling groups are also available. In Maputo Central Hospital and Beira Central Hospital, one staff member is trained in psychosocial support.[115]

The government acknowledges that financial constraints are limiting the availability of programs to assist mine survivors and that more facilities are needed to promote their socioeconomic reintegration, particularly in rural areas. Limited activities are being undertaken, such as integrating children with a disability into schools, encouraging disabled people to participate in sports activities and improving accessibility to buildings. There are plans to provide food for work, to encourage the public and private sector to employ people with a disability, and to provide those who are unable to generate an income with a monthly allowance. The government reports that 1,106 people with disabilities have received vocational training and 75 have received small grants for activities, such as fisheries and chicken farming. In addition, 5,076 people with disabilities, who are unable to work, receive an allowance to provide for their basic needs.[116]

Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) is active in Zambézia province working in Quelimane, Ile, Maganja da Costa and Nicoadala districts. LSN’s community-based outreach workers, who are amputees, work with individual survivors to assess their needs, offer psychological and social support, and educate their families about the effects of limb loss. LSN assists survivors in accessing services that provide mobility devices, health services or vocational training, and offers material support if necessary. LSN works with local associations, including the Association of Disabled Mozambicans (ADEMO) and Association of Military Disabled (ADEMIMO), to increase awareness about disability rights. LSN supported the psychosocial and economic reintegration of 238 mine survivors and their families in 2004. LSN provides grants to help mine survivors and other persons with disabilties undertake small-scale commercial activities, including carpentry, sewing, bakery, small stores and fishing. It links with programs of other NGOs to raise animals and establish self-help groups.[117]

LSN Mozambique is active in the negotiations for the Comprehensive and Integral Convention on Protection and Promotion of Human Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities.[118]

The UK-based NGO POWER works closely with FAMOD, the umbrella organization of disability associations and 13 other organizations for people with disabilities with the aim of empowering disabled persons to take a fuller part in the life of the community, and enjoy the same rights as others. In May 2004, POWER and its national partners designed and implemented a new program to raise awareness of disability issues through the creation of a network of radio clubs, especially in rural villages. The four-year program is funded by the European Commission. Other donors include USAID, the Community Fund and Foundation Pro Victimis. POWER is also involved in a number of vocational training initiatives to provide specialized skills for persons with disabilities. About 80 people benefited from training in woodwork, leatherwork or metalwork and another 140 received training in computer skills; however, with high unemployment in the country it was difficult for those trained to put their skills into practice. In addition, 45 people with a disability received training in proposal writing for small business activities.[119]

Of several Mozambican disability organizations working on advocacy, two in particular, ADEMO and ADEMIMO, work to support the rights of landmine survivors. ADEMO has also developed and supports a vocational training program in information technology and computer literacy for people with disabilities. Each beneficiary receives 80 hours of training, and is then assisted in searching for work. Potential employers are made aware that trained computer operators are available through the program. However, activities are limited by a lack of funding. There are about 100 people on the waiting list for training.[120]

Disability Policy and Practice

In June 1999, parliament enacted a national disability law, and the cabinet approved the first national policy on persons with disabilities (Resolution no. 20/99); however, the policy has not been fully implemented due to lack of resources.[121]

Through the efforts of FAMOD and other associations of persons with disabilities, a new draft law on the rights of the disabled has been drafted and submitted to parliament; however, the law has not yet been adopted. The draft law proposes a coordinating body for disability issues, composed of representatives from disability associations, MISAU, MMAS, IND, and national and international organizations.[122] 

The Ministry for Women and Social Action is currently the national coordinating agency on disability issues. POWER is working with MMAS to develop a national plan of action for disability. The draft plan was discussed by all stakeholders at a conference in July 2004, and is currently under review prior to endorsement and implementation.[123]


[1] Article 7 Report, Form A, 25 April 2005. The director of the National Demining Institute (IND) told Landmine Monitor in June 2004 that the parliamentary Commission for Defense and Security had prepared implementation legislation which was awaiting approval. Interview with Gamiliel Munguambe, Director, IND, at intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Geneva, 29 June 2004.

[2] Previous reports were submitted on: 30 March 2000; 30 October 2001 (covering 1 September 1999-31 December 2000); 2 July 2002 (for calendar year 2001); one with no submission date (covering 1 January 2002-1 March 2003); 23 April 2004 (covering April 2003 to December 2003).

[3] Statement by Leonardo Santos Simão, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Co-operation, Nairobi Summit on a Mine-Free World (First Review Conference), Nairobi, 3 December 2004.

[4] Interview with Numibio Mambique, Legal Advisor, IND, Geneva, 29 June 2004.

[5] United Nations, “Countries stand united in the battle against landmines,” 4 November 2004, www.un.int/Angola/press_release_landmines. 

[6] Article 7 Report, Form E, 23 April 2004 (for April 2003 to December 2003).

[7] Landmines produced in the following countries have been found in Mozambique: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, East Germany, China, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Portugal, Rhodesia, South Africa, UK, USSR and Yugoslavia. See Human Rights Watch, Still Killing: Landmine in Southern Africa (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1997), pp. 74-75. The following country names in this list have not been updated: Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Rhodesia, USSR and Yugoslavia.

[8] Information provided by Frank Weetjens, Program Manager, APOPO, Mozambique, 18 August 2005. Weetjens received this information from the IND director, Gamiliel Munguambe, in May 2005.

[9] Information provided by Frank Weetjens, Program Manager, APOPO, Mozambique, 18 August 2005. Weetjens indicated the Tanzanian Ministry of Defense had drafted such a request and that he anticipates the request will be granted by Mozambique.

[10] Details on the types and countries of origin of the mine stockpile were provided in Mozambique’s initial Article 7 Report, submitted in March 2000.

[11] For more details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 580.

[12] Article 7 Reports, Form D, 23 April 2004 and 25 April 2005.

[13] Article 7 Report, Form D, 25 April 2005. The mines held by HALO are inert and free from explosives, detonators and boosters. Email from Tim Turner, Programme Manager, HALO Mozambique, 3 October 2005.

[14] Landmine Monitor (Zambia) interview with Gamiliel Munguambe, IND, Geneva, 13 June 2005.

[15] Human Rights Watch, Still Killing: Landmine in Southern Africa (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1997).

[16] Canadian International Demining Corps and Paul F. Wilkinson & Associates Inc., “Landmine Impact Survey,” August 2001.

[17] Danish International Development Agency, “Support to Humanitarian Mine Action in Mozambique,” April 2004, pp. 2-3; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 582-583.

[18] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 2.

[19] Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. iv.

[20] UN OCHA, “The Development of Indigenous Mine Action Capacities - Mozambique,” 1997, p. 32.

[21] IND, “Five Year National Mine Action Plan 2002-2006,” 19 November 2001; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 344. The NMAP called for: mine/UXO clearance of all areas identified by the LIS as high or medium impact by the end of 2006; all low impact areas to be surveyed and marked; fully operational national mine risk education and long-term victim assistance programs.

[22] Email from Sara Sekkenes, Program Manager, NPA Mozambique, 25 April 2005. The announcement was made during a week of events held in November 2004 to launch the Landmine Monitor Report 2004.

[23] IND, “Annual Plan of Demining Priorities 2005,” March 2005, p. 4, which states: “para a elaboração do plano quinqenal da acção sobre minas 2002 - 2006 e da definição da meta de 2009 para Moçambique livre de minas” (for the elaboration of the five year plan for mine action 2002-2006 and the goal definition of a Mozambique free of mines in 2009). www.ind.gov.mz.

[24] GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. ii.

[25] GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. 35.

[26] IND, “Annual Plan of Demining Priorities,” March 2005.

[27] UN Development Programme (UNDP), Terms of Reference for “A review of 10 years of assistance to the Mine Action Program in Mozambique,” in GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. 139.

[28] GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. 111.

[29] Danida, “Support to Humanitarian Mine Action Mozambique,” April 2004, p. 9.

[30] Briefing by Gamiliel Munguambe, Director, IND, and Marylene Spezzati, UN Resident Representative, at meeting of government, partners and operators on demining, Maputo, 16 August 2005.

[31] GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, pp. 118-120.

[32] IND, “Annual Plan of Demining Priorities,” March 2005, p. 8.

[33] Email from H. Murphey McCloy, Senior Demining Advisor, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, US Department of State, 16 September 2005.

[34] “Current Accredited Licensed Demining Agencies,” IND website, www.ind.gov.mz/partners.htm; email from H. Murphey McCloy, US Department of State, 16 September 2005.

[35] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 2; Article 7 Report, Form C, 25 April 2005.

[36] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 2. IND reporting of mine contamination in 2001 varies from the 2001 LIS results (562 square meters affected and 1,448,998 people affected in 791 villages). CIDC and Paul F. Wilkinson & Associates Inc., “Landmine Impact Survey,” August 2001.

[37] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” Executive Summary, March 2005.

[38] IND states that as a result of its technical surveys, HALO area-reduced 211,899 square meters of suspected areas and canceled 3,372,097 square meters. IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 5. HALO informed Landmine Monitor that it surveyed 4,192,736 square meters and conducted area reduction of 211,899 square meters. Email from Tim Turner, HALO, 19 May 2005. IND also appears to understate results provided by NPA, which recorded technical survey of 324,272 square meters in 2004. NPA, “Mozambique Mine Action Program Annual Report 2004,” 25 January 2005, p. 10.

[39] GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, pp. 38-39.

[40] Presentation to the IND IMSMA information meeting by Lt. Col. Jean-Paul Rychener, IMSMA/Stockpile Destruction Specialist, GICHD, Maputo, 4 August 2005; information provided by Sara Sekkenes, Program Manager, NPA Mozambique, 13 August 2005.

[41] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, Executive Summary and p. 7. The Article 7 report for 2004 also reports 18,600 antipersonnel mines destroyed in 2004 and lists the types of mine; however, it also notes in the same column 24,684 and a grand total of 43,284 without giving other details. Article 7 Report, Form G, 25 April 2005.

[42] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, pp. 6 and 8. The commercial company RONCO is designated by the US Department of State as a humanitarian demining organization.

[43] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 6. Some operators reported different data. See paragraphs on respective organizations below.

[44] Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire, Accelerated Demining Program (ADP), 7 June 2005.

[45] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 6.

[46] Emails from Florencio Chongo, ADP, 8 and 9 August 2005.

[47] Presentation by Gamiliel Munguambe, IND, at meeting of government, partners and operators on demining, Maputo, 16 August 2005.

[48] Email from Florencio Chongo, ADP, 16 August 2005. The development of a new business plan was subcontracted to PriceWaterhouseCoopers and funded by UNDP; briefing by Marylene Spezzati, UN Resident Representative, at Partners/Government/Operators meeting on demining, Maputo, 16 August 2005.

[49] Emails from Florencio Chongo, ADP, 8 and 9 August 2005.

[50] Email from Tim Turner, HALO, 3 October 2005.

[51] Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Adérito Ismael, HI, 29 June 2005.

[52] Email from Gilles Delecourt, Country Director, HI Mozambique, 18 August 2005.

[53] Email from Gilles Delecourt, HI Mozambique, 18 August 2005.

[54] Email from Sara Sekkenes, Program Manager, NPA Mozambique, 13 August 2005.

[55] Email from Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 18 August 2005. The mines were stored in accordance with national mine action standards and NPA standard operating practices, awaiting demolition under supervision of police authorities in Tete province and NPA guards. Included were 1,000 mines stored at the request of APOPO and IND (see earlier section on Use). The demolition report was submitted to IND to avoid duplication, since the mines had already been reported as cleared and now were reported destroyed.

[56] IND Beira, Letter of request for demolition to NPA, Nº97/2005, N/Ref/SDRC/2005, 13 July 2005; email from Sara Sekkenes, Program Manager, NPA Mozambique, 18 August 2005.

[57] NPA, “Demolition report” by Felix André, Operations Manager and Maxwel Gopani, Deputy Program Manager, dated 19, 22, 23 and 24 July 2005, submitted by NPA to IND.

[58] Email from Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 25 April 2005.

[59] NPA presentation at meeting of government, partners and operators on demining, Maputo, 16 August 2005.

[60] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 6.

[61] Email from H. Murphey McCloy, US Department of State, 16 September 2005.

[62] Ministry of Labor, Press release Ref. Nº 048/GI/GMT/2005, Maputo, 18 July 2005.

[63] Ministry of Labor, Press release Ref. Nº 031/GI/GMT/2005, Maputo, 11 June 2005, and Ref. Nº 048/GI/GMT/2005, Maputo, 18 July 2005; “Demining Company Loses Appeal” Agência de Informação de Moçambique, 18 July 2005, www.allafrica.com/stories/printable/200507180719.html.

[64] Email from H. Murphey McCloy, US Department of State, 16 September 2005.

[65] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, pp. 13-14. The report indicates three casualties in a table, since one of the deminers suffered no injuries.

[66] Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by HALO, 18 May 2005.

[67] “Mine accident information to the wider mine action community,” Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 10 May 2005.

[68] Email from IND to Landmine Monitor, 12 July 2005; UNIDIR, “Participatory Monitoring of Humanitarian Mine Action: Giving Voice to Citizens of Nicaragua, Mozambique and Cambodia,” 2003, p. 46.

[69] UNIDIR, “Participatory Monitoring of Humanitarian Mine Action: Giving Voice to Citizens of Nicaragua, Mozambique and Cambodia,” 2003, p. 46; Hildegard Scheu, “Pilot Study on Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Humanitarian Mine Action in Mozambique,” UNIDIR, 2002.

[70] GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. 37.

[71] GICHD, “A Review of Mine Action in Mozambique,” Final Draft, Geneva, August 2005, p. 37.

[72] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 15.

[73] Reported in Desminado (IND magazine), January 2005, p. 9; Article 7 Report, Form I, 25 April 2005.

[74] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, pp. 1, 17-18.

[75] Email from Gilles Delecourt, HI Mozambique, 30 June 2005.

[76] Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 591.

[77] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 16; additional information provided by Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 13 August 2005.

[78] Article 7 Report, Form J, 27 April 2005; email from Norbert Hack, Minister, Department of Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1 August 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: €1 = $1.2438, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[79] Mine Action Investments database; emails from Elvan Isikozlu, Mine Action Team, Foreign Affairs, Canada, June-August 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: US$1 = C$1.3017. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[80] Mine Action Investments database; email from Hanne Elmelund Gam, Department of Humanitarian & NGO Cooperation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 18 July 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: US$1 = DKK5.989. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[81] EC, “Contribution to the Landmine Monitor 2005,” by email from Nicola Marcel, RELEX Unit 3a Security Policy, EC, 19 July 2005.

[82] Emails from Amb. Gerard Chesnel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 30 June 2005, and from Anne Villeneuve, HI, July-August 2005.

[83] Article 7 Report, Form J, 15 April 2005; email from Dirk Roland Haupt, Federal Foreign Office, Division 241, 25 July 2005.

[84] Email from Department of Foreign Affairs, 4 August 2005 via Tony D’Costa, Pax Christi Ireland.

[85] Email from Kitagawa Yasu, Japanese International Campaign to Ban Landmines (JCBL), 10 August 2005, with translation of Ministry of Foreign Affairs information sent to JCBL on 11 May 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: ¥108.15 = US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[86] Email from Freek Keppels, Arms Control and Arms Export Policy Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4 August 2005.

[87] Letter from Charlotte Darlow, Disarmament Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 20 April 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = NZ$0.6643. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[88] Norway Article 7 Report, From J, 28 April 2005; emails from May-Elin Stener, Department for Global Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, April-May 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = NOK6.7399. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[89] Response to Landmine Monitor from ROK Mission to UN, New York, 25 May 2005. No part of this figure has been included in Landmine Monitor’s calculation of the donor total amount; IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 17.

[90] Letter Alf Eliasson, SIDA, 23 March 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: US$1 = SEK7.4380. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[91] Mine Action Investments database; email from Janine Voigt, Diplomatic Collaborator, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1 July 2005. Rate of exchange for 2004 according to fixed rate specified by donor: US$1 = CHF1.35, used throughout this report.

[92] Email from H. Murphey McCloy, US Department of State, 16 September 2004.

[93] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 16; email from Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 13 August 2005.

[94] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” March 2005, p. 17.

[95] Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 591.

[96] Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 591; IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 10.

[97] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” Maputo, March 2005, p. 1, Annex 3, 4, Executive Summary; see also Landmine Monitor 2004, p. 592.

[98] Email from Surengue Assane, Technical Advisor for Mine Awareness and Victim Assistance, IND, and Sérgio Nhantumbo, Prosthetist/Orthotist, Ministry of Health, 11 July 2005.

[99] Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Susan B. Walker, Consultant to co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, 24 September 2005, citing details of information obtained in meeting with IND, Maputo, 19 September 2005.

[100] Email from Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mozambique, 11 May 2005.

[101] Presentation by Mozambique, Workshop on Advancing Landmine Victim Assistance in Africa, Nairobi, 31 May-2 June 2005. According to a media report, 615 mine casualties were reported between 1996 and 2003, with at least 232 killed and 322 injured; at least 165 were children. See Jaime Cuambe, “Acidentes com minas fazem 615 victimas no país”, Notícias, 2 May 2004.

[102] For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 593.

[103] United Nations, Final Report, First Review Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, Nairobi, 29 November-3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 33.

[104] Article 7 Report, Form J, 25 April 2005.

[105] Presentation by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005.

[106] For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 596; see also Article 7 Report, Form J, 25 April 2005.

[107] IND, “Annual Report on the Mine Action Program 2004,” Maputo, March 2005, p. 13.

[108] Presentation by Mozambique, Workshop on Advancing Landmine Victim Assistance in Africa, Nairobi, 31 May-2 June 2005.

[109] Email from Surengue Assane, Technical Advisor for Mine Awareness and Victim Assistance, IND, and Sérgio Nhantumbo, Prosthetist/Orthotist, Ministry of Health, 11 July 2005; presentation by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 593.

[110] WHO Mozambique, “Interventions in the area of Injury and Violence Prevention: 2004 Annual Progress Report Summary,” March 2005; WHO, “Guidelines for essential trauma care,” Geneva, 2004, p. 62; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 593.

[111] Presentation by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005; presentation by Mozambique, Workshop on Advancing Landmine Victim Assistance in Africa, Nairobi, 31 May-2 June 2005.

[112] Interview with Helena Timbana, CVM, 31 May 2004; Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, p. 60; “Rehabilitation programme for amputees and other disabled people in Gaza Province,” www.jaipurlimb.org/mozambique.htm, accessed 19 July 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 594.

[113] “Rotary Club pretende reabrir Centro Ortopédico de Vilankulo,” Notícias, 13 August 2005.

[114] Email from Gilles Delecourt, HI Mozambique, 19 July 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 594.

[115] Presentation by Mozambique, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005.

[116] Presentation by Mozambique, Workshop on Advancing Landmine Victim Assistance in Africa, Nairobi, 31 May-2 June 2005.

[117] Email from Becky Jordan, LSN, 6 July 2005; Article 7 Report, Form J, 25 April 2005; Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, p. 59; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 595.

[118] Email from Marci Van Dyke, Country Program Officer, LSN, 19 September 2005.

[119] Email from Sarah Hodge, Chief Executive, POWER, 8 July 2005.

[120] Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, p. 58.

[121] Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 596; see also US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Mozambique 2004,” Washington DC, 28 February 2005.

[122] Email from Surengue Assane, Technical Advisor for Mine Awareness and Victim Assistance, IND, and Sérgio Nhantumbo, Prosthetist/Orthotist, Ministry of Health, 11 July 2005.

[123] Email from Sarah Hodge, POWER, 8 July 2005.